Pig Diet and Growth Performance

A special issue of Veterinary Sciences (ISSN 2306-7381).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 July 2024 | Viewed by 7755

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Animal Husbandry, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: monogastric animal science; swine animal science; poultry animal science; applied monogastric animal nutrition and feeding; peripartal sow metabolism; sow reproduction and production; weaned piglet gut health

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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Nutrition, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: animal nutrition; health; antioxidants; feed additives; aromatic and medicinal plants; alternative feedstuffs with bioactive compounds
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Clinic of Farm Animals, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54627 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: pig; porcine herd health management; porcine medicine; porcine reproduction; swine diseases; animal welfare; vaccinology; alternatives to antibiotics; mycotoxins; mycotoxin adsorbents
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Pigs are bred throughout the world to produce meat. Based on the most recent data, global pig meat production has reached over 100 million tons. Under intensive pig farming conditions, feed represents approximately 60 to 70% of the production cost. Inevitably, the use of alternative feed sources together with improved management practices need to be applied to reduce production costs and improve productive efficiency. In recent years, the animal feed industry has made efforts to close the gap between nutrition and genetics in the pig industry. Certain feed ingredients produced can be used as alternatives in the diet management portfolio. Meanwhile, the ban on antibiotics in the EU as growth promoters together with the recent limitation of the use of pharmacological levels of ZnO are already in operation. Today, there is a plethora of feed additives that can be regarded as natural alternatives to antibiotics such as aromatic plants, and their extracts, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, oligosaccharides, organic acids and feed enzymes, nutritional enhancers, and novel feed additives. Moreover, the high prevalence of respiratory diseases during the growing and fattening period limit the growth potential and can prolong the period until slaughter weight. Mycotoxins present in feed ingredients and diets also impose a great risk for the health and growth potential of fattening pigs. In this Special Issue, we would like to welcome research reports, reviews, and case reports with a particular focus on how to facilitate the optimal use of dietary resources for efficient pig growth performance.

Dr. Georgios Papadopoulos
Dr. Ilias Giannenas
Dr. Panagiotis Tassis
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • pigs
  • feeding
  • growth performance
  • efficiency
  • post-weaning diarrhea
  • feed additives
  • alternative feed ingredients
  • alternatives to ZnO
  • mycotoxins
  • respiratory diseases

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 277 KiB  
Article
A New Biosynthetic 6-Phytase Added at 500 Phytase Unit/kg Diet Improves Growth Performance, Bone Mineralization, and Nutrient Digestibility and Retention in Weaned Piglets and Growing–Finishing Pigs
by Maamer Jlali, Clémentine Hincelin, David Torrallardona, Tania Rougier, Marcio Ceccantini, Sarper Ozbek, Aurélie Preynat and Estelle Devillard
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060250 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 486
Abstract
Two experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of a biosynthetic 6-phytase added at 500 phytase unit (FTU)/kg diet on growth performance, bone mineralization, and nutrient digestibility and retention in weaned piglets and growing–finishing pigs. Experiments were performed on 90 weaned male and [...] Read more.
Two experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of a biosynthetic 6-phytase added at 500 phytase unit (FTU)/kg diet on growth performance, bone mineralization, and nutrient digestibility and retention in weaned piglets and growing–finishing pigs. Experiments were performed on 90 weaned male and female piglets with an average initial body weight (BW) at 7.7 ± 0.73 kg, 26 days of age) and 300 male and female growing pigs (initial BW: 21.0 ± 3.44 kg) for 43 and 98 days in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In each experiment, the animals were assigned to one of three treatments according to a randomized complete block design. The treatments consisted of a positive-control (PC) diet formulated to meet nutrient requirements; a negative-control (NC) diet reduced similarly in calcium (Ca) and digestible P by 0.15 and 0.12% points in phases 1 and 2, respectively, in piglets and by 0.14, 0.11, and 0.10% points, respectively, in phases 1, 2, and 3 in growing–finishing pigs, compared with PC diet; and a NC diet supplemented with the new 6-phytase at 500 FTU/kg diet (PHY). The dietary P and Ca depletion reduced (p < 0.05) the final BW (−11.9%; −7.8%,), average daily gain (ADG, −17.8%; −10.1%), average daily feed intake (ADFI, −9.9%; −6.0%), gain-to-feed (G:F) ratio (−8.9%; −4.6%), and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P (−7.7% points; −6.7% points) in nursery piglets and growing pigs, respectively. It also decreased (p < 0.001) P and Ca retention by 6.1 and 9.4% points, respectively, in nursery pigs and ash, P, and Ca contents in metacarpal bones by 18.4, 18.4, and 16.8%, respectively, in growing pigs. Compared to animals fed the NC diet, phytase supplementation improved (p < 0.001) the final BW (+7.7%; +11.3%), ADG (+12.5%; +15.0%), G:F ratio (+8.4%; +5.8%), ATTD of Ca (+10.8% points; +7.2% points), and ATTD of P (+18.7% points; +16.6% points) in weaned piglets and growing pigs, respectively. In addition, phytase also increased (p < 0.001) P and Ca retention by 6.1 and 9.4% points, respectively, in nursery pigs and ash, P, and Ca contents in metacarpal bones by 17.7, 15.0, and 15.2%, respectively, in growing pigs. The final BW, ADG, G:F ratio, and bone traits in animals fed the NC diet supplemented with phytase were comparable to animals fed the PC diet. This finding indicates the ability of this novel biosynthetic phytase to restore performance and bone mineralization by improving the availability of P and Ca in piglets and growing pigs fed P- and Ca-deficient diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pig Diet and Growth Performance)
15 pages, 1287 KiB  
Article
Modulation of Swine Gut Microbiota by Phytogenic Blends and High Concentrations of Casein in a Validated Swine Large Intestinal In Vitro Model
by Igor V. Popov, Naiana Einhardt Manzke, Mônica Maurer Sost, Jessica Verhoeven, Sanne Verbruggen, Iuliia P. Chebotareva, Alexey M. Ermakov and Koen Venema
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(12), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10120677 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1786
Abstract
Phytogenic feed additives are gaining popularity in livestock as a replacement for antibiotic growth promotors. Some phytogenic blends (PB) positively affect the production performance, inhibit pathogens within the gut microbiota, and improve the overall health of farm animals. In this study, a swine [...] Read more.
Phytogenic feed additives are gaining popularity in livestock as a replacement for antibiotic growth promotors. Some phytogenic blends (PB) positively affect the production performance, inhibit pathogens within the gut microbiota, and improve the overall health of farm animals. In this study, a swine large intestine in vitro model was used to evaluate the effect of two PBs, alone or in combination with casein, on swine gut microbiota. As a result, the combination of casein with PB1 had the most beneficial effects on swine gut microbiota, as it increased the relative abundance of some commensal bacteria and two genera (Lactobacillus and Oscillospiraceae UCG-002), which are associated with greater production performance in pigs. At the same time, supplementation with PBs did not lead to an increase in opportunistic pathogens, indicating their safety for pigs. Both PBs showed fewer changes in swine gut microbiota compared to interventions with added casein. In contrast, casein supplementation significantly increased beta diversity and the relative abundance of commensal as well as potentially beneficial bacteria. In conclusion, the combination of casein with PBs, in particular PB1, had the most beneficial effects among the studied supplements in vitro, with respect to microbiota modulation and metabolite production, although this data should be proven in further in vivo studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pig Diet and Growth Performance)
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18 pages, 326 KiB  
Article
Innovative Use of Olive, Winery and Cheese Waste By-Products as Novel Ingredients in Weaned Pigs Nutrition
by Georgios Magklaras, Ioannis Skoufos, Eleftherios Bonos, Anastasios Tsinas, Christos Zacharis, Ioannis Giavasis, Kostas Petrotos, Konstantina Fotou, Konstantina Nikolaou, Konstantina Vasilopoulou, Ιlias Giannenas and Athina Tzora
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(6), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10060397 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1455
Abstract
New sustainable sources of feeds, which can enhance the health and welfare of farm animals, lower feeding costs, and lead to safer products, are of high priority in modern animal production systems. In the present study, a novel silage created from Greek olive, [...] Read more.
New sustainable sources of feeds, which can enhance the health and welfare of farm animals, lower feeding costs, and lead to safer products, are of high priority in modern animal production systems. In the present study, a novel silage created from Greek olive, winery, and feta cheese waste by-products, was evaluated as a feed ingredient at different inclusion rates (0%, 5% or 10%) in 34-day-old weaned pigs. The potential beneficial effects on performance, health and intestinal digesta microflora balance of the pigs were evaluated. Additionally, chemical, microbiological and quality analysis of the meat was carried out. Results showed no detrimental effects (p > 0.05) on the pigs’ performance and no significant changes (p > 0.05) in meat pH, color and chemical analysis. Ileum and cecum microflora populations (total anaerobes, Lactobacillaceae) were positively affected (p ≤ 0.05) by the dietary usage of the silage. The microbial populations (Clostridium spp.) of belly meat cuts were positively modified (p ≤ 0.01). The concentration of total phenols in the meat cuts were increased (p ≤ 0.05) and their resistance to oxidation was improved (p ≤ 0.05). In addition, the fatty acid profile of the meat lipids (polyunsaturated and n-3 fatty acids) was positively modified (p ≤ 0.001). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pig Diet and Growth Performance)
15 pages, 830 KiB  
Article
Effects of Heat-Killed Lactobacillus plantarum L-137 Supplementation on Growth Performance, Blood Profiles, Intestinal Morphology, and Immune Gene Expression in Pigs
by Wandee Tartrakoon, Rangsun Charoensook, Tossaporn Incharoen, Sonthaya Numthuam, Thitima Pechrkong, Satoru Onoda, Gaku Shoji and Bertram Brenig
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020087 - 24 Jan 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2615
Abstract
In the present study, the effects of dietary heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum L-137 (HK L-137) on the productive performance, intestinal morphology, and cytokine gene expression of suckling-to-fattening pigs were investigated. A total of 100 suckling pigs [(Large White × Landrace) × Duroc; 4.5 ± [...] Read more.
In the present study, the effects of dietary heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum L-137 (HK L-137) on the productive performance, intestinal morphology, and cytokine gene expression of suckling-to-fattening pigs were investigated. A total of 100 suckling pigs [(Large White × Landrace) × Duroc; 4.5 ± 0.54 kg initial body weight (BW)] were used and assigned to each of the four dietary treatments as follows: (1) a control diet with antibiotics as a growth promoter (AGP) from the suckling phase to the grower phase and no supplement in the finisher phases; (2) a control diet without antibiotics as a growth promoter (NAGP); (3) a control diet with HK L-137 at 20 mg/kg from the suckling phase to the starter phase and no supplement from the grower phase to the finisher phases (HKL1); and (4) a control diet with HK L-137 at 20 mg/kg from the suckling phase to the weaner phase, at 4 mg/kg from the starter phase to the finisher 1 phase, and no supplement in the finisher 2 phase (HKL2). During the weaner–starter period, the pigs fed on the AGP and HKL2 diets showed significantly higher weight gain and average daily gain (ADG) than those in the NAGP group (p < 0.05). The pigs in the AGP, HKL1, and HKL2 groups showed greater ADG than those in the NAGP groups (p < 0.05) throughout the grower–finisher period. The suckling pigs in the HKL1 and HKL2 groups showed a higher platelet count (484,500 and 575,750) than in the others (p < 0.05); however, there were no significant differences in the other hematological parameters among the treatment groups. The relative mRNA expression level of IFN- ß of the suckling and starter pigs were significantly higher in the HKL1 and HKL2 groups than in the others (p < 0.05), while the IFN-γ showed the highest level in the HKL2 suckling pigs (p < 0.05). These results demonstrate that a HK L-137 supplementation could stimulate the immune response in suckling and starter pigs and promote the growth performance in finishing pigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pig Diet and Growth Performance)
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