Special Issue "Vaccine-Induced Reprogramming of Innate Immune Response"

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Vaccination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2022 | Viewed by 1467

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Safder Ganaie
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics and Immunology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA
Interests: Vaccines;Innate immune response;RNA viruses;Infectious diseases;Virus infection;pathogenesis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The innate immune system is the first line of host defense against pathogens. The invading pathogens are rapidly detected by the host pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), C-type lectin-like receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), and the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor family proteins (NLRs). The activation of these receptors results in cytokine and chemokine production, phagocytosis, as well as antigen presentation to the adaptive immune system. However, over-activation of the innate immune response can cause systemic inflammation and tissue damage. Both RNA-based or Non-RNA vaccines influence the innate immune response through promoting the development of adaptive immunity or reprogramming of the innate immunity known as “trained immunity”, which imparts non-specific protection to the host against the pathogen.

It is still unclear how host innate immunity responds to pathogens post-vaccination and what the broad impact of vaccination on the innate immune response is. Therefore, this Special Issue seeks original contributions in the form of both research and review articles that advance our understanding of the vaccine-induced innate immune response. Articles related to host responses to different pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi post-SARS-CoV-2, flu, and other types of vaccination are also welcome.

 

Dr. Safder Ganaie
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Dr. Safder Ganaie
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • vaccine
  • innate immune response
  • virus infection
  • pathogenesis
  • RNA sensors
  • cytokine storm
  • inflammation

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Article
A Novel Approach to Vaccine Development: Concomitant Pathogen Inactivation and Host Immune Stimulation by Peroxynitrite
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1593; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101593 (registering DOI) - 22 Sep 2022
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Abstract
The design of efficient vaccines for long-term protective immunity against pathogens represents an objective of utmost public health priority. In general, live attenuated vaccines are considered to be more effective than inactivated pathogens, yet potentially more reactogenic. Accordingly, inactivation protocols which do not [...] Read more.
The design of efficient vaccines for long-term protective immunity against pathogens represents an objective of utmost public health priority. In general, live attenuated vaccines are considered to be more effective than inactivated pathogens, yet potentially more reactogenic. Accordingly, inactivation protocols which do not compromise the pathogen’s ability to elicit protective immunity are highly beneficial. One of the sentinel mechanisms of the host innate immune system relies on the production of reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI), which efficiently inactivate pathogens. Peroxynitrite (PN) is a prevalent RNI, assembled spontaneously upon the interaction of nitric oxide (NO) with superoxide. PN exerts its bactericidal effect by via the efficient oxidation of a broad range of biological molecules. Furthermore, the interaction of PN with proteins results in structural/chemical modifications, such as the oxidation of tryptophan, tyrosine, and cysteine residues, as well as the formation of carbonyl, dityrosine, and nitrotyrosine (NT). In addition to their role in innate immunity, these PN-mediated modifications of pathogen components may also augment the antigenicity of pathogen peptides and proteins, hence contributing to specific humoral responses. In the study reported here, a novel approach for vaccine development, consisting of pathogen inactivation by PN, combined with increased immunity of NT-containing peptides, is implemented as a proof-of-concept for vaccination against the intracellular pathogen Francisella tularensis (F. tularensis). In vivo experiments in a murine model of tularemia confirm that PN-inactivated F. tularensis formulations may rapidly stimulate innate and adaptive immune cells, conferring efficient protection against a lethal challenge, superior to that elicited by bacteria inactivated by the widely used formalin treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccine-Induced Reprogramming of Innate Immune Response)
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Article
COVID-19 Vaccination in Multiple Sclerosis and Inflammatory Diseases: Effects from Disease-Modifying Therapy, Long-Term Seroprevalence and Breakthrough Infections
Vaccines 2022, 10(5), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050695 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1072
Abstract
Background: To determine the effect of disease-modifying therapies (DMT) on humoral postvaccine seroconversion, long-term humoral response, and breakthrough COVID-19 infections in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and other neuroinflammatory disorders. Methods: A total of 757 PwMS and other neuroinflammatory disorders were recruited in [...] Read more.
Background: To determine the effect of disease-modifying therapies (DMT) on humoral postvaccine seroconversion, long-term humoral response, and breakthrough COVID-19 infections in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and other neuroinflammatory disorders. Methods: A total of 757 PwMS and other neuroinflammatory disorders were recruited in two MS centers and vaccinated with one of the FDA-approved vaccines (BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, Ad26.COV2.S). The primary outcomes are the rate of humoral postvaccine seroconversion and anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (anti-SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin G (IgG) differences between patients on different DMTs. Secondary measures include breakthrough infections and humoral response after six months. Other outcomes include differences in vaccine response between SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and the effects of age and comorbidities on the vaccine response. Results: A total of 465 (68.4%) PwMS and 55 (74.3%) patients with neuroinflammatory diseases were seropositive at 4–12 weeks after vaccination. A significant difference in seroconversion based on the DMT used at the time of vaccination (p < 0.001) was observed, with the lowest rates seen in patients treated with anti-CD20 antibodies (23.2%) and sphingosine-1-phosphate modulators (S1P) (30.8%). In seropositive patients, there was a significant decrease in anti-SARS IgG from mean 20.0 to 4.7 at six months (p = 0.004). Thirty-nine patients had breakthrough infection, but only two seronegative patients required hospitalization. mRNA vaccines resulted in significantly greater seroconversion compared to Ad26.COV2.S (p < 0.001). Older age and presence of cardiovascular comorbidities were associated with lower anti-SARS IgG (p = 0.021 and p = 0.003, respectively) Conclusions: PwMS and neuroinflammatory disorders treated with anti-CD20 and S1P medications have lower humoral response after anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, even after booster dose. Waning of the humoral response puts vaccinated PwMS at a greater risk of COVID-19 breakthrough. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccine-Induced Reprogramming of Innate Immune Response)
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