Symmetry in Cosmic Ray Detections

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994). This special issue belongs to the section "Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (24 February 2023) | Viewed by 11746

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz, 90-236 Lodz, 149/153 Pomorska, Poland
Interests: cosmic rays; extensive air showers; ultra-high-energy cosmic ray phenomena; small local shower arrays; networking of distant shower arrays; contemporary physics education

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The cosmic ray energy spectrum spans more than 10 decades and has a surprisingly (almost) constant power-law character. Understanding this fact and discovering the mechanisms generating the energy of the cosmic ray particles which constantly bombard Earth is one of the fundamental problems of modern physics. On the one hand, bigger and more sophisticated air shower arrays are being built and, on the other hand, there is a growing interest in the construction of small local detection stations which, apart from purely scientific purposes, have a great potential educational significance, satisfying young people's scientific curiosity and developing their interest in science, and particularly in physics.

This Special Issue will be dedicated to showing the specific similarities between the symmetry of experimental solutions from both edges of the cosmic ray energy spectrum. It can generate synergy effects; for example, the networking of local small shower arrays can be used to search for new physics in the highest energy region.

We are soliciting contributions (scientific and review articles) covering a wide range of topics related to the understood symmetry and related cosmic ray physics, including (but not limited to) the following:

  • The physics of the new phenomena we should be looking for at the high-energy end of the spectrum;
  • The possibility of experimentally searching for new physics in cosmic rays;
  • Ideas for networks of local (school-based) small shower arrays;
  • Results and experiences gained from measurements in the local small cosmic ray arrays;
  • New techniques for measuring extensive cosmic ray air showers in different energy ranges;
  • New (low-cost) techniques/detectors and ideas of cheap measuring cosmic ray shower particles;
  • Possible educational (and community) effects of implementing the local (school) cosmic ray array project on a wider scale.

Prof. Dr. Tadeusz Wibig
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Cosmic rays
  • Extensive air showers
  • Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray phenomena
  • Small local shower arrays
  • Networking of distant shower arrays
  • Contemporary physics education

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 19852 KiB  
Article
A Brief Introductory Note on the Possible Chaotic Dynamics of the Muon Time Series of Cosmic Rays Measured at Sea Level by a Simple GMT Detector
by Elio Conte, Nicoletta Sala and Marco Arcani
Symmetry 2023, 15(3), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15030659 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1147
Abstract
After an investigation of the well-known basic properties of muons conducted by the standard model (SM), this paper presents the results obtained for the phase space reconstruction, for the correlation dimension and for the largest Lyapunov exponent of a muon time series detected [...] Read more.
After an investigation of the well-known basic properties of muons conducted by the standard model (SM), this paper presents the results obtained for the phase space reconstruction, for the correlation dimension and for the largest Lyapunov exponent of a muon time series detected for a period of about three years (2019–2021) in an Italian laboratory at the sea level. These results confirm that the dynamics of such a time series is chaotic in nature, and therefore open new perspectives in the study of cosmic rays. In the following studies, we will explore if such muon time series have a mono- or a multifractal regime with a complete analysis of all the parameters that usually involve such studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Cosmic Ray Detections)
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16 pages, 4520 KiB  
Communication
The Astroparticle Detectors Array—An Educational Project in Cosmic Ray Physics
by Marco Arcani, Elio Conte, Omar Del Monte, Alessandra Frassati, Andrea Grana, Cesare Guaita, Domenico Liguori, Altea Renata Maria Nemolato, Daniele Pigato and Elia Rubino
Symmetry 2023, 15(2), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym15020294 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2023
Abstract
ADA, short for Astroparticle Detectors Array, is an educational project aiming to detect cosmic radiation and possibly high-energy particles known as ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) or even to spot a supernova event. Its working process is the same as that used in professional [...] Read more.
ADA, short for Astroparticle Detectors Array, is an educational project aiming to detect cosmic radiation and possibly high-energy particles known as ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) or even to spot a supernova event. Its working process is the same as that used in professional cosmic ray observatories: it consists of simple detectors spread over the entire Italian territory and beyond. The detectors are hosted among high schools, associations, and private astronomical observatories. ADA has been operating since 2013 and was brought about with the intention of promoting astroparticle physics to any given level of outreach. Furthermore, ADA is becoming an interesting tool not only for teachers but also for independent and keen scientists. Over the years, we have discovered the importance of having a long series of data for studying the relation between and among cosmic rays, weather, and space weather and to investigate the main cause of oscillations in cosmic ray data. In this paper, we show what we find to be the most compelling results, such as the beautiful symmetry of the behavior between muons and the atmospheric temperature and, likewise, the evident anti-correlation between the intensity of the muons at ground level compared with solar activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Cosmic Ray Detections)
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10 pages, 1365 KiB  
Article
A Search for Cosmic Ray Bursts at 0.1 PeV with a Small Air Shower Array
by Roger Clay, Jassimar Singh, Piotr Homola, Olaf Bar, Dmitry Beznosko, Apoorva Bhatt, Gopal Bhatta, Łukasz Bibrzycki, Nikolay Budnev, David E. Alvarez-Castillo, Niraj Dhital, Alan R. Duffy, Michał Frontczak, Dariusz Góra, Alok C. Gupta, Bartosz Łozowski, Mikhail V. Medvedev, Justyna Mędrala, Justyna Miszczyk, Michał Niedźwiecki, Marcin Piekarczyk, Krzysztof Rzecki, Jilberto Zamora-Saa, Katarzyna Smelcerz, Karel Smolek, Tomasz Sośnicki, Jaroslaw Stasielak, Sławomir Stuglik, Oleksandr Sushchov, Arman Tursunov and Tadeusz Wibigadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Symmetry 2022, 14(3), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14030501 - 1 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2807
Abstract
The Cosmic Ray Extremely Distributed Observatory (CREDO) pursues a global research strategy dedicated to the search for correlated cosmic rays, so-called Cosmic Ray Ensembles (CRE). Its general approach to CRE detection does not involve any a priori considerations, and its search strategy encompasses [...] Read more.
The Cosmic Ray Extremely Distributed Observatory (CREDO) pursues a global research strategy dedicated to the search for correlated cosmic rays, so-called Cosmic Ray Ensembles (CRE). Its general approach to CRE detection does not involve any a priori considerations, and its search strategy encompasses both spatial and temporal correlations, on different scales. Here we search for time clustering of the cosmic ray events collected with a small sea-level extensive air shower array at the University of Adelaide. The array consists of seven one-square-metre scintillators enclosing an area of 10 m × 19 m. It has a threshold energy ~0.1 PeV, and records cosmic ray showers at a rate of ~6 mHz. We have examined event arrival times over a period of over 2.5 years in two equipment configurations (without and with GPS timing), recording ~300 k events and ~100 k events. We determined the event time spacing distributions between individual events and the distributions of time periods which contained specific numbers of multiple events. We find that the overall time distributions are as expected for random events. The distribution which was chosen a priori for particular study was for time periods covering five events (four spacings). Overall, these distributions fit closely with expectation, but there are two outliers of short burst periods in data for each configuration. One of these outliers contains eight events within 48 s. The physical characteristics of the array will be discussed together with the analysis procedure, including a comparison between the observed time distributions and expectation based on randomly arriving events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Cosmic Ray Detections)
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14 pages, 453 KiB  
Article
CREDO-Maze Cosmic Ray Mini-Array for Educational Purposes
by Tadeusz Wibig and Michał Karbowiak
Symmetry 2022, 14(3), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14030500 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1600
Abstract
In this paper, we present the concept of local networks of small extensive air shower arrays installed mainly in secondary schools. As part of the CREDO-Maze Project, we plan to equip as many schools as possible with sets of detectors capable of detecting [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present the concept of local networks of small extensive air shower arrays installed mainly in secondary schools. As part of the CREDO-Maze Project, we plan to equip as many schools as possible with sets of detectors capable of detecting extensive air showers and transmitting their data to the central CREDO Project server. The synergy of such a network will make it possible to create a CREDO "global detector" and carry out physical research sensu stricto, e.g., the search for the Gerasimova–Zatsepin effect or the Cosmic Ray Ensemble. The discovery of one or the other would have extremely important consequences for our understanding of the nature of very-high-energy cosmic rays. In this paper, we describe a prototype local mini-array built at our university and some of the results of the exemplary tests performed. The design of the station’s electronics and the small size of the detectors allow it to be used to perform, with the simple addition of software, also other tasks within physics circles and student projects. The mini-array consists of four small detectors, with a simple system for triggering, recording, and online communication with the world. The station is designed for autonomous and continuous operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Cosmic Ray Detections)
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12 pages, 514 KiB  
Article
Constraints on Cosmic Ray Acceleration Capabilities of Black Holes in X-ray Binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei
by Arman Tursunov, Martin Kološ and Zdeněk Stuchlík
Symmetry 2022, 14(3), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14030482 - 26 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1446
Abstract
Rotating black holes (BHs) are likely the largest energy reservoirs in the Universe as predicted by BH thermodynamics, while cosmic rays (CRs) are the most energetic among particles detected on Earth. Magnetic fields surrounding BHs combined with strong gravity effects, thanks to the [...] Read more.
Rotating black holes (BHs) are likely the largest energy reservoirs in the Universe as predicted by BH thermodynamics, while cosmic rays (CRs) are the most energetic among particles detected on Earth. Magnetic fields surrounding BHs combined with strong gravity effects, thanks to the spacetime symmetries, turn the BHs into powerful accelerators of charged particles. At the same time, in the age of multi-wavelength and multi-messenger astronomy, BHs and their environments have not yet been probed with CR messengers, despite being observed across most of the electromagnetic spectrum, and neutrino and gravitational waves. In this paper, we probe the acceleration capabilities of BHs in 8 galactic X-ray binaries and 25 local active galactic nuclei (AGNs) within 100 Mpc, based on the ultra-efficient regime of the magnetic Penrose process of a BH energy extraction combined with observational data. We find that the maximum energy of the galactic BHs can reach only up to the knee of the CR spectrum, including supermassive BH Sgr A* at the Galactic Center. On the other hand, for supermassive BHs in AGNs, we find that the mean energy of primary CRs is of the order of 1019 eV. It is therefore likely that local supermassive BHs give sufficient contribution to the ankle—a sharp change in the slope of the cosmic ray spectrum around 1018.6 eV energy. We also discuss the energy losses of primary CRs close to the acceleration zones. In the galactic BH cases, it is likely dominated by synchrotron radiation losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Cosmic Ray Detections)
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