Special Issue "Symmetry in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics"

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994). This special issue belongs to the section "Physics and Symmetry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Johann Marton
Website
Guest Editor
Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics, Austrian Academy of Science, 1090 Vienna, Austria
Interests: symmetry studies with exotic atoms; test of validity of spin-statistics; atomic physics; hadronic atoms
Prof. Dr. Klaus Jungmann
Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen, The Netherlands
Interests: symmetries in atomic physics; QED experiments; muonium; g-2
Prof. Dr. Eberhard Widmann
Website
Guest Editor
Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics, Austrian Academy of Science, 1090 Vienna, Austria
Interests: antimatter; CPT symmetry; antihydrogen
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This special issue covers symmetries in atomic, nuclear and particle physics with focus on precision studies mainly at low energies.

Discrete symmetries (charge conjugation C, parity P, time reversal T) and combined symmetries like CP and CPT play a fundamental role in our understanding of physics. High precision studies are indispensable because of obviously tiny violations in symmetries in atomic, nuclear and particle physics. The violation of symmetries can open our view of fundamental basis of modern physics and can provide input for extensions or even new approaches toward the understanding of open questions. As an example the experimental finding of CP violation in the kaon and B-meson sector is discussed as symmetry breaking leading to the evident matter-antimatter asymmetry (i.e. missing primordial antimatter in the universe), which is one of the most important questions nowadays. Other symmetry breaking tests concern the T-symmetry, which can be investigated by searching for static electric dipole moments (edm) like the edm of the neutron, which is one of the hot and challenging topics in experimental research now. Presently the matter-antimatter symmetry problem is experimentally investigated in experiments with artificially produced antimatter at the Antiproton Accelerator (AD) of CERN. This special issue will give an overlook of theoretical and experimental research and results on symmetry studies in atomic, nuclear and particle physics.

Dr. Johann Marton
Prof. Dr. Klaus Jungmann
Prof. Dr. Eberhard Widmann
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Symmetry is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • discrete symmetries
  • experimental tests
  • matter-antimatter asymmetry
  • antimatter atoms
  • exotic atoms
  • electric dipole moments

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Sensitivity of Discrete Symmetry Tests in the Positronium System with the J-PET Detector
Symmetry 2020, 12(8), 1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12081268 - 01 Aug 2020
Abstract
Study of certain angular correlations in the three-photon annihilations of the triplet state of positronium, the electron–positron bound state, may be used as a probe of potential CP and CPT-violating effects in the leptonic sector. We present the perspectives of CP and CPT [...] Read more.
Study of certain angular correlations in the three-photon annihilations of the triplet state of positronium, the electron–positron bound state, may be used as a probe of potential CP and CPT-violating effects in the leptonic sector. We present the perspectives of CP and CPT tests using this process recorded with a novel detection system for photons in the positron annihilation energy range, the Jagiellonian Positron Emission Tomography (J-PET). We demonstrate the capability of this system to register three-photon annihilations with an unprecedented range of kinematical configurations and to measure the CPT-odd correlation between positronium spin and annihilation plane orientation with a precision improved by at least an order of magnitude with respect to present results. We also discuss the means to control and reduce detector asymmetries in order to allow J-PET to set the first measurement of the correlation between positronium spin and momentum of the most energetic annihilation photon which has never been studied to date. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics)
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Open AccessArticle
Kaonic Atoms to Investigate Global Symmetry Breaking
Symmetry 2020, 12(4), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12040547 - 04 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Kaonic atoms measure the antikaon-nucleus interaction at almost zero relative energy, allowing one to determine basic low-energy quantum chromodynamics (QCD) quantities, namely, the antikaon-nucleon ( K ¯ N) scattering lengths. The latter are important for extracting the sigma terms which are built on [...] Read more.
Kaonic atoms measure the antikaon-nucleus interaction at almost zero relative energy, allowing one to determine basic low-energy quantum chromodynamics (QCD) quantities, namely, the antikaon-nucleon ( K ¯ N) scattering lengths. The latter are important for extracting the sigma terms which are built on the symmetry breaking part of the Hamiltonian, thereby providing a measure of chiral and SU(3) symmetries breaking. After discussing the sigma terms and their relations to the kaonic atoms, we describe the most precise measurement in the literature of kaonic hydrogen, performed at LNF-INFN by the SIDDHARTA experiment. Kaonic deuterium is still to be measured, and two experiments are planned. The first, SIDDHARTA-2 at LNF-INFN was installed on DA Φ NE in spring 2019 and will collect data in 2020. The second, E57 at J-PARC, will become operative in 2021. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Symmetries and Their Breaking in the Fundamental Laws of Physics
Symmetry 2020, 12(8), 1316; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12081316 - 06 Aug 2020
Abstract
Symmetries in the Physical Laws of Nature lead to observable effects. Beyond the regularities and conserved magnitudes, the last few decades in particle physics have seen the identification of symmetries, and their well-defined breaking, as the guiding principle for the elementary constituents of [...] Read more.
Symmetries in the Physical Laws of Nature lead to observable effects. Beyond the regularities and conserved magnitudes, the last few decades in particle physics have seen the identification of symmetries, and their well-defined breaking, as the guiding principle for the elementary constituents of matter and their interactions. Flavour SU(3) symmetry of hadrons led to the Quark Model and the antisymmetric requirement under exchange of identical fermions led to the colour degree of freedom. Colour became the generating charge for flavour-independent strong interactions of quarks and gluons in the exact colour SU(3) local gauge symmetry. Parity Violation in weak interactions led us to consider the chiral fields of fermions as the objects with definite transformation properties under the weak isospin SU(2) gauge group of the Unifying Electro-Weak SU(2) × U(1) symmetry, which predicted novel weak neutral current interactions. CP-Violation led to three families of quarks opening the field of Flavour Physics. Time-reversal violation has recently been observed with entangled neutral mesons, compatible with CPT-invariance. The cancellation of gauge anomalies, which would invalidate the gauge symmetry of the quantum field theory, led to Quark–Lepton Symmetry. Neutrinos were postulated in order to save the conservation laws of energy and angular momentum in nuclear beta decay. After the ups and downs of their mass, neutrino oscillations were discovered in 1998, opening a new era about their origin of mass, mixing, discrete symmetries and the possibility of global lepton-number violation through Majorana mass terms and Leptogenesis as the source of the matter–antimatter asymmetry in the universe. The experimental discovery of quarks and leptons and the mediators of their interactions, with physical observables in spectacular agreement with this Standard Theory, is the triumph of Symmetries. The gauge symmetry is exact only when the particles are massless. One needs a subtle breaking of the symmetry, providing the origin of mass without affecting the excellent description of the interactions. This is the Brout–Englert–Higgs Mechanism, which produces the Higgs Boson as a remnant, discovered at CERN in 2012. Open present problems are addressed with by searching the New Physics Beyond-the-Standard-Model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Kaonic atoms measurements on DAFNE - a unique tool to explore the strong interaction
Authors: Catalina Curceanu
Affiliation: LNF-INFN, Frascati (Roma), Italy
Abstract: Kaonic atoms experiments allow to measure fundamental quantities for a deeper understanding of the Quantum ChromoDynamics (QCD), the theory dealing with the strong interaction, in low-energy regime in systems with strangeness. In particular, the kaonic hydrogen and deuterium measurements of the shifts and widths of the fundamental level induced by the strong interaction, with respect to the QED calculated values, allow to extract the antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths, which contribute to a more refined understanding of theories and models describing the QCD in non-perturbative regime. We shall discuss the status of kaonic atoms experiments at the DAFNE collider at LNF-INFN, presenting the existent experimental results, like the kaonic hydrogen SIDDHARTA measurement, and the ongoing and future experiments, starting with SIDDHARTA-2, presently installed on DAFNE, aiming for the first kaonic deuterium X-ray transition to the fundamental level measurement. Precise measurements of kaonic atoms are unique tools to access the strong interaction at the low-energy frontier and to better understand its underlying symmetries.

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