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Special Issue "Energy Scenario in the Context of Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 16652

Special Issue Editors

Dr. GM Shafiullah
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Engineering and Energy, College of Science, Health, Engineering and Education, Murdoch University, Western Australia
Interests: Sustainability in Energy, Future electricity networks, Renewable energy and its enabling technologies, energy efficiency and demand management, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
Dr. Anis Zaman
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Engineering and Energy, College of Science, Health, Engineering and Education, Murdoch University, Western Australia
Interests: energy transition; Sustainable Development Goal 7 (SDG7); Paris Agreement; nationally determined contributions (NDCs); renewable energy and energy efficiency

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Energy is a key enabler in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), as energy plays the prime role in ending poverty and hunger, providing healthcare, education, and water and increases productivity, transforms economies and societies and improves human life, and eventually it enables all types of development in a country as well as globally. Goal 7 of SDGs is dedicated to energy with three distinct, but interlinked, targets: (a) universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services, (b) increasing substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix and (c) doubling the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency.

Therefore, the successful achievement of SDG7 is critical to achieving all other SDGs. Further, the energy sector is responsible for two-thirds of global emissions. As such, SDG7 cannot be achieved in isolation; rather the energy sector needs to be transformed in a way that helps to achieve the emission reduction commitments under the Paris Agreement, as communicated by countries through nationally determined contributions (NDCs). Achievement of SDG7 targets thus requires an integrated system approach by considering the synergies between its constituent elements—increasing access to modern energy services, improving energy efficiency, reducing emissions from the energy sector and increasing the share of renewable energy. Constraints, such as resources availability and the emission reduction targets under, need to be considered. Additionally, the interlinkages between energy (i.e., SDG7) and the other SDGs will impact on the energy demand as well as choice of energy resources.

Therefore, the aim of this Special Issue is to attract researches and practitioners on energy and SDGs, including national and global policies and initiatives to achieve the targets of SDG7 in order to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. This Special Issue will accept original/review research that addresses the following topics:

  1. Framework to achieve SDG7 targets and emission reduction under the Paris agreement;
  2. Energy systems, design, modelling and optimization to achieve SDG7 targets ;
  3. Linkage of energy with the other SDGs;
  4. Sustainable Energy for All;
  5. Framework to understand the energy needs of adaptation;
  6. Increase renewable energy share into the energy mix: Technical aspects;
  7. Increase renewable energy share into the energy mix: Economic aspects;
  8. Energy efficiency and Energy management;
  9. Smart Grid for future electricity networks;
  10. Energy pricing/energy market/energy policy.

Dr. GM Shafiullah
Dr. Anis Zaman
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
  • Paris Agreement
  • Renewable energy and its enabling technologies
  • Renewable energy integration with the energy mix
  • Energy efficiency
  • Future electricity networks
  • 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
  • Energy policy and planning.

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Article
Techno-Economic Analysis of Indonesia Power Generation Expansion to Achieve Economic Sustainability and Net Zero Carbon 2050
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9038; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159038 - 23 Jul 2022
Viewed by 280
Abstract
Indonesia’s power generation roadmap aspires to achieve 23%, 28%, and 31% of power from renewable energy by 2025, 2038, and 2050, respectively. This study presents a technoeconomic analysis of Indonesia’s power generation development plans using the LEAP model in the post-COVID-19 period, with [...] Read more.
Indonesia’s power generation roadmap aspires to achieve 23%, 28%, and 31% of power from renewable energy by 2025, 2038, and 2050, respectively. This study presents a technoeconomic analysis of Indonesia’s power generation development plans using the LEAP model in the post-COVID-19 period, with a focus on achieving the renewable target. In this study, four scenarios were modeled: business as usual (BAU), cost optimization (CO), national plan (NP), and zero-carbon (ZC). The BAU scenario is based on the PLN Electricity Business Plan 2019–2028, which does not include a target for renewable energy. The CO scenario aims to meet the renewable energy mandate at the lowest possible cost. The NP scenario aims to achieve renewable energy, with an additional natural gas target of 22% by 2025 and 25% by 2038. The ZC scenario aims to achieve 100% renewable energy by 2050 at the lowest possible cost. In comparison to the other scenarios, the BAU scenario has the highest total cost of power production, with a total of 180.51 billion USD by 2050. The CO scenario has the lowest total cost of production with a total of 89.21 billion USD; however, it may not be practical to implement. Full article
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Article
Optimization of a Fuel Cost and Enrichment of Line Loadability for a Transmission System by Using Rapid Voltage Stability Index and Grey Wolf Algorithm Technique
Sustainability 2022, 14(7), 4347; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074347 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Efficient transmission of power is a pressing concern in modern power systems as it could relieve additional investments (e.g., right of way) and may improve stability. Non-uniform loading of transmission lines (which normally occurs due to the inefficient transmission of power) may lead [...] Read more.
Efficient transmission of power is a pressing concern in modern power systems as it could relieve additional investments (e.g., right of way) and may improve stability. Non-uniform loading of transmission lines (which normally occurs due to the inefficient transmission of power) may lead to overloading of a few lines. These lines would then be prone to voltage instability. However, this problem would be aggravated under the network contingency condition. This paper focuses on improving the line loadability of the transmission system by considering the benchmark voltage stability index named rapid voltage stability index. The optimal loadability problem is considered using the grey wolf algorithm. The proposed work is implemented on a standard IEEE 30 bus test system using MATLAB software by addressing the problem by using line stability voltage index and grey wolf algorithm in optimal power flow. Minimizations of cost of generation, carbon emissions, voltage deviation, and line losses have been considered as objectives and improve the line loadability of the transmission system. The simulation results show that the proposed method is very effective in improving line loadability, reducing line congestion and fuel cost. Furthermore, the methodology is tested rigorously under various contingency conditions and is shown to be very effective. The proposed method relieves transmission line congestion and reduces fuel costs using the rapid voltage stability index (RVSI) is tested on an IEEE 30-bus standard test system utilizing MATLAB for various contingency lines Full article
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Article
Operational Cost Minimization of Electrical Distribution Network during Switching for Sustainable Operation
Sustainability 2022, 14(7), 4196; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074196 - 01 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 412
Abstract
Continuous increases in electrical energy demand and the deregulation of power systems have forced utility companies to provide high-quality and reliable services to maintain a sustainable operation and reduce electricity price. One way to continue providing the required services while simultaneously reducing operational [...] Read more.
Continuous increases in electrical energy demand and the deregulation of power systems have forced utility companies to provide high-quality and reliable services to maintain a sustainable operation and reduce electricity price. One way to continue providing the required services while simultaneously reducing operational costs is through minimizing power losses and voltage deviation in the distribution network. For this purpose, Network Reconfiguration (NR) is commonly adopted by employing the switching operation to enhance overall system performance. In the past, work proposed by researchers to attain switching sequence operation was based on hamming distance approach. This approach caused the search space to grow with the increase in total Hamming distance between the initial and the final configuration. Therefore, a method is proposed in this paper utilizing a Mixed Integer Second Order Cone Programming (MISOCP) to attain optimal NR to address this issue. The Hamming dataset approach is opted to reduce search space by considering only radial configuration solutions to achieve an optimal switching sequence. In addition, a detailed economic analysis has been performed to determine the saving after the implementation of the proposed switching sequence. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is validated through simulations on IEEE 33-bus distribution network and a practical 71-bus network in Malaysia. The result shows that the proposed method determined the optimal network configuration by minimizing the power losses for the 33 bus and 71-bus system by 34.14% and 25.5% from their initial configuration, respectively to maintain sustainable operation. Full article
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Article
A Novel Method for Analyzing Highly Renewable and Sector-Coupled Subnational Energy Systems—Case Study of Schleswig-Holstein
Sustainability 2021, 13(7), 3852; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13073852 - 31 Mar 2021
Viewed by 991
Abstract
The energy transition requires an integration of different energy carriers, including electricity, heat, and transport sectors. Energy modeling methods and tools are essential to provide a clear insight into the energy transition. However, the methodologies often overlook the details of small-scale energy systems. [...] Read more.
The energy transition requires an integration of different energy carriers, including electricity, heat, and transport sectors. Energy modeling methods and tools are essential to provide a clear insight into the energy transition. However, the methodologies often overlook the details of small-scale energy systems. The study states an innovative approach to facilitate subnational energy systems with 100% renewable penetration and sectoral integration. An optimization model, the “Open Sector-coupled Energy Model for Subnational Energy Systems” (OSeEM–SN), was developed under the Open Energy Modeling Framework (Oemof). The model is validated using the case study of Schleswig-Holstein. The study assumes three scenarios representing 25%, 50%, and 100% of the total available biomass potentials. OSeEM–SN reaches feasible solutions without additional offshore wind investment, indicating that it can be reserved for supplying other states’ energy demand. The annual investment cost varies between 1.02 and 1.44 bn €/year for the three scenarios. The electricity generation decreases by 17%, indicating that, with high biomass-based combined heat and power plants, the curtailment from other renewable plants can be decreased. Ground source heat pumps dominate the heat mix; however, their installation decreases by 28% as the biomass penetrates fully into the energy mix. The validation confirms OSeEM–SN as a beneficial tool to examine different scenarios for subnational energy systems. Full article
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Article
Hybrid Renewable Energy Microgrid for a Residential Community: A Techno-Economic and Environmental Perspective in the Context of the SDG7
Sustainability 2020, 12(10), 3944; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12103944 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 59 | Viewed by 3410
Abstract
Energy, being a prime enabler in achieving sustainable development goals (SDGs), should be affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern. One of the SDGs (i.e., SDG7) suggests that it is necessary to ensure energy access for all. In developing countries like India, the progress toward [...] Read more.
Energy, being a prime enabler in achieving sustainable development goals (SDGs), should be affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern. One of the SDGs (i.e., SDG7) suggests that it is necessary to ensure energy access for all. In developing countries like India, the progress toward SDG7 has somewhat stagnated. The aging conventional electric power system has its dominant share of energy from fossil fuels, plagued with frequent power outages, and leaves many un-electrified areas. These are not characteristics of a sustainable and modern system in the context of the SDG7. Promoting renewable-based energy systems, especially in the context of microgrids (MGs), is one of the promising advances needed to rejuvenate the progress toward the SDG7. In this context, a hybrid renewable energy microgrid (HREM) is proposed that gives assurance for energy access to all in an affordable, reliable, and sustainable way through modern energy systems. In this paper, a techno-economic and environmental modeling of the grid-independent HREM and its optimization for a remote community in South India are presented. A case of HREM with a proposed configuration of photovoltaic/wind turbine/diesel generator/battery energy storage system (PV/WT/DG/BESS) was modeled to meet the community residential electric load requirements. This investigation dealt with the optimum sizes of the different components used in the HREM. The results of this model presented numerous feasible solutions. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to identify the best solution from the four optimized results. From the results, it was established that a PV + DG + BESS based HREM was the most cost-effective configuration for the specific location. In addition, the obtained optimum solutions were mapped with the key criteria of the SDG7. This mapping also suggested that the PV + DG + BESS configuration falls within the context of the SDG7. Overall, it is understood that the proposed HREM would provide energy access to households that is affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern. Full article
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Article
Stand-Alone Microgrid with 100% Renewable Energy: A Case Study with Hybrid Solar PV-Battery-Hydrogen
Sustainability 2020, 12(5), 2047; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12052047 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 53 | Viewed by 4748
Abstract
A 100% renewable energy-based stand-alone microgrid system can be developed by robust energy storage systems to stabilize the variable and intermittent renewable energy resources. Hydrogen as an energy carrier and energy storage medium has gained enormous interest globally in recent years. Its use [...] Read more.
A 100% renewable energy-based stand-alone microgrid system can be developed by robust energy storage systems to stabilize the variable and intermittent renewable energy resources. Hydrogen as an energy carrier and energy storage medium has gained enormous interest globally in recent years. Its use in stand-alone or off-grid microgrids for both the urban and rural communities has commenced recently in some locations. Therefore, this research evaluates the techno-economic feasibility of renewable energy-based systems using hydrogen as energy storage for a stand-alone/off-grid microgrid. Three case scenarios in a microgrid environment were identified and investigated in order to select an optimum solution for a remote community by considering the energy balance and techno-economic optimization. The “HOMER Pro” energy modelling and simulating software was used to compare the energy balance, economics and environmental impact amongst the proposed scenarios. The simulation results showed that the hydrogen-battery hybrid energy storage system is the most cost-effective scenario, though all developed scenarios are technically possible and economically comparable in the long run, while each has different merits and challenges. It has been shown that the proposed hybrid energy systems have significant potentialities in electrifying remote communities with low energy generation costs, as well as a contribution to the reduction of their carbon footprint and to ameliorating the energy crisis to achieve a sustainable future. Full article
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Article
Measures to Promote Renewable Energy for Electricity Generation in Algeria
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1468; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041468 - 16 Feb 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1950
Abstract
Algeria has enormous renewable energy potential. However, fossil fuels remain the main electricity generation source, and the country is the third largest CO2 emitter in Africa. Algeria is also particularly vulnerable to climate change. Therefore, a set of actions related to energy, [...] Read more.
Algeria has enormous renewable energy potential. However, fossil fuels remain the main electricity generation source, and the country is the third largest CO2 emitter in Africa. Algeria is also particularly vulnerable to climate change. Therefore, a set of actions related to energy, forests, industry and waste sectors have been programmed, over the period 2015–2030, and the government action program has given priority to promote renewable energy. In this sense, Algeria is committed to significantly promote investment in renewable energy, during the period 2020–2030. Thus by 2030, renewable electricity production capacity will achieve 22,000 MW, representing 27% of total electricity generation. This paper analyzes the electricity generation measures implemented in Algeria to reach the required energy mix, the legislative framework, financial aid, the feed-in tariff system, the tax incentives, and the tender and auctions undertaken. The analyses reveal that, although the electricity price premium policy has not been revoked, the newly enacted tender scheme is designed to become the standard procedure for launching renewable energy projects in Algeria in the coming years. Full article
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Article
Environmental Assessment of Energy Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Electrical Network in Chile
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5066; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185066 - 17 Sep 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1815
Abstract
Nowadays, establishing clean energy sources is an undeniable need for all territories to reconcile energy and competitiveness objectives with those of security and sustainability. This article shows the main advantages of implementing clean energy sources in the long-term Chilean electrical network. The clean [...] Read more.
Nowadays, establishing clean energy sources is an undeniable need for all territories to reconcile energy and competitiveness objectives with those of security and sustainability. This article shows the main advantages of implementing clean energy sources in the long-term Chilean electrical network. The clean energy considered in this work is based on Renewable Energy (Conventional and Non-Conventional) with the backup of gas or nuclear. Thus, four scenarios are proposed and were simulated for the year 2050, the year assumed for the decommissioning of all coal plants in the country. These scenarios contemplate a high or low penetration of Renewable Energy. Additionally, a reference and realistic scenario for the year 2018 has also been considered to compare to the clean scenarios proposed. The results obtained coincide with the goals of reducing environmental impacts such as global warming emissions and fossil fuel dependence. However, the backup that was chosen for supporting the intermittence of renewable energy may have an important role in the main system considering the expected growth of energy demands in the near future. Full article
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Article
Threshold Electricity Consumption Enables Multiple Sustainable Development Goals
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5047; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185047 - 16 Sep 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1575
Abstract
Access to sufficient amounts of energy is a prerequisite for the development of human well-being. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) recognize the interconnectedness of climate change, energy access and development. However, not all SDG targets are quantified, leaving room for ambiguity in fulfilling, [...] Read more.
Access to sufficient amounts of energy is a prerequisite for the development of human well-being. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) recognize the interconnectedness of climate change, energy access and development. However, not all SDG targets are quantified, leaving room for ambiguity in fulfilling, for example, the goal of ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all (SDG7). We show how specific sustainable development targets for health indicators are strongly correlated with electricity consumption levels in the poorest of countries. Clear thresholds in per capita electricity consumption of a few hundred kWh per year are identified by analyzing SDG indicator data as a function of per capita country electricity consumption. Those thresholds are strongly correlated with meeting of SDG 3 targets-below the identified thresholds, countries do not meet the SDG targets, while above the threshold there is a clear relationship between increasing consumption of electricity and improvement of SDG indicators. Electricity consumption of 400 kWh per capita is significantly higher than projections made by international agencies for future energy access, but only 5%–10% that of OECD countries. At the very least, the presence of thresholds and historical data patterns requires an understanding of how SDG targets would be met in the absence of this threshold level of electricity access. Full article
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