Special Issue "Optimal Tourism Development"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainability of Culture and Heritage".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Juan A. Campos-Soria
Website
Guest Editor
Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga, Spain
Interests: Economic analysis of tourism; Sustainable tourism; Labour market; Gender economics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The early days of the tourism development had a naïve vision of tourism impacts on the society in terms of economic, social, and environmental benefits. Time has passed, and we have drawn lessons concerning the success and failure of tourism development. Mass tourism development has lights and shadows and is not necessarily the optimal development model. Alternative development strategies should be contemplated.

This Special Issue deals with different topics concerning optimal tourism development. Destination management requires further understanding of different issues, such as carrying capacity, income-based optimal supply size, identification and development of optimal market niches, and adaptation or environmental protection strategies. Tourism planning is concerned with the role of economies of agglomeration, i.e., the advantages of spatial clusters vs scattered development. Additionally, support of and investment in innovation, accessibility, and mobility are relevant nowadays. From the stakeholders’ perspective, it is relevant to discuss ways of cooperation and sources of conflicts among different sectors and actors, governance and incentives for sustainable tourism practices, and equity and economic distribution of benefits. Finally, the development of methodological tools for the assessment of optimal tourism development is necessary for policy-making, in particular of those methods that are capable of integrating economic, environmental, and social criteria.

Prof. Dr. Juan A. Campos-Soria
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Optimal tourism development
  • Management of protected areas
  • Carrying capacity
  • Economies of agglomeration
  • Spatial clusters
  • Environmental innovation
  • Sustainable tourism development
  • Sustainable tourism indicators
  • Integrated waste management
  • Integrated ecological modelling
  • Environmental satellite accounts

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Spatial Diversity of Tourism in the Countries of the European Union
Sustainability 2020, 12(7), 2713; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072713 - 30 Mar 2020
Abstract
The aim of the article is to present the spatial diversity of tourism in the countries of the European Union (EU). The main objective of the article can be divided into three immediate goals, each of which is to determine countries that are [...] Read more.
The aim of the article is to present the spatial diversity of tourism in the countries of the European Union (EU). The main objective of the article can be divided into three immediate goals, each of which is to determine countries that are similar by means of: (1) accommodation base; (2) tourism traffic; and (3) tourism-related expenditures and revenues. In order to group countries, Ward’s cluster analysis method is used. The aim is verified with the use of 2017 United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) and Eurostat data. The analysis covers all EU member states. The research conducted confirms, inter alia, the key role of the accommodation base in the development of tourism in those countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimal Tourism Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Pinpointing the Barriers to Recycling at Destination
Sustainability 2020, 12(7), 2635; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072635 - 26 Mar 2020
Abstract
This paper aims to gain further understanding of the barriers that prevent tourists at tourist destinations from recycling. Methodologically, a survey was carried out with a questionnaire, reaching 371 units through a convenience sampling procedure on the island of Gran Canaria. The measuring [...] Read more.
This paper aims to gain further understanding of the barriers that prevent tourists at tourist destinations from recycling. Methodologically, a survey was carried out with a questionnaire, reaching 371 units through a convenience sampling procedure on the island of Gran Canaria. The measuring instruments consisted of a Likert ‘beliefs’ scale, comprising statements related to a wide range of recycling barriers, as well as both sociodemographic and situational information. Firstly, we performed an exploratory factor analysis on the barriers scale, and several obstacles to recycling were identified, such as a lack of knowledge and familiarity, blaming of the system of collection, assumed incompatibility with a relaxing holiday, erroneous beliefs about environmental usefulness, disregard towards the place being visited and a certain sense of detachment, the non-existence of incentives, and an unwillingness to comply with perceived demands. Secondly, by means of ANOVA tests, we measured the causal relationship between these barriers to recycling and the tourists’ sociodemographic and situational profiles. The practical implications shed light on how to overcome the difficulties that occur for the tourist at the destination with regards to recycling, by considering the tourists’ beliefs and their sociodemographic and situational background. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimal Tourism Development)
Open AccessArticle
Spatial Imbalance Between Tourist Supply and Demand: The Identification of Spatial Clusters in Extremadura, Spain
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1651; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041651 - 22 Feb 2020
Abstract
The techniques provided by spatial analysis have become a great ally of tourist planning as they allow the carrying out of exhaustive territorial analyses. The greater availability of georeferenced databases together with the more and more extensive use of GIS (Geographic Information Systems) [...] Read more.
The techniques provided by spatial analysis have become a great ally of tourist planning as they allow the carrying out of exhaustive territorial analyses. The greater availability of georeferenced databases together with the more and more extensive use of GIS (Geographic Information Systems) is materialising in the proliferation of studies analysing the distribution patterns of tourist territories. The present study uses these techniques to study the degree of equilibrium in the distribution of places and its level of occupation in a region where the use of expansionary policies of growth of the tourism sector has been able to cause a strong imbalance in said activity, i.e., the case of the region of Extremadura. To verify this, both global contrasts, global Moran’s I and G (d) of Getis and Ord, are used, as well as local contrasts, to map LISA (Local Indicators of Spatial Association). The results obtained confirm the existence of strong imbalances in the effectiveness of the places created while allowing the identification of different clusters of high and low values. These findings represent an important output for the strategic planning of the territory in order to develop a strategy that allows the sustainable tourism development of the territory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimal Tourism Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Impact of Air Pollution on China’s Inbound Tourism: A Gravity Model Approach
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1456; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041456 - 15 Feb 2020
Abstract
China’s inbound tourism grew very slowly in recent years. This study modelled China’s inbound tourism based on a gravity model with province-level inbound tourist arrivals data from 13 countries of origin between 2010 and 2016. It was found that air pollution in tourist [...] Read more.
China’s inbound tourism grew very slowly in recent years. This study modelled China’s inbound tourism based on a gravity model with province-level inbound tourist arrivals data from 13 countries of origin between 2010 and 2016. It was found that air pollution in tourist destinations and origin regions both had significant negative impacts on China’s inbound tourism. On average, if the concentration of particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM 2.5 ) in China and foreign countries increased by 1 μ g/m 3 , inbound tourist arrivals would decline by approximately 1.7% and 3.8%, respectively. The effect of pollution in destination regions is explained by the importance of clean air as a favored characteristic of tourist attractions. The effect of pollution in tourist origin countries is explained by more awareness of and concern about air pollution by potential tourists if they live in more polluted countries. Further analysis showed that the impact of air pollution in destination regions was larger for tourists coming from more polluted and Asian countries, and visiting less polluted and more popular destinations. This study has a clear policy implication: improving air quality can be considered as a straightforward and effective way to promote inbound tourism in China. If air quality in China can be substantially improved in the future, inbound tourist arrivals have the potential to rise by at least tens of millions of person-times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimal Tourism Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Perception of Sustainability of Spanish National Parks: Public Use, Tourism and Rural Development
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1333; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041333 - 12 Feb 2020
Abstract
In the last decade, tourism activity associated with natural areas has stood out as a driver for economic development. Thus, it is a key factor for the economic and social sustainability of the community near a protected area. This paper analyses, considering the [...] Read more.
In the last decade, tourism activity associated with natural areas has stood out as a driver for economic development. Thus, it is a key factor for the economic and social sustainability of the community near a protected area. This paper analyses, considering the tourist exploitation and the public use of the National Park in the last decade, the perception about the sustainability of its geographical area closest. A questionnaire was used and sent to the authorities of the villages closest to each of the 15 National Parks. The structural equation model was used for the design and analysis of the model. The results confirmed significant relationships between the perception of economic development and quality of life, but not with social development. A positive relationship between quality of life and social development is also demonstrated. The three dimensions analysed, economic, social and quality of life, are influencing the perception of sustainability of the geographical area closest to the protected natural area. The legal limitations to the public use of these natural protected areas have been considered in the assessments made by the respondents. In conclusion, National Park managers, local entrepreneurs and institutional authorities (local, regional and national) are encouraged to better coordinate the resources of the protected natural area. The dynamization of tourist activities should be encouraged while respecting the biological value of the park, as has been done so far. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimal Tourism Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Perceived Sustainable Destination Image: Implications for Marketing Strategies in Europe
Sustainability 2019, 11(22), 6466; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226466 - 17 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
There is currently a growing concern about the consequences of tourism activity on the environment. In this regards, sustainable management is understood as a key element that can help destination marketing organizations (DMOs) to improve a tourist destination’s competitiveness. This study provides some [...] Read more.
There is currently a growing concern about the consequences of tourism activity on the environment. In this regards, sustainable management is understood as a key element that can help destination marketing organizations (DMOs) to improve a tourist destination’s competitiveness. This study provides some clues about the best way to develop the image and branding of a destination using the concept of sustainable image. Through an analysis of 28,947 tourists from 18 European countries, this paper studies what sociodemographic, cultural, and behavioral characteristics of tourists influence their perception of sustainable destination. The results of the binomial logit analysis show that destination primary and secondary images, motivations, cultural background of tourists, and sociodemographic characteristics are determinant factors explaining the perception of sustainable destination image (SDI). Thus, the fundamental role of segmentation to positioning a destination as a sustainable destination is suggested. The study provides interesting recommendations for DMOs in order to be able to design better marketing strategies focused on destination image. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimal Tourism Development)
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Reception Capacity of a Certain Area Regarding Tourist Housing, Addressing Sustainable-Tourism Criteria
Sustainability 2019, 11(22), 6422; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226422 - 15 Nov 2019
Abstract
The emergence of new 2.0 net collaborative economies has brought an increase in the number of tourists, changing the paradigm of the tourist-housing sector in the main cities around the world. This has directly impacted inhabitants and land-use planning, and there is no [...] Read more.
The emergence of new 2.0 net collaborative economies has brought an increase in the number of tourists, changing the paradigm of the tourist-housing sector in the main cities around the world. This has directly impacted inhabitants and land-use planning, and there is no general agreement yet between different public and private agents on how to deal with the problem. In this document, a model supported by scientific approaches is presented to assist in planning for sustainable land use through assessing its reception capacity to host tourist housing. The area of study is a medium-sized city in Spain with four UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The methodology is based on the application of the multicriteria decision paradigm in the geographical information systems’ field to deal with complex problems with several alternatives and various criteria to be evaluated. As a result, we obtained a classification of every part of the study area, depending on the reception capacity of the considered uses. The main conclusion is that tourist housing must be regulated, although its effects cannot be generalized, since specific analysis for every neighborhood in a territory is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimal Tourism Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Radon Gas as an Indicator for Air Quality Control in Buried Industrial Architecture: Rehabilitation of the Old Británica Warehouses in Alicante for a Tourist Site
Sustainability 2019, 11(17), 4692; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11174692 - 28 Aug 2019
Abstract
The infrastructure of the Británica warehouses in Alicante is a very important industrial architectural element in the history of Spain, although it is unknown to almost all of the inhabitants of the city. The former fuel refinery is located in the Serra Grossa [...] Read more.
The infrastructure of the Británica warehouses in Alicante is a very important industrial architectural element in the history of Spain, although it is unknown to almost all of the inhabitants of the city. The former fuel refinery is located in the Serra Grossa Mountains and served much of the country until 1966. This research is based on the plans of the city of Alicante to convert a historical element, the Británica warehouses, into a unique tourist site. Currently, the network of storage domes in this facility, which has an approximate footprint of 20,000 m2 and domes approximately 20 m high, is in a state of neglect, and there are neighborhood initiatives for its rehabilitation to become a cultural or tourist site. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the quality of the indoor air. Radon gas is analyzed as a control element for future refurbishment of the facility. Alicante is a nongranite area and therefore is not very susceptible to generation of radon gas indoors, but the conditions of a buried and poorly ventilated space make the site appropriate for analysis. Most scientific agencies in the field of medicine and health, including the World Health Organization, consider radon gas to be very harmful to humans. This element in its gaseous state is radioactive and is present in almost all the land in which the buildings are implanted, with granitic type soils presenting higher levels of radon gas. Nongranitic soils have traditionally been considered to have low radon levels. The city of Alicante, where the installation is located, is a nongranitic area and therefore is not very susceptible to generating radon gas in buildings, but the conditions of buried and poorly ventilated places make the site appropriate for analysis to support air quality control and decision-making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimal Tourism Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Internet’s User Perception of Corporate Social Responsibility in Hotel Services
Sustainability 2019, 11(10), 2916; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11102916 - 22 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The objective of this study was to use the perceptions of internet users to analyse the effect of the social, economic and environmental dimensions of corporate social responsibility (CSR) implemented by hotel establishments in order to determine whether those dimensions are perceived by [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to use the perceptions of internet users to analyse the effect of the social, economic and environmental dimensions of corporate social responsibility (CSR) implemented by hotel establishments in order to determine whether those dimensions are perceived by consumers. Our analysis was based on a sample, distributed by age, sex and province segments, obtained from the Andalusian population between 16 and 74 years of age who are users of travel websites (e.g., TripAdvisor, Booking) and hotels corporate websites. A questionnaire was used to investigate each latent factor related to the three main dimensions of CSR that may affect the perceptions of accommodation service consumers. The questionnaire was statistically validated and developed in previous economic studies in this field. The data were analysed using Partial Last Square (PLS) methodology. The results confirm the validity of the three dimensions analysed, although consumers appear to play more relevance upon economic and environmental factors than upon the social components of CSR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimal Tourism Development)
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