Biomechanics Energetics of Natural Assisted Human Comparative Movement Locomotion II

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994). This special issue belongs to the section "Life Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2022) | Viewed by 9079

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Movement and locomotion have always been key activities for all animals, being so related to the most crucial life functions: retrieving food, facing environmental issues and mating. Thus, humans fully developed complex upper arms movements and bipedal gaits in order to move and locomote. To further enhance their performance, they started inventing smart passive mechanical tools. This need arose from both intrinsic limitations of their muscles-joints-bones system and metabolic power availability. Newly invented devices were mainly introduced in order to cope with such constraints.

How symmetrical/asymmetrical are most performing/economical human-powered assisted locomotion modes on land, water, and air to date; how did passively assisted locomotion and/or movement (for catching, manipulating, carrying, etc.) evolve over history in terms of symmetry degree; and how symmetrically do man-passive tool complex best adapt to extreme environmental conditions (viz. different gradients, surfaces, media, etc.) are only some of the potential topics regarding symmetry and biomechanics and energetics of passively assisted human movement and locomotion.

The aim of this Special Issue is to advance knowledge regarding symmetry and biomechanics and energetics of passively assisted human movement and locomotion.

Dr. Luca Paolo Ardigo
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • symmetry
  • physical activity
  • metabolic expenditure
  • motor control
  • sport technology
  • testing
  • training

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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8 pages, 271 KiB  
Article
Body Composition Symmetry in Aircraft Pilots
by Agustín Curiel-Regueros, Luca Paolo Ardigò, Álvaro Bustamante-Sánchez, José Francisco Tornero-Aguilera, Juan Pedro Fuentes-García and Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
Symmetry 2022, 14(2), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14020356 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1857
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to analyze the body composition symmetry in upper and lower body segments of aircrafts pilots. To reach the study aim, body composition in upper and lower body segments of 206 male aircraft pilots of the Spanish Army [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the body composition symmetry in upper and lower body segments of aircrafts pilots. To reach the study aim, body composition in upper and lower body segments of 206 male aircraft pilots of the Spanish Army (23.1 ± 6.87 years) and 105 civilians (24.0 ± 6.29 years) were evaluated by a bioimpedance analyser (InBody 720, Biospace Co. Ltd., Seoul, Korea). Aircraft pilots presented a tendency to dysmetria in upper and lower body segments, showing fitter values in the protagonist side when performing flight functions. Dysmetria could be detrimental during flight manoeuvres and produce injuries in aircraft pilots. It would be recommended to design specific training protocols to improve this imbalance. Full article
11 pages, 1030 KiB  
Article
Shoulder Kinematics and Symmetry at Different Load Intensities during Bench Press Exercise
by Juan Manuel Franco-García, Miguel Rodal, Rafael Gutiérrez-Horrillo, Jorge Carlos-Vivas, Jorge Pérez-Gómez, Hadi Nobari, Luca Paolo Ardigò and Konstantinos Gianikellis
Symmetry 2021, 13(10), 1859; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13101859 - 3 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2400
Abstract
This study aimed to analyze between-shoulder kinematics symmetry at different load intensities considering full range of movement (ROM), mean and maximum velocities (VMEAN, VMAX), and accelerations (AMEAN, AMAX) of shoulders during phases 2 (characterized by [...] Read more.
This study aimed to analyze between-shoulder kinematics symmetry at different load intensities considering full range of movement (ROM), mean and maximum velocities (VMEAN, VMAX), and accelerations (AMEAN, AMAX) of shoulders during phases 2 (characterized by positive acceleration and negative velocity, eccentric) and 3 (characterized by positive acceleration and velocity, concentric) of bench press exercise (BP); as well as to compare unilateral kinematics variables between the different load intensity intervals. Twenty-seven participants were evaluated during phases 2 and 3 of BP at different load intervals: interval 1 (55–75% 1-repetition maximum: 1RM), interval 2 (75–85% 1RM) and interval 3 (85–100% 1RM). Kinematics variables were determined using the Xsens MVN Link System. Results showed that full ROM was higher in left than right shoulder at all intensities (p = 0.008–0.035). VMEAN, VMAX, AMEAN, and AMAX were different in both shoulders for interval 3 during phase 2 and were lower as load intensity increased in both shoulders (p = 0.001–0.029). During phase 3, only VMAX on interval 2 was different between shoulders. Moreover, VMEAN, VMAX, AMEAN, and AMAX were greater during interval 1 compared with the others in both shoulders (p = 0.001–0.029). Therefore, there exists a kinematics asymmetry between both shoulders during phases 2 and 3 of bench press, although the acceleration was similar during both phases at all load intensities. Moreover, kinematic parameters differ between loads of 55–75% RM compared to 75–100% RM loads. Full article
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Review

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20 pages, 1838 KiB  
Review
Unilateral versus Bilateral Landing after Spike Jumps in Male and Female Volleyball: A Systematic Review
by José Afonso, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Ricardo Franco Lima, Lorenzo Laporta, Ana Paulo, Henrique de Oliveira Castro, Gustavo De Conti Teixeira Costa, Antonio García-de-Alcaraz, Rui Araújo, Ana Filipa Silva, Luca Paolo Ardigò and Filipe Manuel Clemente
Symmetry 2021, 13(8), 1505; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13081505 - 17 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3702
Abstract
Background: The spike is a key action in volleyball, and the landing technique and its asymmetries are commonly associated with an increased risk of injury. Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to assess how male and female volleyball players land (i.e., [...] Read more.
Background: The spike is a key action in volleyball, and the landing technique and its asymmetries are commonly associated with an increased risk of injury. Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to assess how male and female volleyball players land (i.e., unilaterally, or bilaterally) after spike jumps in matches and analytical settings (field or laboratory). Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses 2020 guidelines were followed, with eligibility criteria defined according to participants, interventions, comparators, study design (PICOS): (p) healthy indoor volleyball players of any sex, age group, or competitive level; (i) exposure to landing after spike actions during official matches AND/OR simulated 6 vs. 6 games AND/OR analytical training conditions AND/OR laboratorial experiments; (c) not mandatory; (o) data on landing mechanics after spike actions, including reporting of whether the landing was unilateral or bilateral; (s) no restrictions imposed on study design. Searches were performed in seven electronic databases (Cochrane Library, EBSCO, PubMed, Scielo, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science) on 23 April 2021. Results: Automated searches provided 420 results. Removal of 119 duplicates resulted in 301 records being screened for titles and abstracts. A total of 25 studies were eligible for full-text analysis. Of these, eight studies were deemed eligible for inclusion in the review. Studies showed that (i) attackers landed asymmetrically 68% of the times (61% left leg, 7% right leg); (ii) bilateral asymmetries were observed for the hip, knee, and ankle joints; (iii) bilateral asymmetries were observed even when players were instructed to land evenly on two feet; (iv) landing contact of the leg opposite to the hitting arm preceded the contact of the homolateral leg. One match analysis study showed that men landed more often on the left (31.5%) or right foot (8.5%) than women (23.7% and 1.6%). Conclusions: Studies analyzing spike landing showed a prevalence of unilateral landings (mostly the left leg first, for right-handed players) in men and women but more prevalently in men. Registration INPLASY202140104, DOI: 10.37766/inplasy2021.4.0104. Full article
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