Special Issue "ADP-Ribosylating Toxin"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2019)
Prof. Joseph T. Barbieri
Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
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Interests: the cellular and molecular basis of microbial pathogenesis; the action of bacterial toxins; botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins; type III cytotoxins; Certhrax, an ADP-ribosylating exotoxin
Studies on the family of ADP-ribosylating toxins have provided significant insight into host–pathogen interactions at several levels of resolution. Structural studies showed the A-B organization of these toxins and provided a basis for understanding how protein toxins enter host cells and traffic within the host cell endosomal pathway to translocate the catalytic A fragment into the host cell cytosol to modulate host cell physiology through the ADP-ribosylation of host substrates. Cell biological studies were among the first to show the prototypical ADP-ribosylating toxin, diphtheria toxin, to form ion-conducting channels via a pH-triggered insertion of the translocation domains into host cells, which correlated with the ability of the toxin to translocate the catalytic domain into host cells. Early utilities of these toxins included modification to produce a potent chemically inactivated toxoid, utilization as a platform for conjugate vaccines, a catalytic domain for first-generation immunotoxins, and recently as targets of nanobodies to inactivate intracellular and extracellular ADP-ribosylating proteins. Some members of the cholera toxin-like family of ADP-ribosylating toxins are used as targeted adjuvants to develop efficacious mucosal vaccines. Of note is the ADP-ribosylation cycle of eukaryotic cells, which modulates an endogenous ADP-ribosylation cycle to modulate of several cellular processes via the action of ADP-ribosylation factors and ADP-ribosyl hydrolases. Derivatives of the ADP-ribosylating toxins include the single catalytic domain RhoA-targeting proteins which function in bacterial-host interactions of animals and plants. Continued development of structure-based alignments continues to predict distantly related members of the family of ADP-ribosylating toxins, which may provide new reagents for human therapies, while molecular approaches have extended the number of ADP-ribosylating variants for family members that possess different modes of action.
Prof. Joseph T. Barbieri
Manuscript Submission Information
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- Bacterial toxins
- A-B organization