Special Issue "Physical Performance and Health Care for a Sustainable Lifestyle"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Health and Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 May 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Jose Antonio Gonzalez-Jurado
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Guest Editor
Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla 41013, Spain
Interests: physical activity and health; obesity; cardiorespiratory fitness; football performance; healthy exercise
Dr. Francisco Pradas de la Fuente
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Corporal Expression, University of Zaragoza, Huesca 22003, Spain
Interests: sport performance; human motricity; racquet sports; physical activity and health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The lifestyle of our Paleolithic ancestors depended on hunting and gathering 10,000 years ago. Later, after domesticating wild animals and plant species, society shifted into a sedentary state. It is known that the genetics of Homo sapiens have changed little during the last 10,000 years; we are still genetically programmed to be physically active. So, subsequently, is our current genome maladapted to a sedentary lifestyle?

The current understanding of sedentary behavior is that it is not merely the absence of health-enhancing physical activity in everyday life. Sedentary behavior is characterized by a deficiency or absence of whole-body movement; sedentarism is a lifestyle. Physical inactivity, and consequently poor physical fitness, has harmful consequences on health. It is assumed that non-communicable diseases are currently driven by incompatibility between lifestyles and the environments in which people live. Indeed, physical inactivity leads to increased risk of hypertension, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, even in children and adolescents.

Moreover, these co-morbid conditions contribute not only to a decreased lifespan, but also to a decreased quality of life. Increasing rates of chronic diseases are not only placing a burden on an individual level, but also on a societal level, resulting in an economic burden that is socially unsustainable. These costs are increasing direct health costs associated with treatment in the healthcare system and indirect social and health costs associated with lost workdays, living with dependency, and premature mortality.

However, changes in habits and lifestyle such as increases in physical activity practices would reduce mortality and morbidity to these and other non-communicable diseases. Mortality is only one aspect of the public health burdens that would be reduced by greater participation in regular physical activity. Evidence suggests how even moderate levels of physical activity or high fitness levels are associated with benefits for the health-related quality of life; for example, research indicates that short bouts of high-intensity activity provide greater protection against chronic health problems when compared to bouts of longer duration low-intensity exercise. Sedentary behavior and physical inactivity are two separate and independent attributes, each with distinct health consequences because the former is different from absolute inactivity than lack of physical activity or moderate-to-vigorous intensity. One’s distinct level of physical fitness, cardiorespiratory aptitude, and physical performance involve different consequences with respect to health, dependence, the need for care, quality of life, and individual and social sustainability.

Dr. Jose Antonio Gonzalez-Jurado
Dr. Francisco Pradas de la Fuente
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • exercise
  • physical fitness
  • physical activity
  • health
  • sedentary
  • quality of life
  • training

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
How to Improve the Functional Capacity of Frail and Pre-Frail Elderly People? Health, Nutritional Status and Exercise Intervention. The EXERNET-Elder 3.0 Project
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6246; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156246 - 03 Aug 2020
Abstract
Aging is associated with the impairment of health and functional capacity, and physical exercise seems to be an effective tool in frailty prevention and treatment. The purpose of this study was to present the methodology used in the EXERNET-Elder 3.0 project that aims [...] Read more.
Aging is associated with the impairment of health and functional capacity, and physical exercise seems to be an effective tool in frailty prevention and treatment. The purpose of this study was to present the methodology used in the EXERNET-Elder 3.0 project that aims to evaluate the immediate and residual effects and of a multicomponent exercise training program called Elder-fit on frailty, fitness, body composition and quality of life, and also to analyse a possible dietary intake interaction according to health and metabolic status. A total of 110 frail and pre-frail elders participated in this study and were divided into a control group (CG = 52) and an intervention group (IG = 58). The IG performed a supervised multicomponent exercise training program of 6 months and 3 days per week, which included strength, endurance, balance, coordination and flexibility exercises, while the CG continued with their usual daily activities. Both groups received four speeches about healthy habits along the project. Four evaluations were performed: at baseline, after 3 months of training, at the end of the training program (6 months) and 4 months after the program had ended to examine the effects of detraining. Evaluating the efficacy, safety and feasibility of this program will help to develop efficacious physical interventions against frailty. Further, protocols should be described accurately to allow exercise programs to be successfully replicated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance and Health Care for a Sustainable Lifestyle)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Analysis of Physical Activity and Comorbidities in Spanish Asthmatics
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5256; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135256 - 29 Jun 2020
Abstract
The prevalence of comorbidities in asthmatics is high. Comorbidities may complicate the clinical management of asthma, increasing the risk for exacerbation and even death. The objective of the present research was to establish the prevalence of 31 asthma comorbidities and to assess the [...] Read more.
The prevalence of comorbidities in asthmatics is high. Comorbidities may complicate the clinical management of asthma, increasing the risk for exacerbation and even death. The objective of the present research was to establish the prevalence of 31 asthma comorbidities and to assess the association of these comorbidities with physical activity (PA) in Spanish asthmatics. Data of the Spanish National Health Survey 2017 (cross-sectional design) were used in this study. A total of 1014 people (42.1% males) with asthma participated in this study (age range 15–69 years). The IPAQ (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) short form was the instrument administered to evaluate PA (exposure), and the self-reported answer to the question “Have you ever been diagnosed with…?” determined the presence of comorbidities (outcomes). This association was assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Results demonstrated a huge presence of comorbidities (89.3%). The most prevalent were chronic allergy (61.1%), chronic lumbar pain (28.7%), chronic cervical pain (24.2%), high cholesterol (20.9%), Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) (19.4%), migraine (19.2%) and hypertension (19.3%). PA level under 600 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)·min/week showed a significant association with urinary incontinence (3.10 [1.62–5.94]), osteoporosis (1.90 [1.00–3.61]) and chronic anxiety (1.69 [1.13–2.53]). Therefore, comorbidities and PA levels should be considered in the prevention and treatment of asthmatics, in order to improve their quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance and Health Care for a Sustainable Lifestyle)
Open AccessArticle
Association between Parameters Related to Oxidative Stress and Trace Minerals in Athletes
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 4966; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12124966 - 18 Jun 2020
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the basal concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) nonenzymatic antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and retinol in plasma or erythrocytes, and the plasma concentrations of 16 trace minerals in endurance athletes from Extremadura (Spain). In [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the basal concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) nonenzymatic antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and retinol in plasma or erythrocytes, and the plasma concentrations of 16 trace minerals in endurance athletes from Extremadura (Spain). In addition, we aimed to assess the possible relationships between some parameters related to cellular oxidative stress with plasma concentrations of some trace minerals. Sixty-two national long-distance men athletes participated in this study. The parameters related to oxidative stress and antioxidant activity were analyzed through high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and trace minerals analysis was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We found that plasma MDA was positively correlated with selenium and rubidium. Plasma ascorbic acid was positively correlated with manganese and negatively correlated with cobalt and cadmium. Erythrocyte ascorbic acid was related to arsenic and cesium. Plasma α-tocopherol correlated with copper and manganese negatively and positively with arsenic. Erythrocyte α-tocopherol was positively related to copper, rubidium, and lithium. The findings show that athletes with a high degree of training should monitor their intake and concentrations of α-tocopherol for its fundamental role of neutralizing the excess of reactive oxygen species produced by exercise and the prooxidant effects of several minerals such as arsenic, copper, and lithium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance and Health Care for a Sustainable Lifestyle)

Review

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Open AccessReview
Power Assessment in Road Cycling: A Narrative Review
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 5216; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125216 - 26 Jun 2020
Abstract
Nowadays, the evaluation of physiological characteristics and training load quantification in road cycling is frequently performed through power meter data analyses, but the scientific evidence behind this tool is scarce and often contradictory. The aim of this paper is to review the literature [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the evaluation of physiological characteristics and training load quantification in road cycling is frequently performed through power meter data analyses, but the scientific evidence behind this tool is scarce and often contradictory. The aim of this paper is to review the literature related to power profiling, functional threshold testing, and performance assessment based on power meter data. A literature search was conducted following preferred reporting items for review statement (PRISMA) on the topic of {“cyclist” OR “cycling” AND “functional threshold” OR “power meter”}. The reviewed evidence provided important insights regarding power meter-based training: (a) functional threshold testing is closely related to laboratory markers of steady state; (b) the 20-min protocol represents the most researched option for functional threshold testing, although shorter durations may be used if verified on an individual basis; (c) power profiling obtained through the recovery of recorded power outputs allows the categorization and assessment of the cyclist’s fitness level; and (d) power meters represent an alternative to laboratory tests for the assessment of the relationship between power output and cadence. This review elucidates the increasing amount of studies related to power profiling, functional threshold testing, and performance assessment based on power meter data, highlighting the opportunity for the expanding knowledge that power meters have brought in the road cycling field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance and Health Care for a Sustainable Lifestyle)
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