sustainability-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Wastewater Treatment and Purification

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 19131

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Housing Environmental Design, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea
Interests: polymers; polymer nanocomposites; wastewater purification; graphene oxide; nanomaterials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Human activity is the primary source of worldwide water pollution. Water pollution is now quickly growing due to the increased washing of hands and clothes during COVID-19 pandemic situations. Also, pollution from different compounds in household water and industrial effluents is rising.  As a result, the quality of aquatic ecosystems continues to deteriorate in many regions. Wastewater should be adequately treated and purified before being discharged into rivers and seas. There are many methods for wastewater treatment and purification. In recent years, wastewater treatment methods such as hybrid processes, membrane filtration, the use of polymeric materials (adsorbents, flocculants, and catalyst), biotechnologies, and nanotechnologies have piqued the interest of researchers since these are low-cost, environmentally friendly, and straightforward. The sustainable supply of pure water to the ordinary people of the society is the greatest challenge in most developing and third world countries. Thus, innovating and developing cost-effective and specific wastewater treatment and purification processes is essential for environmental and economic sustainability.

This Special Issue aims to provide a platform for global researchers to report advances in wastewater treatment and purification methods and materials. It will be a collection of research papers carried out by the interdisciplinary water treatment community, which is concerned with wastewater treatment and purification methods and materials. In this regard, I would like to invite you to contribute original research and review papers to promote and share your valuable results on wastewater treatment and purification techniques and materials.

Kind regards,

Dr. Haradhan Kolya

Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wastewater treatment
  • water purification
  • polymeric materials
  • adsorption
  • flocculation
  • catalysis
  • microorganisms
  • membrane filtration
  • biotechnology
  • nanotechnology

Published Papers (10 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

22 pages, 8325 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Removal of Arsenate and Fluoride Using Magnesium-Based Adsorbents
by Hajime Sugita, Kazuya Morimoto, Takeshi Saito and Junko Hara
Sustainability 2024, 16(5), 1774; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16051774 - 21 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 532
Abstract
In this study, arsenate, As(V), and fluoride (F) were simultaneously removed from contaminated water using MgO, Mg(OH)2, and MgCO3 as Mg-based adsorbents, as existing studies only focus on their individual removal. The removal performance of As(V) and F followed the [...] Read more.
In this study, arsenate, As(V), and fluoride (F) were simultaneously removed from contaminated water using MgO, Mg(OH)2, and MgCO3 as Mg-based adsorbents, as existing studies only focus on their individual removal. The removal performance of As(V) and F followed the order MgCO3 < Mg(OH)2 < MgO. Under the test conditions, MgO and Mg(OH)2 met the environmental standards for As and F (0.01 and 0.8 mg/L, respectively), but MgCO3 did not. The As(V) removal performance was not significantly affected by an increase in the initial F concentration. It was concluded that As(V) was adsorbed and removed more preferentially than F by Mg-based adsorbents because a considerable amount of F remained even when the majority of As(V) was removed. Most arsenic (As)-adsorption data for MgO fit the Langmuir and Freundlich models, whereas those for Mg(OH)2 did not fit either model well. Additionally, the As-adsorption data for MgCO3 fit the Freundlich model but not the Langmuir model. Most of the F-adsorption data for the Mg-based adsorbents fit the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The removal mechanisms of As(V) and F using Mg-based adsorbents were assumed to be predominantly caused by ion-exchange and chemical-adsorption reactions on the adsorbent surface because no magnesium arsenate, magnesium fluoride, or magnesium hydroxide fluoride species were observed in the X-ray diffraction analysis. This research advances the sustainable As–F simultaneous treatment method using inexpensive adsorbents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Purification)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 6828 KiB  
Article
Rapid Photocatalytic Activity of Crystalline CeO2-CuO-Cu(OH)2 Ternary Nanocomposite
by Govindhasamy Murugadoss, Thiruppathi Kannappan, Jothi Ramalingam Rajabathar, Rajesh Kumar Manavalan, Shyju Thankaraj Salammal and Nachimuthu Venkatesh
Sustainability 2023, 15(21), 15601; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152115601 - 3 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 951
Abstract
The development of a heterojunction nanocomposite leads to improved optoelectronic properties. Herein, ceria (CeO2), copper oxide (CuO), and ceria–copper–copper hydroxide (CeO2-CuO-Cu(OH)2) nanocomposites were prepared via a facile chemical method and their structural, morphological, and optical properties were [...] Read more.
The development of a heterojunction nanocomposite leads to improved optoelectronic properties. Herein, ceria (CeO2), copper oxide (CuO), and ceria–copper–copper hydroxide (CeO2-CuO-Cu(OH)2) nanocomposites were prepared via a facile chemical method and their structural, morphological, and optical properties were studied using various characteristic techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultra-violet visible light absorption (UV-visible), photoluminescence, and thermogravimetry differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). In the integration of CeO2 and CuO with Cu(OH)2, the band gap is modified to 2.64 eV; this reduced band gap can improve the photocatalytic efficiency of the nanocomposite. The CeO2 can increase light absorption in the nanocomposite, while CuO acts as an electron trap in the composite and this leads to a good enhancement of the optical properties of the CeO2-CuO-Cu(OH)2 nanocomposite. In addition, the heterojunction combination at the interfaces of the CeO2-CuO-Cu(OH)2 nanocomposite facilitates the photo-generated charge separation in the composite, which increases the charge participation in the catalyzed conversion reactions of the prepared composite. The highest photocatalytic degradation efficiencies of 96.4% and 92.7% were achieved for fast green (FG) and bromophenol blue (BP), respectively, using the CeO2-CuO-Cu(OH)2 nanocomposite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Purification)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 2126 KiB  
Article
Removal of Arsenate from Contaminated Water via Combined Addition of Magnesium-Based and Calcium-Based Adsorbents
by Hajime Sugita, Terumi Oguma, Junko Hara, Ming Zhang and Yoshishige Kawabe
Sustainability 2023, 15(5), 4689; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15054689 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1321
Abstract
The effects of the combined addition of Mg- and Ca-based adsorbents (MgO, Mg(OH)2, MgCO3, CaO, Ca(OH)2, and CaCO3) were systematically tested for improving arsenic-removal performance and inhibiting the leaching of base material components from the [...] Read more.
The effects of the combined addition of Mg- and Ca-based adsorbents (MgO, Mg(OH)2, MgCO3, CaO, Ca(OH)2, and CaCO3) were systematically tested for improving arsenic-removal performance and inhibiting the leaching of base material components from the adsorbent. Arsenic-removal tests were conducted with each single type or combination of two types of adsorbents. Results obtained after the combined-addition tests were compared with those obtained from the single-addition test with each adsorbent. The arsenic-removal performance improved in most combined additions but decreased in certain combined additions of MgO or Mg(OH)2 with Ca-based adsorbents. The arsenic-removal performance of the combined addition of MgCO3 and Ca(OH)2 was the highest. The combination of Mg-based adsorbents with CaO or Ca(OH)2 inhibited Mg-leaching, whereas that of CaO or Ca(OH)2 with MgCO3 inhibited Ca-leaching. Improvement in arsenic-removal performance for the combination of MgCO3 with CaO or Ca(OH)2 was caused by the incorporation and co-precipitation with arsenic when Mg(OH)2 and CaCO3 were produced. MgCO3-Ca(OH)2 and MgCO3-CaO are recommended for both arsenic removal and environmental adsorbent stability that can be effectively applied over a wide range of arsenic concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Purification)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 4418 KiB  
Article
Nickel-Cadmium-Sulfide Anchored on rGO Nanocomposite for Removal of Textile Industry Dyes
by Narthana Kandhasamy, Govindasamy Murugadoss, Thiruppathi Kannappan, Kamalan Kirubaharan and Rajesh Kumar Manavalan
Sustainability 2022, 14(23), 16184; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142316184 - 4 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1402
Abstract
The design and development of a novel route for the preparation of efficient photocatalysts for the treatment of polluted water is an essential need. Due to rapid expansion of pharmaceutical and textile industries, the discharge of drugs and sewage contaminants leads to water [...] Read more.
The design and development of a novel route for the preparation of efficient photocatalysts for the treatment of polluted water is an essential need. Due to rapid expansion of pharmaceutical and textile industries, the discharge of drugs and sewage contaminants leads to water contamination. To address these issues, hydrothermally synthesized Ni–Cd–S/rGO nanocomposite with a cauliflower structure was developed. The prepared nanocomposite was studied using advanced characterization techniques to confirm crystal structure, surface morphology, optical studies and material composition in detail. Further, the photodegradation process of textile-based Methylene Blue (MB) and Methyl Orange (MO) dyes using Ni–Cd–S/rGO nanocomposite with desired time interval under natural sunlight was also investigated. The maximum photocatalytic performance of > 90% was achieved for the photocatalyst. The photodegradation rate can be maintained after 5 recycling tests in the presence of MB and MO dyes. The remarkable degradation efficiency, high rate constant and reusability of the Ni–Cd–S/rGO nanocomposite make it an excellent choice for textile effluent treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Purification)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

11 pages, 4771 KiB  
Article
Biogenic Synthesis of Silver-Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Using Kulekhara Leaves Extract for Removing Crystal Violet and Malachite Green Dyes from Water
by Haradhan Kolya and Chun-Won Kang
Sustainability 2022, 14(23), 15800; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142315800 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1925
Abstract
Crystal violet and malachite green, cationic dyes, are widely used in various industries. Water-containing dye molecules affect human health and aquatic life. Here, we synthesized silver-iron oxide nanoparticles using an aqueous extract of kulekhara leaves. The main advantage of this synthesis is that [...] Read more.
Crystal violet and malachite green, cationic dyes, are widely used in various industries. Water-containing dye molecules affect human health and aquatic life. Here, we synthesized silver-iron oxide nanoparticles using an aqueous extract of kulekhara leaves. The main advantage of this synthesis is that no iron salts were used to prepare Ag-iron oxide nanoparticles. Iron-rich Kulekhara leaves provide iron oxide during the in situ formation of silver nanoparticles. Synthesized Ag-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR, XRD, and STEM-Cs. The dye-degradation studies were performed using synthesized nanoparticles in the presence of sodium borohydride. In the catalytic reaction, the color of crystal violet and malachite green disappeared (100%) within three minutes, and the same results were obtained in their mixtures (1:1 v/v). The presence of Fe2O3 in AgNPs may boost the rapid reduction in azo bonds due to the higher exposed surface area. The color changes were monitored using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Comparative literature studies showed that the performance of Ag-Fe2O3 is superior regarding the degradation of malachite green and crystal violet. These findings could entice researchers to design and develop various dye degradation using this eco-friendly process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Purification)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

11 pages, 1616 KiB  
Article
Development of Bio-Electrochemical Reactor for Groundwater Denitrification: Effect of Electric Current and Water Hardness
by Khakhanang Ratananikom, Prarunchaya Peungtim, Patcharaporn Phuinthiang, Auppatham Nakaruk and Wilawan Khanitchaidecha
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9454; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159454 - 2 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1278
Abstract
Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) contaminating groundwater is an environmental issue in many areas, and is difficult to treat by simple processes. A bio-electrochemical reactor (BER) using copper wire and graphite plate was developed to purify the NO3-N-contaminated groundwater. The low (of [...] Read more.
Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) contaminating groundwater is an environmental issue in many areas, and is difficult to treat by simple processes. A bio-electrochemical reactor (BER) using copper wire and graphite plate was developed to purify the NO3-N-contaminated groundwater. The low (of 10 mA) and high (of 20 mA) electric currents were applied to the BERs, and various influent hardness levels from 20 to 80 mg/L as CaCO3 due to groundwater characteristics were supplied to clarify the total nitrogen removal efficiency and NO3-N removal mechanisms. In the BER-10, the bio-electrochemical reactions caused 85% of total nitrogen to be removed through heterotrophic and autohydrogenotrophic denitrification in the suspended sludge and biofilm. However, the chemical deposit occurring at the cathode from water hardness affected the decreasing denitrification performance; 12.6% of Mg and 8.8% of Ca elements were observed in the biofilm. The enhancement of electrochemical reactions in the BER-20 caused integrating electrochemical and bio-electrochemical reactions; the NO3-N was electrochemically reduced to NO2-N, and it was further biologically reduced to N2. A better total nitrogen removal of 95% was found; although, a larger deposit of Mg (22.8%) and Ca (10.8%) was observed. The relatively low dissolved H2 in the BER-20 confirmed that the deposit affected the decreasing gaseous H2 transfer and inhibition of autohydrogenotrophic denitrification in the suspended sludge. According to the microbial analysis, both heterotrophic and autohydrogenotrophic denitrification were obtained in the suspended sludge of both BERs; Nocadia (26.8%) was the most abundant genus in the BER-10, whereas Flavobacterium (27.1%) and Nocadia (25.0%) were the dominant genera in the BER-20. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Purification)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 5199 KiB  
Article
Experimental Modeling Investigations on the Biosorption of Methyl Violet 2B Dye by the Brown Seaweed Cystoseira tamariscifolia
by Mayasar I. Al-Zaban, Nada K. Alharbi, Fawziah M. Albarakaty, Sarah Alharthi, Sedky H. A. Hassan and Mustafa A. Fawzy
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 5285; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095285 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
Methyl violet 2B dye is a major contaminant that is detrimental to both humans and aquatic microorganisms, thus it should be eliminated from water. In the current investigation, the biosorption of methyl violet 2B dye onto the brown seaweed Cystoseira tamariscifolia biomass as [...] Read more.
Methyl violet 2B dye is a major contaminant that is detrimental to both humans and aquatic microorganisms, thus it should be eliminated from water. In the current investigation, the biosorption of methyl violet 2B dye onto the brown seaweed Cystoseira tamariscifolia biomass as a sustainable low-cost biosorbent was examined by varying biosorption parameters. Biomass dosage of 7 g/L, pH 6, a temperature of 45 °C, a 60 min contact time, and a 30 mg/L initial dye concentration were determined to be the optimum biosorption conditions. Data obtained were interpreted by thermodynamic, isothermal, and kinetic models. The thermodynamic studies demonstrated that the process of dye biosorption was random and endothermic. The data were best described by Langmuir, Dubinin–Radushkevich, and Temkin models. According to the Langmuir equation, the maximal biosorption capacity (qmax) was 10.0 mg/g. Moreover, the pseudo-second-order mechanism is dominant, and chemical biosorption might represent the rate-controlling stage in the biosorption process. However, intraparticle diffusion revealed a boundary layer effect. A scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, the point of zero charge, and Fourier Transform Infra-Red were applied to characterize the algal biomass, exhibiting its remarkable structural properties and the availability of several functional groups. Additionally, ion exchange, electrostatic force, and hydrogen bonding formation are all proposed as biosorption mechanisms. As a result, C. tamariscifolia was evaluated to be a sustainable biosorbent for dye biosorption from aqueous solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Purification)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 23734 KiB  
Article
Pitahaya Fruit (Hylocereus spp.) Peels Evaluation for Removal of Pb(II), Cd(II), Co(II), and Ni(II) from the Waters
by Mohamed Abatal, Eder C. Lima, Dimitrios A. Giannakoudakis, Joel Vargas, Ioannis Anastopoulos, Maria T. Olguin and Ismeli Alfonso
Sustainability 2022, 14(3), 1685; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031685 - 1 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2051
Abstract
The present study investigated the performance of Pitahaya (Hylocereus spp.) peel (PP) as a low-cost biosorbent in the removal of Co(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), and Ni(II) from single and multi-component solutions. The characterization of the samples was carried out by pHpzc, Fourier transform [...] Read more.
The present study investigated the performance of Pitahaya (Hylocereus spp.) peel (PP) as a low-cost biosorbent in the removal of Co(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), and Ni(II) from single and multi-component solutions. The characterization of the samples was carried out by pHpzc, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Biosorption was carried out by batch experimental procedure to examine the effects of contact time, solution pH, initial concentration of metal ions, and biosorbent dosage. The results indicate that the biosorption of Pb(II), Cd(II), Co(II), and Ni(II) Pitahaya peels followed pseudo-second-order kinetics, and equilibrium adsorption followed the Langmuir model. The maximum sorption capacities of PP for the metallic species were found to be as follows: Pb (82.64 mg g−1) > Cd (17.95 mg g−1) > Co (6.013 mg g−1) > Ni (5.322 mg g−1). However, the efficiency of the biosorption change when the metallic species are mixed. The re-generation of the PP after the adsorption of the metallic species was done using 0.1 M HNO3 solution, and the reusability of the biomass was carried out using two adsorption and desorption cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Purification)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Research

36 pages, 8826 KiB  
Review
Bio-Based Polymeric Flocculants and Adsorbents for Wastewater Treatment
by Haradhan Kolya and Chun-Won Kang
Sustainability 2023, 15(12), 9844; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15129844 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3979
Abstract
With the growing demand for clean and safe water, there is a pressing need to explore novel materials for water treatment applications. In this regard, bio-based polymeric materials have emerged as a promising solution for water purification. This article highlights the numerous advantages [...] Read more.
With the growing demand for clean and safe water, there is a pressing need to explore novel materials for water treatment applications. In this regard, bio-based polymeric materials have emerged as a promising solution for water purification. This article highlights the numerous advantages offered by bio-based polymeric materials, including their biodegradability, low cost, and renewable nature. Moreover, it discusses in depth the two primary applications of these materials in water treatment, namely flocculation and adsorption, showcasing their effectiveness in removing contaminants. Furthermore, this review addresses the future prospects and challenges associated with the development of bio-based polymeric materials for water treatment applications. This review provides valuable insights for researchers in the field, driving further advancements in the utilization of bio-based polymeric materials to ensure clean and sustainable water resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Purification)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

23 pages, 2244 KiB  
Review
Plant Carbon Sources for Denitrification Enhancement and Its Mechanism in Constructed Wetlands: A Review
by Yanjie Zhang, Weiyang Dong, Guokai Yan, Haiyan Wang, Huan Wang, Yang Chang, Shan Yu, Zhaosheng Chu, Yu Ling and Congyu Li
Sustainability 2022, 14(19), 12545; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141912545 - 1 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2191
Abstract
Nitrogen pollution in water bodies is a serious environmental problem worldwide. Plant carbonsource (PCS) enhanced denitrification in constructed wetlands (CWs) for wastewater with low chemical oxygen demand to total nitrogen (COD/N) has been one of the most exciting research topics. This paper summarized [...] Read more.
Nitrogen pollution in water bodies is a serious environmental problem worldwide. Plant carbonsource (PCS) enhanced denitrification in constructed wetlands (CWs) for wastewater with low chemical oxygen demand to total nitrogen (COD/N) has been one of the most exciting research topics. This paper summarized the related studies with VOSviewer software and found that the major interests were denitrification performance and mechanism in CWs. This article mainly focused on the PCSs’ characteristics, denitrification rate, the influences of key environmental and operational parameters, surface morphology variation, microbial community structure, and denitrification genes. Engineering prospects and existing problems were also introduced. PCSs’ degradation consumes DO and creates favorable conditions for denitrification. The COD/N of wastewater should be maintained at 4–5 by adding PCSs, thus improving denitrification performance and reducing nitrous oxide emission. Aerobic degradation, anaerobic fermentation, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, and sulfate reduction processes may consume the carbon released by PCSs depending on the influent quality and environmental conditions. More attention should be paid to the reduction of greenhouse gases and emerging pollutants in CWs with PCSs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Purification)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop