sustainability-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Physical Performance and Health Care for a Sustainable Lifestyle

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Health, Well-Being and Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 June 2021) | Viewed by 41871

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Pablo de Olavide, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
Interests: physical activity and health; obesity; cardiorespiratory fitness; football performance; healthy exercise
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Corporal Expression, Faculty of Health and Sports Sciences, University of Zaragoza, 22001 Huesca, Spain
Interests: human motricity; racket sports; physical activity and health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The lifestyle of our Paleolithic ancestors depended on hunting and gathering 10,000 years ago. Later, after domesticating wild animals and plant species, society shifted into a sedentary state. It is known that the genetics of Homo sapiens have changed little during the last 10,000 years; we are still genetically programmed to be physically active. So, subsequently, is our current genome maladapted to a sedentary lifestyle?

The current understanding of sedentary behavior is that it is not merely the absence of health-enhancing physical activity in everyday life. Sedentary behavior is characterized by a deficiency or absence of whole-body movement; sedentarism is a lifestyle. Physical inactivity, and consequently poor physical fitness, has harmful consequences on health. It is assumed that non-communicable diseases are currently driven by incompatibility between lifestyles and the environments in which people live. Indeed, physical inactivity leads to increased risk of hypertension, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, even in children and adolescents.

Moreover, these co-morbid conditions contribute not only to a decreased lifespan, but also to a decreased quality of life. Increasing rates of chronic diseases are not only placing a burden on an individual level, but also on a societal level, resulting in an economic burden that is socially unsustainable. These costs are increasing direct health costs associated with treatment in the healthcare system and indirect social and health costs associated with lost workdays, living with dependency, and premature mortality.

However, changes in habits and lifestyle such as increases in physical activity practices would reduce mortality and morbidity to these and other non-communicable diseases. Mortality is only one aspect of the public health burdens that would be reduced by greater participation in regular physical activity. Evidence suggests how even moderate levels of physical activity or high fitness levels are associated with benefits for the health-related quality of life; for example, research indicates that short bouts of high-intensity activity provide greater protection against chronic health problems when compared to bouts of longer duration low-intensity exercise. Sedentary behavior and physical inactivity are two separate and independent attributes, each with distinct health consequences because the former is different from absolute inactivity than lack of physical activity or moderate-to-vigorous intensity. One’s distinct level of physical fitness, cardiorespiratory aptitude, and physical performance involve different consequences with respect to health, dependence, the need for care, quality of life, and individual and social sustainability.

Dr. Jose Antonio Gonzalez-Jurado
Dr. Francisco Pradas de la Fuente
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • exercise
  • physical fitness
  • physical activity
  • health
  • sedentary
  • quality of life
  • training

Published Papers (12 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

15 pages, 2573 KiB  
Article
Effects of Resistance Training Program on Muscle Mass and Muscle Strength and the Relationship with Cognition in Older Women
by Edgardo Molina-Sotomayor, Alexis Espinoza-Salinas, Giovanny Arenas-Sánchez, Francisco Pradas de la Fuente, Juan Antonio Leon-Prados and Jose Antonio Gonzalez-Jurado
Sustainability 2021, 13(14), 7687; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13147687 - 9 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2658
Abstract
The aim of this study was to study the effects of a resistance training programme on Maximal Dynamic Strength (MDS) and muscle morphology of the upper limbs (UL) and lower limbs (LL), as well as to analyse their association with cognition, in a [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to study the effects of a resistance training programme on Maximal Dynamic Strength (MDS) and muscle morphology of the upper limbs (UL) and lower limbs (LL), as well as to analyse their association with cognition, in a population of older women. The study had a duration of 24 months and a total of 93 Chilean older women participated. The participants were divided into two groups: the Physical Activity Group (PAG, n = 45, age (X ± SD) 77.93 ± 3.54 years), and the Sedentary Group (SG, n = 48, age (X ± SD) 77.71 ± 3.41 years). The PAG carried out a muscle strength training routine twice per week. The following variables were evaluated: muscle function through maximal dynamic strength (1RM), muscle morphology through arm and calf circumference (AC and CC, respectively), and cognition (Mini Mental State Examination: MMSE). The results show that the SG recorded significant decreases (percent changes; p < 0.05) in the analysed variables: MMSE (−3.5%), MDS in UL (−3.3%), MDS in LL (−4.1%), AC (−4.5%), CC (−4.1%), and BMI (−3.1%). However, the PAG improved significantly in all the analysed variables except in BMI: MMSE (3.9%), MDS in UL (3.6%), MDS in LL (3.5%), AC (1.8%), and CC (2.5%). Moreover, there was a significant association (p < 0.05) between the changes in the muscle strength variables and the changes in cognition level. Therefore, it can be concluded that a two-year muscle strength training programme (load intensity between 30–55% 1RM) in older women improves Maximal Dynamic Strength in UL and LL, as well as muscle mass in arms and calves. Furthermore, it can be asserted that the changes in muscle strength levels could predict the changes in the levels of cognition in older women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance and Health Care for a Sustainable Lifestyle)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 307 KiB  
Article
Differences in Oral Health Status in Elite Athletes According to Sport Modalities
by Alejandro de la Parte, Francesca Monticelli, Víctor Toro-Román and Francisco Pradas
Sustainability 2021, 13(13), 7282; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13137282 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3183
Abstract
Oral health status may affect physical and sports performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the oral health status and oral health habits of elite athletes according to the performed sports type. A sample of 186 elite athletes divided into individual [...] Read more.
Oral health status may affect physical and sports performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the oral health status and oral health habits of elite athletes according to the performed sports type. A sample of 186 elite athletes divided into individual sports (n = 74; 53 men and 21 women; 24.9 ± 9.3 years) and team sports (n = 112; 97 men and 15 women; 24.5 ± 4.8 years) participated in the study. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (DMFT), the oral health impact profile (OHIP), and the diet assessment of caries risk (DACR) were evaluated to assess their oral health status. Athletes in individual modalities had a lower number in total teeth, healthy teeth, and restoration index (p < 0.05). Furthermore, this group showed a greater number of missing (p < 0.001) and decayed teeth (p < 0.05) and a greater DMFT index (p < 0.001). A relationship between sports modality and prevalence of malocclusions (p < 0.01), periodontal plaque (p < 0.05), and the habit of consuming energy drinks (p < 0.05) was also highlighted. Elite athletes who compete in individual sports presented a worse oral situation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance and Health Care for a Sustainable Lifestyle)
11 pages, 296 KiB  
Article
Study Concerning the Physical Fitness of Romanian Students and Its Effects on Their Health-Related Quality of Life
by Andreea Gabriela Lazăr and Florin Valentin Leuciuc
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6821; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13126821 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1950
Abstract
All of the studies regarding movement have concluded that physical exercises (PEs) hold a very important part in improving people’s quality of life (QL). QL is comprised of several indicators influencing each other. One of these indicators is physical fitness (PF). PF is [...] Read more.
All of the studies regarding movement have concluded that physical exercises (PEs) hold a very important part in improving people’s quality of life (QL). QL is comprised of several indicators influencing each other. One of these indicators is physical fitness (PF). PF is directly influenced by the degree of physical activity (PA) and it represents a precondition of being healthy physically, mentally and socially. The purpose of this research was to identify certain exercise programs which are meant to increase the PF of university students. In this regard, we introduced, in the physical education lessons of the experimental group, exercises from Pilates, Tae Bo, Stretching and Workout at Fitness Machines. Control group carried out typical activities of the ordinary Physical Education curriculum throughout the research. The PF components reported improvements in the values of the experimental group at the end of the research. There were significant improvements for balance (p = 0.009), speed of execution (p = 0.006), flexibility (p = 0.013), explosive strength (p = 0.001), static strength (p = 0.009), muscular endurance of the trunk (p = 0.0008), muscular endurance of the arms (p = 0.010) and agility (p = 0.0001). The results of our research support the idea of diversifying physical education lessons with students and orienting physical activities towards increasing their QL, because the improvement of QL for all age groups has become a major focus of modern society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance and Health Care for a Sustainable Lifestyle)
11 pages, 693 KiB  
Article
Is Active Lifestyle Related to Autonomic Nervous System Function and Lipid Profile in People with Overweight? A Study Pilot
by Alexis Espinoza-Salinas, Edgardo Molina-Sotomayor, Johnattan Cano-Montoya and Jose Antonio Gonzalez-Jurado
Sustainability 2021, 13(5), 2439; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052439 - 24 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1922
Abstract
Autonomic nervous system function is an important predictor of physical fitness. The objective of this study was to find out the associations of autonomic activity parameters, lipid profile, insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance in overweight men with the level of physical activity. A [...] Read more.
Autonomic nervous system function is an important predictor of physical fitness. The objective of this study was to find out the associations of autonomic activity parameters, lipid profile, insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance in overweight men with the level of physical activity. A descriptive and correlational study was carried out in 28 overweight men: 14 physically active (PA) and 14 physically inactive (PI). The following variables were assessed: Level of physical activity, HRV (heart rate variability), basal insulin, HOMA-IR index (Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin-Resistance), and lipid profile. The main results show a positive correlation between the spectral parameters of the HRV and total cholesterol (r = 0.24), LDL (r = 0.59), VLDL (r = 0.86), and insulin (r = 0.88) of sedentary people, evidencing a directly proportional correlation with BMI. We conclude that weight gain and a sedentary lifestyle are associated with an increase in sympathetic discharge, which, in turn, is associated with an increase in lipid profile and insulin levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance and Health Care for a Sustainable Lifestyle)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 428 KiB  
Article
Exercise Addiction and Satisfaction of Fitness Center Users as Precursors to the Intention of Continuing to Engage in Physical Activity
by Antonio Fernández-Martínez, Víctor Murillo-Lorente, Alberto Sarmiento, Javier Álvarez-Medina and Alberto Nuviala
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010129 - 25 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3582
Abstract
Exercise addiction occurs when a person engages in excessive physical activity until they lose control. Among individuals attending fitness centers, the risk of developing exercise addiction has been estimated to be close to 10%. The objective of this study was to determine whether [...] Read more.
Exercise addiction occurs when a person engages in excessive physical activity until they lose control. Among individuals attending fitness centers, the risk of developing exercise addiction has been estimated to be close to 10%. The objective of this study was to determine whether exercise addiction may be an antecedent of satisfaction with the service received and/or of the intention of continuing to partake in leisure-time physical activity at fitness centers in a direct or indirect manner. A total of 361 individuals (29.05 ± 11.40 years old) who were physically active at Spanish fitness centers were asked to respond to a questionnaire on exercise addiction, satisfaction with the sports service, and their intention to continue to engage in physical activity. A multi-group analysis was conducted to check for differences in relationships by sex. The results show the relationships between addiction, satisfaction, and intention to continue physical activity. The standardized values display differences between men and women, with women exhibiting the highest values for the relationships between addiction and the rest of the constructs. Satisfaction with the sports service is a mediator in the relationship between exercise addiction and intention to engage in leisure-time physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance and Health Care for a Sustainable Lifestyle)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 581 KiB  
Article
Effects of a Multicomponent Exercise Program, a Detraining Period and Dietary Intake Prediction of Body Composition of Frail and Pre-Frail Older Adults from the EXERNET Elder 3.0 Study
by Ana Moradell, David Navarrete-Villanueva, Ángel Iván Fernández-García, Lucía Sagarra-Romero, Jorge Marín-Puyalto, Jorge Pérez-Gómez, Eva Gesteiro, Ignacio Ara, Jose Antonio Casajus, Alba Gómez-Cabello and Germán Vicente-Rodríguez
Sustainability 2020, 12(23), 9894; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12239894 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2660
Abstract
The aging of humans is associated with body composition and function deterioration creating a burden on an individual level, but also on a societal one, resulting in an economic burden that is socially unsustainable. This study aimed to evaluate changes in body composition [...] Read more.
The aging of humans is associated with body composition and function deterioration creating a burden on an individual level, but also on a societal one, resulting in an economic burden that is socially unsustainable. This study aimed to evaluate changes in body composition after a 6-month MCT (multicomponent training) and a 4-month detraining period, and to examine the possible influence of energy and macronutrient intake in these changes in frail and pre-frail older adults. A total of 43 participants from the training group (TRAIN) and 28 controls (CON) completed the study protocol. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences, fat mass, fat free mass and fat mass percentage were recorded, with a bio-electrical impedance analyzer, at baseline, after 6 months and four months after finishing the MCT. A food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate energy intake. Mixed effect models did not show differences between groups. CON showed increases in hip circumference and waist (3.20 ± 1.41 and 3.06 ± 1.66 cm, respectively) during the first 6 months. TRAIN showed decreases in BMI (−0.29 ± 0.14), fat mass (−0.86 ± 0.38 kg), body fat percentage (−0.98 ± 0.36%) and increases in waist circumference (3.20 ± 1.41). After detraining, TRAIN group showed increases in fat mas (1.07 ± 0.30 kg), body fat percentage (1.43 ± 0.31%) and waist (3.92 ± 1.38 cm), and decreases in fat free mass (−0.90 ± 0.30 kg). CON group only showed an increase in body fat (1.32 ± 0.47%). Energy intake was negatively associated with hip circumference in the first six months and fat mass during detraining in CON. Energy intake showed positive associations with fat mass in TRAIN during detraining. Only carbohydrates were negatively related to detraining changes in fat free mass and BMI in CON. In conclusion, the MCT reduces adiposity of frail and pre-frail older people, leading to a maintenance of fat free mass. In addition, these interventions should not be stopped in this population in order to improve health sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance and Health Care for a Sustainable Lifestyle)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 865 KiB  
Article
Effect of a Padel Match on Biochemical and Haematological Parameters in Professional Players with Regard to Gender-Related Differences
by Francisco Pradas, Alejandro García-Giménez, Víctor Toro-Román, Bernardino Javier Sánchez-Alcaraz, Nicolae Ochiana and Carlos Castellar
Sustainability 2020, 12(20), 8633; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208633 - 18 Oct 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3134
Abstract
Haematological and biochemical parameters have not yet been analysed in professional padel players. The aim of this study was to determine the basal values of these parameters and to observe the effect of a simulated competition on them, including gender-related differences. A total [...] Read more.
Haematological and biochemical parameters have not yet been analysed in professional padel players. The aim of this study was to determine the basal values of these parameters and to observe the effect of a simulated competition on them, including gender-related differences. A total of 14 male professional players (age: 28.2 ± 7.9 years), and 16 female professional players (age: 29.7 ± 3.7 years) participated in this study. Players were allowed to hydrate ad libitum during the matches. Haematological and biochemical values were obtained before and after a simulated competitive padel match. The men’s group showed higher baseline values in red blood cells, haematocrit, haemoglobin, urea, creatinine, uric acid, albumin, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) (p < 0.01) than the women’s group. Attending to match effect, significant differences were obtained in urea, creatinine, CK and glucose (p < 0.05). Finally, the group x match interaction revealed significant differences in serum concentrations of sodium and chloride (p < 0.05). In conclusion, high-level padel matches provoke several changes in biochemical parameters related to muscle damage and protein catabolism. Recovery and fluid intake strategies could be added regarding gender. The results obtained could be due to the differences in the intensity and volume of the simulated competition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance and Health Care for a Sustainable Lifestyle)
Show Figures

Figure 1

31 pages, 1017 KiB  
Article
How to Improve the Functional Capacity of Frail and Pre-Frail Elderly People? Health, Nutritional Status and Exercise Intervention. The EXERNET-Elder 3.0 Project
by Ángel Iván Fernández-García, Alba Gómez-Cabello, Ana Moradell, David Navarrete-Villanueva, Jorge Pérez-Gómez, Ignacio Ara, Raquel Pedrero-Chamizo, Jorge Subías-Perié, Borja Muniz-Pardos, José A. Casajús and Germán Vicente-Rodríguez
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6246; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156246 - 3 Aug 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 7509
Abstract
Aging is associated with the impairment of health and functional capacity, and physical exercise seems to be an effective tool in frailty prevention and treatment. The purpose of this study was to present the methodology used in the EXERNET-Elder 3.0 project that aims [...] Read more.
Aging is associated with the impairment of health and functional capacity, and physical exercise seems to be an effective tool in frailty prevention and treatment. The purpose of this study was to present the methodology used in the EXERNET-Elder 3.0 project that aims to evaluate the immediate and residual effects and of a multicomponent exercise training program called Elder-fit on frailty, fitness, body composition and quality of life, and also to analyse a possible dietary intake interaction according to health and metabolic status. A total of 110 frail and pre-frail elders participated in this study and were divided into a control group (CG = 52) and an intervention group (IG = 58). The IG performed a supervised multicomponent exercise training program of 6 months and 3 days per week, which included strength, endurance, balance, coordination and flexibility exercises, while the CG continued with their usual daily activities. Both groups received four speeches about healthy habits along the project. Four evaluations were performed: at baseline, after 3 months of training, at the end of the training program (6 months) and 4 months after the program had ended to examine the effects of detraining. Evaluating the efficacy, safety and feasibility of this program will help to develop efficacious physical interventions against frailty. Further, protocols should be described accurately to allow exercise programs to be successfully replicated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance and Health Care for a Sustainable Lifestyle)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 289 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Physical Activity and Comorbidities in Spanish Asthmatics
by Sheila Sánchez Castillo, Lee Smith, Arturo Díaz Suárez and Guillermo Felipe López Sánchez
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5256; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135256 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2174
Abstract
The prevalence of comorbidities in asthmatics is high. Comorbidities may complicate the clinical management of asthma, increasing the risk for exacerbation and even death. The objective of the present research was to establish the prevalence of 31 asthma comorbidities and to assess the [...] Read more.
The prevalence of comorbidities in asthmatics is high. Comorbidities may complicate the clinical management of asthma, increasing the risk for exacerbation and even death. The objective of the present research was to establish the prevalence of 31 asthma comorbidities and to assess the association of these comorbidities with physical activity (PA) in Spanish asthmatics. Data of the Spanish National Health Survey 2017 (cross-sectional design) were used in this study. A total of 1014 people (42.1% males) with asthma participated in this study (age range 15–69 years). The IPAQ (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) short form was the instrument administered to evaluate PA (exposure), and the self-reported answer to the question “Have you ever been diagnosed with…?” determined the presence of comorbidities (outcomes). This association was assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Results demonstrated a huge presence of comorbidities (89.3%). The most prevalent were chronic allergy (61.1%), chronic lumbar pain (28.7%), chronic cervical pain (24.2%), high cholesterol (20.9%), Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) (19.4%), migraine (19.2%) and hypertension (19.3%). PA level under 600 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)·min/week showed a significant association with urinary incontinence (3.10 [1.62–5.94]), osteoporosis (1.90 [1.00–3.61]) and chronic anxiety (1.69 [1.13–2.53]). Therefore, comorbidities and PA levels should be considered in the prevention and treatment of asthmatics, in order to improve their quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance and Health Care for a Sustainable Lifestyle)
12 pages, 301 KiB  
Article
Association between Parameters Related to Oxidative Stress and Trace Minerals in Athletes
by Gema Barrientos, Javier Alves, Francisco Pradas, María Concepción Robles, Diego Muñoz and Marcos Maynar
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 4966; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12124966 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2898
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the basal concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) nonenzymatic antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and retinol in plasma or erythrocytes, and the plasma concentrations of 16 trace minerals in endurance athletes from Extremadura (Spain). In [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the basal concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) nonenzymatic antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and retinol in plasma or erythrocytes, and the plasma concentrations of 16 trace minerals in endurance athletes from Extremadura (Spain). In addition, we aimed to assess the possible relationships between some parameters related to cellular oxidative stress with plasma concentrations of some trace minerals. Sixty-two national long-distance men athletes participated in this study. The parameters related to oxidative stress and antioxidant activity were analyzed through high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and trace minerals analysis was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We found that plasma MDA was positively correlated with selenium and rubidium. Plasma ascorbic acid was positively correlated with manganese and negatively correlated with cobalt and cadmium. Erythrocyte ascorbic acid was related to arsenic and cesium. Plasma α-tocopherol correlated with copper and manganese negatively and positively with arsenic. Erythrocyte α-tocopherol was positively related to copper, rubidium, and lithium. The findings show that athletes with a high degree of training should monitor their intake and concentrations of α-tocopherol for its fundamental role of neutralizing the excess of reactive oxygen species produced by exercise and the prooxidant effects of several minerals such as arsenic, copper, and lithium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance and Health Care for a Sustainable Lifestyle)

Review

Jump to: Research

16 pages, 1479 KiB  
Review
Electromyography: A Simple and Accessible Tool to Assess Physical Performance and Health during Hypoxia Training. A Systematic Review
by Diego Fernández-Lázaro, Juan Mielgo-Ayuso, David P. Adams, Jerónimo J. González-Bernal, Ana Fernández Araque, Alicia Cano García and Cesar I. Fernández-Lázaro
Sustainability 2020, 12(21), 9137; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12219137 - 3 Nov 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3084
Abstract
Hypoxia causes reduced partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood and induces adaptations in skeletal muscle that may affect individuals’ physical performance and muscular health. These muscular changes are detectable and quantifiable by electromyography (EMG), an instrument that assesses electrical activity during active [...] Read more.
Hypoxia causes reduced partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood and induces adaptations in skeletal muscle that may affect individuals’ physical performance and muscular health. These muscular changes are detectable and quantifiable by electromyography (EMG), an instrument that assesses electrical activity during active contraction at rest. EMG is a relatively simple and accessible technique for all patients, one that can show the degree of the sensory and motor functions because it provides information about the status of the peripheral nerves and muscles. The main goal of this review is to evaluate the scientific evidence of EMG as an instrument for monitoring different responses of skeletal muscles subjected to external stimuli such as hypoxia and physical activity. A structured search was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines in Medline/PubMed, Scielo, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library Plus. The search included articles published in the last 25 years until May 2020 and was restricted to English- and Spanish-language publications. As such, investigators identified nine articles that met the search criteria. The results determined that EMG was able to detect muscle fatigue from changes in the frequency spectrum. When a muscle was fatigued, high frequency components decreased and low frequency components increased. In other studies, EMG determined muscle activation increased during exercise by recruiting motor units and by increasing the intensity of muscle contractions. Finally, it was also possible to calculate the mean quadriceps quadratic activity used to obtain an image of muscle activation. In conclusion, EMG offers a suitable tool for monitoring the different skeletal muscle responses and has sufficient sensitivity to detect hypoxia-induced muscle changes produced by hypoxic stimuli. Moreover, EMG enhances an extension of physical examination and tests motor-system integrity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance and Health Care for a Sustainable Lifestyle)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 747 KiB  
Review
Power Assessment in Road Cycling: A Narrative Review
by Sebastian Sitko, Rafel Cirer-Sastre, Francisco Corbi and Isaac López-Laval
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 5216; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125216 - 26 Jun 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 6015
Abstract
Nowadays, the evaluation of physiological characteristics and training load quantification in road cycling is frequently performed through power meter data analyses, but the scientific evidence behind this tool is scarce and often contradictory. The aim of this paper is to review the literature [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the evaluation of physiological characteristics and training load quantification in road cycling is frequently performed through power meter data analyses, but the scientific evidence behind this tool is scarce and often contradictory. The aim of this paper is to review the literature related to power profiling, functional threshold testing, and performance assessment based on power meter data. A literature search was conducted following preferred reporting items for review statement (PRISMA) on the topic of {“cyclist” OR “cycling” AND “functional threshold” OR “power meter”}. The reviewed evidence provided important insights regarding power meter-based training: (a) functional threshold testing is closely related to laboratory markers of steady state; (b) the 20-min protocol represents the most researched option for functional threshold testing, although shorter durations may be used if verified on an individual basis; (c) power profiling obtained through the recovery of recorded power outputs allows the categorization and assessment of the cyclist’s fitness level; and (d) power meters represent an alternative to laboratory tests for the assessment of the relationship between power output and cadence. This review elucidates the increasing amount of studies related to power profiling, functional threshold testing, and performance assessment based on power meter data, highlighting the opportunity for the expanding knowledge that power meters have brought in the road cycling field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance and Health Care for a Sustainable Lifestyle)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop