Advanced Research on Mycotoxins: Detection and Removal

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 16525

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Interdisciplinary Center for Modern Technologies, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, 87-100 Torun, Poland
Interests: microorganisms (isolation, identification); antimicrobial activity/cytotoxicity (clasical methods, e.g., well diffusion method, fluorescence microscope as well as modern techniques such as flow cytometry); use of microorganisms for searching of innovative agents (e.g., Me/MeO nanoparticles, nanocomposites) and their application in medicine, veterinary, cosmetics and food industry
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Guest Editor
Department of Nutrition and Health, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100191, China
Interests: functional nucleic acid; biosensor; antibody; aptamer; biotoxin; food safety; precision toxicology; precision nutrition; biosafety

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over recent years, mycotoxins have become an agronomic and ecological problem worldwide, estimated to affect human and animal organisms as well as the environment. The accumulation of mycotoxins in food, feeds and soil represents a major problem for society, capable of inducing various diseases such as various types of cancer, alimentary toxic aleukia, hepatic diseases, various hemorrhagic syndromes, as well as immune and neurological disorders, although those listed are only some of the most common ones. Therefore, the development of an interdisciplinary approach for the prevention, detection and removal of such non-friendly compounds is an extremely important aspect, such an approach being challenging for scientists, and encouraging them to design and develop novel effective methods for mycotoxin detection, neutralization and/or elimination. Moreover, the advancement in the proper cultivation of plants, as well as appropriate storage and processing steps, plays a crucial role in this context, including other aspects concerning the implementation of a statistical approach, topics all of which are welcome in this Special Issue.

Dr. Viorica Railean-Plugaru
Prof. Dr. Wentao Xu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • physiological role
  • toxin–antitoxin systems
  • action mechanisms
  • structure
  • cytotoxicity
  • mycotoxin interaction
  • detection
  • prevention
  • metabolization
  • neutralization
  • elimination

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 1976 KiB  
Article
Pyroptosis-Mediated Damage Mechanism by Deoxynivalenol in Porcine Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells
by Tae Hong Kang, Sangsu Shin, JeongWoong Park, Bo Ram Lee and Sang In Lee
Toxins 2023, 15(4), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15040300 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1993
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is known as a vomitoxin, which frequently contaminates feedstuffs, such as corn, wheat, and barley. Intake of DON-contaminated feed has been known to cause undesirable effects, including diarrhea, emesis, reduced feed intake, nutrient malabsorption, weight loss, and delay in growth, in [...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is known as a vomitoxin, which frequently contaminates feedstuffs, such as corn, wheat, and barley. Intake of DON-contaminated feed has been known to cause undesirable effects, including diarrhea, emesis, reduced feed intake, nutrient malabsorption, weight loss, and delay in growth, in livestock. However, the molecular mechanism of DON-induced damage of the intestinal epithelium requires further investigation. Treatment with DON triggered ROS in IPEC-J2 cells and increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP). To investigate the activation of the inflammasome, we confirmed the mRNA and protein expression levels of the NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), and caspase-1 (CASP-1). Moreover, we confirmed that caspase mediates the mature form of interleukin-18, and the cleaved form of Gasdermin D (GSDMD) was increased. Based on these results, our study suggests that DON can induce damage through oxidative stress and pyroptosis in the epithelial cells of the porcine small intestine via NLRP3 inflammasome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Mycotoxins: Detection and Removal)
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13 pages, 3487 KiB  
Article
Alphatoxin Nanopore Detection of Aflatoxin, Ochratoxin and Fumonisin in Aqueous Solution
by Artur Alves Rodrigues da Silva, Janilson José da Silva Júnior, Maria Isabel dos Santos Cavalcanti, Dijanah Cota Machado, Paloma Lys Medeiros and Claudio Gabriel Rodrigues
Toxins 2023, 15(3), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15030183 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2290
Abstract
Mycotoxins are toxic and carcinogenic metabolites produced by groups of filamentous fungi that colonize food crops. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are among the most relevant agricultural mycotoxins, as they can induce [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are toxic and carcinogenic metabolites produced by groups of filamentous fungi that colonize food crops. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are among the most relevant agricultural mycotoxins, as they can induce various toxic processes in humans and animals. To detect AFB1, OTA and FB1 in the most varied matrices, chromatographic and immunological methods are primarily used; however, these techniques are time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we demonstrate that unitary alphatoxin nanopore can be used to detect and differentiate these mycotoxins in aqueous solution. The presence of AFB1, OTA or FB1 inside the nanopore induces reversible blockage of the ionic current flowing through the nanopore, with distinct characteristics of blockage that are unique to each of the three toxins. The process of discrimination is based on the residual current ratio calculation and analysis of the residence time of each mycotoxin inside the unitary nanopore. Using a single alphatoxin nanopore, the mycotoxins could be detected at the nanomolar level, indicating that alphatoxin nanopore is a promising molecular tool for discriminatory analysis of mycotoxins in aqueous solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Mycotoxins: Detection and Removal)
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11 pages, 2050 KiB  
Article
Co-Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus and Ochratoxin A in Pasteurized Milk
by Zhenzhen Zhang, Yanmin Song, Liyan Ma, Kunlun Huang and Zhihong Liang
Toxins 2022, 14(10), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14100718 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1889
Abstract
Pathogens and mycotoxins are serious public health risks for humans and food safety in milk. This study concentrated on detecting Staphylococcus aureus and Ochratoxin A (OTA) in 210 pasteurized milk from ten urban Beijing districts to suggest the co-occurrence of S. aureus with [...] Read more.
Pathogens and mycotoxins are serious public health risks for humans and food safety in milk. This study concentrated on detecting Staphylococcus aureus and Ochratoxin A (OTA) in 210 pasteurized milk from ten urban Beijing districts to suggest the co-occurrence of S. aureus with toxin-producing genes and OTA in milk and the possible risk. S. aureus was identified by physiological and biochemical experiments and molecular biology experiments, and enterotoxin genes were identified by PCR. OTA was detected by LC-MS/MS. The study found 29 isolates of S. aureus, of which 17.24% had the sea gene encoding enterotoxin A. OTA was detected in 31 out of 120 samples and the maximum amount of detection was 18.8 μg/kg. The results of this study indicate that when failing to guarantee the cold chain, the presence of S. aureus with enterotoxin genes in milk will present a risk to food safety. Furthermore, the high detection rates and levels of OTA in milk suggest that OTA is a hidden risk. The co-occurrence of S. aureus and OTA in milk is a food safety concern and there is a need to control the occurrence of these two biohazards in milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Mycotoxins: Detection and Removal)
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Review

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32 pages, 9446 KiB  
Review
Small Peptides in the Detection of Mycotoxins and Their Potential Applications in Mycotoxin Removal
by Zitong Zhao, Zhenzhen Zhang, Haoxiang Zhang and Zhihong Liang
Toxins 2022, 14(11), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14110795 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3146
Abstract
Mycotoxins pose significant risks to humans and livestock. In addition, contaminated food- and feedstuffs can only be discarded, leading to increased economic losses and potential ecological pollution. Mycotoxin removal and real-time toxin level monitoring are effective approaches to solve this problem. As a [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins pose significant risks to humans and livestock. In addition, contaminated food- and feedstuffs can only be discarded, leading to increased economic losses and potential ecological pollution. Mycotoxin removal and real-time toxin level monitoring are effective approaches to solve this problem. As a hot research hotspot, small peptides derived from phage display peptide libraries, combinatorial peptide libraries, and rational design approaches can act as coating antigens, competitive antigens, and anti-immune complexes in immunoassays for the detection of mycotoxins. Furthermore, as a potential approach to mycotoxin degradation, small peptides can mimic the natural enzyme catalytic site to construct artificial enzymes containing oxidoreductases, hydrolase, and lyase activities. In summary, with the advantages of mature synthesis protocols, diverse structures, and excellent biocompatibility, also sharing their chemical structure with natural proteins, small peptides are widely used for mycotoxin detection and artificial enzyme construction, which have promising applications in mycotoxin degradation. This paper mainly reviews the advances of small peptides in the detection of mycotoxins, the construction of peptide-based artificial enzymes, and their potential applications in mycotoxin control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Mycotoxins: Detection and Removal)
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19 pages, 1187 KiB  
Review
Research Progress of Safety of Zearalenone: A Review
by Xiao Han, Bingxin Huangfu, Tongxiao Xu, Wentao Xu, Charles Asakiya, Kunlun Huang and Xiaoyun He
Toxins 2022, 14(6), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14060386 - 2 Jun 2022
Cited by 66 | Viewed by 6416
Abstract
Zearalenone, a mycotoxin produced by fungi of the genus Fusarium, widely exists in animal feed and human food. The structure of zearalenone is similar to estrogen, so it mainly has estrogenic effects on various organisms. Products contaminated with zearalenone can pose risks [...] Read more.
Zearalenone, a mycotoxin produced by fungi of the genus Fusarium, widely exists in animal feed and human food. The structure of zearalenone is similar to estrogen, so it mainly has estrogenic effects on various organisms. Products contaminated with zearalenone can pose risks to animals and humans. Therefore, it is imperative to carry out toxicological research on zearalenone and evaluate its risk to human health. This paper briefly introduces the production, physical, and chemical properties of zearalenone and the research progress of its toxicity kinetics, focusing on its genetic toxicity, reproductive toxicity, hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, carcinogenicity, endocrine interference, and its impact on intestinal health. Finally, the progress of the risk assessment of human exposure is summarized to provide a reference for the follow-up study of zearalenone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Mycotoxins: Detection and Removal)
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