Special Issue "Technologies for Industry 4.0"

A special issue of Technologies (ISSN 2227-7080). This special issue belongs to the section "Information and Communication Technologies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (5 December 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Thomas Moser

Institute of Creative\Media/Technologies, St. Pölten University of Applied Sciences, Austria
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Industry 4.0; semantic web; data integration; human-computer interaction; virtual and augmented reality; BLE
Guest Editor
Dr. Tiago M. Fernández-Caramés

Department of Computer Engineering, University of A Coruña, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Industry 4.0; IIoT and IoT systems; RFID; wireless sensor networks; embedded systems; wireless communications; augmented reality

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Industry 4.0 principles are already changing the way that companies deal with their daily tasks. Such tasks can be performed faster and more efficiently by making use of the latest technologies fostered by Industry 4.0: The Internet of Things (IoT), robotics, Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), additive manufacturing, Big Data, cyber-security, Cloud computing, or Augmented and Virtual Reality (AVR). The range of potential Industry 4.0 applications is very large, impacting on many aspects of smart factories, such as logistics, mobility, smart buildings, product traceability, smart grids or in health and safety at work.

This Special Issue is intended to report on latest innovations in the application of technologies to Industry 4.0. Both practical and theoretical papers are welcome, as well as reviews on the application of Industry 4.0 technologies.

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Innovative applications for Industry 4.0.
  • Case studies in the design and implementation of Industry 4.0 applications.
  • Performance comparisons of traditional industrial processes versus Industry 4.0 counterparts.
  • Industrial Augmented and Virtual Reality applications.
  • Novel applications of cloud, edge, distributed and decentralized computing.
  • Novel cyber-physical systems for Industry 4.0.
  • Cyber-security analysis and solutions for Industry 4.0 applications.

Dr. Thomas Moser
Dr. Tiago M. Fernández-Caramés
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Technologies is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Industry 4.0
  • IoT
  • IIoT
  • CPS
  • Additive Manufacturing
  • Cyber-security
  • Big Data
  • Cloud Computing
  • Augmented Reality
  • Virtual Reality
  • Human-Computer Interaction

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Chip-Level Blockchain Security Solution for the Internet of Things Networks
Technologies 2019, 7(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies7010028
Received: 6 January 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 7 March 2019
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Abstract
The widespread computer network has been changing drastically and substantially since blockchain and IoT entered the stage. Blockchain is good at protecting data transactions between logical nodes with a desirable guaranty. Internet of Things (IoT), on the other hand, by providing ultimate convenience [...] Read more.
The widespread computer network has been changing drastically and substantially since blockchain and IoT entered the stage. Blockchain is good at protecting data transactions between logical nodes with a desirable guaranty. Internet of Things (IoT), on the other hand, by providing ultimate convenience to consumers, is expected to give rise to many various merits in a broad business scene. The security of IoT is still an open problem and if blockchain can reinforce IoT security, as many authors have hoped in recent papers, these newcomers appear to make a good collaboration to reinforce IoT security. However, software copes with logical nodes and IoT involves a vast number of physical nodes (IoT devices). Enabling blockchain to protect IoT cannot be brought to reality without respectively identifying logical and physical nodes. This is identical to the Proof-of-Trust problem. In this article, we propose a conceptual solution—Blockchained IoT—and show that this concept is able to be realized on-chip level using mass-produced dynamical random access memory (DRAM). We have completed the first test of longevity and temperature dependence (−40 °C to 105 °C) to confirm the necessary characteristics for the 5G base stations that are known to have an issue of self-heating. Furthermore, we have coarsely evaluated the probability of two DRAM IC chips being associated with an identical cyber-physical chip identification accidentally. Then, such a probability is minimal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technologies for Industry 4.0)
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Open AccessArticle
A Verifiable Fully Homomorphic Encryption Scheme for Cloud Computing Security
Technologies 2019, 7(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies7010021
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
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Abstract
Performing smart computations in a context of cloud computing and big data is highly appreciated today. It allows customers to fully benefit from cloud computing capacities (such as processing or storage) without losing confidentiality of sensitive data. Fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) is a [...] Read more.
Performing smart computations in a context of cloud computing and big data is highly appreciated today. It allows customers to fully benefit from cloud computing capacities (such as processing or storage) without losing confidentiality of sensitive data. Fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) is a smart category of encryption schemes that enables working with the data in its encrypted form. It permits us to preserve confidentiality of our sensible data and to benefit from cloud computing capabilities. While FHE is combined with verifiable computation, it offers efficient procedures for outsourcing computations over encrypted data to a remote, but non-trusted, cloud server. The resulting scheme is called Verifiable Fully Homomorphic Encryption (VFHE). Currently, it has been demonstrated by many existing schemes that the theory is feasible but the efficiency needs to be dramatically improved in order to make it usable for real applications. One subtle difficulty is how to efficiently handle the noise. This paper aims to introduce an efficient and symmetric verifiable FHE based on a new mathematic structure that is noise free. In our encryption scheme, the noise is constant and does not depend on homomorphic evaluation of ciphertexts. The homomorphy of our scheme is obtained from simple matrix operations (addition and multiplication). The running time of the multiplication operation of our encryption scheme in a cloud environment has an order of a few milliseconds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technologies for Industry 4.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Adapting Engineering Education to Industry 4.0 Vision
Technologies 2019, 7(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies7010010
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
Industry 4.0 is originally a future vision described in the high-tech strategy of the German government that is conceived upon information and communication technologies like Cyber-Physical Systems, Internet of Things, Physical Internet, and Internet of Services to achieve a high degree of flexibility [...] Read more.
Industry 4.0 is originally a future vision described in the high-tech strategy of the German government that is conceived upon information and communication technologies like Cyber-Physical Systems, Internet of Things, Physical Internet, and Internet of Services to achieve a high degree of flexibility in production (individualized mass production), higher productivity rates through real-time monitoring and diagnosis, and a lower wastage rate of material in production. An important part of the tasks in the preparation for Industry 4.0 is the adaption of the higher education to the requirements of this vision, in particular the engineering education. In this work, we introduce a road map consisting of three pillars describing the changes/enhancements to be conducted in the areas of curriculum development, lab concept, and student club activities. We also report our current application of this road map at the Turkish German University, Istanbul. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technologies for Industry 4.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparing Approaches for Evaluating Digital Interventions on the Shop Floor
Technologies 2018, 6(4), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6040116
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
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Abstract
The introduction of innovative digital tools for supporting manufacturing processes has far-reaching effects at an organizational and individual level due to the development of Industry 4.0. The FACTS4WORKERS project funded by H2020, i.e., Worker-Centric Workplaces in Smart Factories, aims to develop user-centered assistance [...] Read more.
The introduction of innovative digital tools for supporting manufacturing processes has far-reaching effects at an organizational and individual level due to the development of Industry 4.0. The FACTS4WORKERS project funded by H2020, i.e., Worker-Centric Workplaces in Smart Factories, aims to develop user-centered assistance systems in order to demonstrate their impact and applicability at the shop floor. To achieve this, understanding how to develop such tools is as important as assessing if advantages can be derived from the ICT system created. This study introduces the technology of a workplace solution linked to the industrial challenge of self-learning manufacturing workplaces. Subsequently, a two-step approach to evaluate the presented system is discussed, consisting of the one used in FACTS4WORKERS and the one used in the “Heuristics for Industry 4.0” project. Both approaches and the use case are introduced as a base for presenting the comparison of the results collected in this paper. The comparison of the results for the presented use case is extended with the results for the rest of the FACTS4WORKERS use cases and with future work in the framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technologies for Industry 4.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Participated Planning of Large Water Infrastructures through Virtual Prototyping Technologies
Technologies 2018, 6(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6030068
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 28 July 2018
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Abstract
The design of large dams is a collaborative activity with relevant social and political implications. Planning such large infrastructures requires involving all the interested stakeholders, making shared decisions, tracing the design process. There are currently not many Virtual Prototyping tools to support this [...] Read more.
The design of large dams is a collaborative activity with relevant social and political implications. Planning such large infrastructures requires involving all the interested stakeholders, making shared decisions, tracing the design process. There are currently not many Virtual Prototyping tools to support this collaborative design process. In this paper, we propose a participated planning support system based on mobile and Augmented Reality technologies which allows different stakeholders to take part in the review of a large dam project through an application that automatically acquires information available online, allows all stakeholders to share information, and finally records everything for a subsequent analysis. The development of the application, as well as its use in two case studies and a user study, are described in the paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technologies for Industry 4.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Technical Interoperability for Machine Connectivity on the Shop Floor
Technologies 2018, 6(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6030057
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 18 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 22 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a generic technical solution that can increase Industry 4.0 maturity by collecting data from sensors and control systems on the shop floor. Within the research project “5G-Enabled Manufacturing”, an LTE (Long-Term Evolution) network with 5G technologies was deployed on the [...] Read more.
This paper presents a generic technical solution that can increase Industry 4.0 maturity by collecting data from sensors and control systems on the shop floor. Within the research project “5G-Enabled Manufacturing”, an LTE (Long-Term Evolution) network with 5G technologies was deployed on the shop floor to enable fast and scalable connectivity. This network was used to connect a grinding machine to a remote private cloud where data was stored and streamed to a data analytics center. This enabled visibility and transparency of the production data, which is the basis for Industry 4.0 and smart manufacturing. The solution is described with a focus on high-level communication technologies above wireless communication standards. These technologies are discussed regarding technical interoperability, focusing on the system layout, communication standards, and open systems. From the discussion, it can be derived that generic solutions such as this are possible, but manufacturing end-users must expand and further internalize knowledge of future information and communication technologies to reduce their dependency on equipment and technology providers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technologies for Industry 4.0)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
On Distributed Denial of Service Current Defense Schemes
Technologies 2019, 7(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies7010019
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
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Abstract
Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are a major threat to any network-based service provider. The ability of an attacker to harness the power of a lot of compromised devices to launch an attack makes it even more complex to handle. This complexity [...] Read more.
Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are a major threat to any network-based service provider. The ability of an attacker to harness the power of a lot of compromised devices to launch an attack makes it even more complex to handle. This complexity can increase even more when several attackers coordinate to launch an attack on one victim. Moreover, attackers these days do not need to be highly skilled to perpetrate an attack. Tools for orchestrating an attack can easily be found online and require little to no knowledge about attack scripts to initiate an attack. Studies have been done severally to develop defense mechanisms to detect and defend against DDoS attacks. As defense schemes are designed and developed, attackers are also on the move to evade these defense mechanisms and so there is a need for a continual study in developing defense mechanisms. This paper discusses the current DDoS defense mechanisms, their strengths and weaknesses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technologies for Industry 4.0)
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