Clinical and Preclinical Development of Bacterial Vaccines

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "Clinical Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (23 November 2023) | Viewed by 7939

Special Issue Editors

Center for Immunobiology, WMU Homer Stryker MD School of Medicine, Kalamazoo, MI 49007-7000, USA
Interests: B cells immunobiology; innate immunity; B1 B cells; natural antibodies; B cell receptor signaling
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Guest Editor
Institute for Systems Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
Interests: microbial pathogenesis; innate immunity; inflammation; host-pathogen interaction; autoinflammatory disorders
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The global threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been identified by the World Health Organization as one of the three greatest threats to human health; annual deaths related to AMR are currently ~700,000, and are projected to rise to 10 million by 2050. New antibiotics cannot solve the problem, as bacteria quickly adapt and develop new resistance mechanisms. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of vaccines against AMR. Bacterial vaccines are used for managing bacterial diseases. They reduce the incidence of resistant and susceptible infections, as well as antibiotic consumption. Advances in vaccine technology in recent decades have made it possible to develop vaccines against previously challenging targets. There is a need to understand which vaccines are currently being developed and which may serve as tools to help control AMR in the future.

The aim of this Special Issue is to investigate bacterial vaccine candidates in preclinical and clinical development against pathogens, some of the main advances made, new techniques and methods for vaccine development, and vaccine benefits and drawbacks.

Dr. Naeem Khan
Dr. Ajay S. Akhade
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • antimicrobial resistance
  • clinical and preclinical vaccine design
  • types of vaccines
  • adjuvant
  • delivery
  • safety

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 3339 KiB  
Article
Comparative Evaluation of Recombinant and Acellular Pertussis Vaccines in a Murine Model
by Kyu-Ri Kang, Ji-Ahn Kim, Gyu-Won Cho, Han-Ul Kang, Hyun-Mi Kang, Jin-Han Kang, Baik-Lin Seong and Soo-Young Lee
Vaccines 2024, 12(1), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12010108 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1234
Abstract
Since the 2000s, sporadic outbreaks of whooping cough have been reported in advanced countries, where the acellular pertussis vaccination rate is relatively high, and in developing countries. Small-scale whooping cough has also continued in many countries, due in part to the waning of [...] Read more.
Since the 2000s, sporadic outbreaks of whooping cough have been reported in advanced countries, where the acellular pertussis vaccination rate is relatively high, and in developing countries. Small-scale whooping cough has also continued in many countries, due in part to the waning of immune protection after childhood vaccination, necessitating the development of an improved pertussis vaccine and vaccination program. Currently, two different production platforms are being actively pursued in Korea; one is based on the aP (acellular pertussis) vaccine purified from B. pertussis containing pertussis toxoid (PT), filamentous hemagglutin (FHA) and pertactin (PRN), and the other is based on the recombinant aP (raP), containing genetically detoxified pertussis toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase subunit 1 (PtxS1), FHA, and PRN domain, expressed and purified from recombinant E. coli. aP components were further combined with diphtheria and tetanus vaccine components as a prototype DTaP vaccine by GC Pharma (GC DTaP vaccine). We evaluated and compared the immunogenicity and the protective efficacy of aP and raP vaccines in an experimental murine challenge model: humoral immunity in serum, IgA secretion in nasal lavage, bacterial clearance after challenge, PTx (pertussis toxin) CHO cell neutralization titer, cytokine secretion in spleen single cell, and tissue resident memory CD4+ T cell (CD4+ TRM cell) in lung tissues. In humoral immunogenicity, GC DTaP vaccines showed high titers for PT and PRN and showed similar patterns in nasal lavage and IL-5 cytokine secretions. The GC DTaP vaccine and the control vaccine showed equivalent results in bacterial clearance after challenge, PTx CHO cell neutralization assay, and CD4+ TRM cell. In contrast, the recombinant raP vaccine exhibited strong antibody responses for FHA and PRN, albeit with low antibody level of PT and low titer in PTx CHO neutralization assay, as compared to control and GC DTaP vaccines. The raP vaccine provided a sterile lung bacterial clearance comparable to a commercial control vaccine after the experimental challenge in murine model. Moreover, raP exhibited a strong cytokine response and CD4+ TRM cell in lung tissue, comparable or superior to the experimental and commercial DTaP vaccinated groups. Contingent on improving the biophysical stability and humoral response to PT, the raP vaccine warrants further development as an effective alternative to aP vaccines for the control of a pertussis outbreak. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical and Preclinical Development of Bacterial Vaccines)
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12 pages, 2171 KiB  
Article
Liposome and QS-21 Combined Adjuvant Induces theHumoral and Cellular Responses of Acellular Pertussis Vaccine in a Mice Model
by Baifeng Yang, Dewu Zhu, Yisi Zhou, Beizhe Gong, Yuan Hu, Jiayou Zhang, Shihe Huang, Xuanxuan Nian, Xinghang Li, Xinguo Li, Kai Duan and Xiaoming Yang
Vaccines 2023, 11(5), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11050914 - 28 Apr 2023
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Abstract
The resurgence of pertussis in vaccinated communities may be related to the reduced long-term immunity induced by acellular pertussis vaccines. Therefore, developing improved pertussis vaccine candidates that could induce strong Th1 or Th17 cellular immunity is an urgent need. The use of new [...] Read more.
The resurgence of pertussis in vaccinated communities may be related to the reduced long-term immunity induced by acellular pertussis vaccines. Therefore, developing improved pertussis vaccine candidates that could induce strong Th1 or Th17 cellular immunity is an urgent need. The use of new adjuvants may well meet this requirement. In this research, we developed a novel adjuvant candidate by combining liposome and QS-21 adjuvant. Adjuvant activity, protective efficacy, the level of neutralizing antibody against PT, and the resident memory T (TRM) cells in lung tissue after vaccination were studied. We then performed B. pertussis respiratory challenge in mice after they received vaccination with traditional aluminum hydroxide and the novel adjuvant combination. Results showed that the liposome + QS-21 adjuvant group had a rapid antibody and higher antibody (PT, FHA, Fim) level, induced anti-PT neutralizing antibody and recruited more IL-17A-secreting CD4+ TRM cells along with IL-17A-secreting CD8+ TRM cells in mice, which provided robust protection against B. pertussis infection. These results provide a key basis for liposome + QS-21 adjuvant as a promising adjuvant candidate for developing an acellular pertussis vaccine that elicits protective immunity against pertussis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical and Preclinical Development of Bacterial Vaccines)
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18 pages, 1232 KiB  
Article
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Routine Use of 15-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in the US Pediatric Population
by Min Huang, Tianyan Hu, Jessica Weaver, Kwame Owusu-Edusei and Elamin Elbasha
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010135 - 6 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2704
Abstract
This study evaluated the clinical and economic impact of routine pediatric vaccination with the 15-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV15, V114) compared with the 13-valent PCV (PCV13) from a societal perspective in the United States (US). A Markov decision-analytic model was constructed to estimate [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the clinical and economic impact of routine pediatric vaccination with the 15-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV15, V114) compared with the 13-valent PCV (PCV13) from a societal perspective in the United States (US). A Markov decision-analytic model was constructed to estimate the outcomes for the entire US population over a 100-year time horizon. The model estimated the impact of V114 versus PCV13 on pneumococcal disease (PD) incidence, post meningitis sequalae, and deaths, taking herd immunity effects into account. V114 effectiveness was extrapolated from the observed PCV13 data and PCV7 clinical trials. Costs (2021$) included vaccine acquisition and administration costs, direct medical costs for PD treatment, direct non-medical costs, and indirect costs, and were discounted at 3% per year. In the base case, V114 prevented 185,711 additional invasive pneumococcal disease, 987,727 all-cause pneumonia, and 11.2 million pneumococcal acute otitis media cases, compared with PCV13. This led to expected gains of 90,026 life years and 96,056 quality-adjusted life years with a total saving of $10.8 billion. Sensitivity analysis showed consistent results over plausible values of key model inputs and assumptions. The findings suggest that V114 is a cost-saving option compared to PCV13 in the routine pediatric vaccination program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical and Preclinical Development of Bacterial Vaccines)
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Review

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15 pages, 298 KiB  
Review
Enhancing TB Vaccine Efficacy: Current Progress on Vaccines, Adjuvants and Immunization Strategies
by Hui Wang, Shuxian Wang, Ren Fang, Xiaotian Li, Jiayin Xing, Zhaoli Li and Ningning Song
Vaccines 2024, 12(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12010038 - 29 Dec 2023
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Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global infectious disease primarily transmitted via respiratory tract infection. Presently, vaccination stands as the primary method for TB prevention, predominantly reliant on the Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine. Although it is effective in preventing disseminated diseases in children, its impact [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global infectious disease primarily transmitted via respiratory tract infection. Presently, vaccination stands as the primary method for TB prevention, predominantly reliant on the Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine. Although it is effective in preventing disseminated diseases in children, its impact on adults is limited. To broaden vaccine protection, efforts are underway to accelerate the development of new TB vaccines. However, challenges arise due to the limited immunogenicity and safety of these vaccines, necessitating adjuvants to bolster their ability to elicit a robust immune response for improved and safer immunization. These adjuvants function by augmenting cellular and humoral immunity against M. tuberculosis antigens via different delivery systems, ultimately enhancing vaccine efficacy. Therefore, this paper reviews and summarizes the current research progress on M. tuberculosis vaccines and their associated adjuvants, aiming to provide a valuable reference for the development of novel TB vaccines and the screening of adjuvants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical and Preclinical Development of Bacterial Vaccines)
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