Special Issue "Effects of Climate Change on Sustainable Agriculture"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Agriculture".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Fabian Capitanio
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agriculture, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy
Interests: rural development; farm management; risk analysis; climate change and agriculture
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Donatella Porrini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Economics and Management, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy
Interests: natural disasters insurance; environmental regulation; law and economics; climate change policies; insurance market regulation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Giulio Fusco
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Economics and Management, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy
Interests: agricultural development; insurance economics; drought; political economy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Climate change is already starting to impact agricultural production around the globe, sometimes making production more difficult and sometimes creating new opportunities for food production. Agricultural sustainability may be especially threatened by climate extremes, such as heat waves, droughts, and floods. However, not all changes induced by climate change are necessarily negative; some may even be positive. Both predicting the impact of climate change on agriculture and finding ways to mitigate these changes, requires diverse skills, expertise, and experience. Adaptation is a social and cultural process, so it is important to ascertain how farmers adapt, which factors farmers take into account, and what other actors can contribute to the adaptation process. This Special Issue aims at highlighting the state-of-the-art development in climate-resilient practices, including adaptive management practices employed, and to showcase promising adaptive and resource conservation agricultural practices to maintain the productivity of agroecosystems under changing climatic conditions, not ignoring the role of risk quantification, transfer, and financing. We welcome original research articles, technical articles, reviews, meta-analyses, and perspective articles pertaining to the following aspects, even if not exhaustively:

  • Impacts of climate change on agriculture and food production;
  • Agricultural adaptation to climate change;
  • Climate risk mitigating tools;
  • Roles of different actors in adaptation processes of agriculture to climate change;
  • Framing sustainability indicators for climate-resilient agriculture;
  • The role of climate smart agriculture (CSA) in addressing sustainability and resilience;
  • IoT and artificial intelligence to support the risk adaptation and mitigation in a circular economy approach;
  • International initiatives/policies for climate resilient and adaptive agricultural practices;
  • Implications for insurers as investor and risk managers from climate change and agriculture.

Prof. Dr. Fabian Capitanio
Dr. Pier Paolo Miglietta
Prof. Donatella Porrini
Dr. Giulio Fusco
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Climate-smart agriculture
  • Climate change insurance
  • Adaptation
  • Risk mitigation
  • Recovery
  • Sustainable agriculture
  • Food security
  • Circular economy

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Article
Alfalfa for a Sustainable Ovine Farming System: Proposed Research for a New Feeding Strategy Based on Alfalfa and Ecological Leftovers in Drought Conditions
Sustainability 2021, 13(7), 3880; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13073880 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 514
Abstract
In the past 10 years, the average demand for meat and milk across the world has significantly increased, especially in developing countries. Therefore, to support the production of animal-derived food products, a huge quantity of feed resources is needed. This paper does not [...] Read more.
In the past 10 years, the average demand for meat and milk across the world has significantly increased, especially in developing countries. Therefore, to support the production of animal-derived food products, a huge quantity of feed resources is needed. This paper does not present original research, but rather provides a conceptual strategy to improve primary production in a sustainable way, in relation to forthcoming issues linked to climate change. Increases in meat and milk production could be achieved by formulating balanced diets for ovines based on alfalfa integrated with local agricultural by-products. As the central component of the diet is alfalfa, one goal of the project is increasing the yield of alfalfa in a sustainable way via inoculating seeds with symbiotic rhizobia (i.e., Sinorhizobium meliloti). Seed inoculants are already present on the market but have not been optimized for arid soils. Furthermore, a part of the project is focused on the selection of elite symbiotic strains that show increased resistance to salt stress and competitiveness. The second component of the experimental diets is bio-waste, especially that obtained from olive oil manufacturing (i.e., pomace). The addition of agro-by-products allows us to use such waste as a resource for animal feeding, and possibly, to modulate rumen metabolism, thereby increasing the nutritional quality of milk and meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Sustainable Agriculture)
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Article
A Multi-Criteria Approach for Assessing the Economic Resilience of Agriculture: The Case of Lithuania
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 2370; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042370 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 543
Abstract
This study presents an innovative approach to measuring economic resilience at a sectoral level. The notion of economic resilience is explored through the lens of levels of resilience of the main functions of a researched economic sector. The overall level of sectoral economic [...] Read more.
This study presents an innovative approach to measuring economic resilience at a sectoral level. The notion of economic resilience is explored through the lens of levels of resilience of the main functions of a researched economic sector. The overall level of sectoral economic resilience is seen as a weighted sum of resilience indexes related to its main economic functions. Such a comprehensive approach is universal, as it allows to measure economic resilience of various economic sectors. For the empirical application, the agricultural sector of Lithuania was selected for analysis of resilience. The results revealed that the overall level of resilience declined in Lithuanian agricultural sector during 2012–2019. Such a persistent trend may pose an increasing risk for food security in Lithuania in the future. The most evident negative changes in the economic resilience levels are observed in terms of economic viability of farms. The most robust levels of economic resilience are indicated in the sense of ability to provide local food at affordable prices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Sustainable Agriculture)
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Article
Climate Change and Sustainability of Crop Yield in Dry Regions Food Insecurity
Sustainability 2020, 12(23), 9890; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12239890 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 660
Abstract
The main purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of climatic change on potato yield and yield variability in Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZs) of Iran during 2041–2070 (2050s). The Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) was performed in this study to downscale the outputs [...] Read more.
The main purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of climatic change on potato yield and yield variability in Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZs) of Iran during 2041–2070 (2050s). The Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) was performed in this study to downscale the outputs of the General Circulation Model (GCM) and to obtain local climate projections under climate scenarios for a future period. The Just and Pope Production function was used to investigate the impacts of climatic change on potato yield. The results showed that the effects of future climatic change on potato yield and its variability would vary among the different AEZs. Potato yield would change in the range from −11% to 36% across different AEZs during the 2050s. Yield variability is expected to vary from −29% to 6%. Much more generally, the results indicated that the major potato producing zones would experience a decrease in mean potato yield in the presence of climate change. Our findings would help policymakers and planners in designing appropriate policies to allocate the lands under potato cultivation among different zones. These results also have important implications for adopting ecological zone-specific strategies to mitigate the reduction in potato yield and meet food security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Sustainable Agriculture)
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Article
The Effect of Climate Change-Induced Temperature Increase on Performance and Environmental Impact of Intensive Pig Production Systems
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9442; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229442 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 571
Abstract
This study examined climate change impacts (CCI) on productivity of pig production systems, their resource use, environmental impacts and the relevance of potential adaptation options. The impact of increasing temperature and temperature-humidity index (THI) on performance of pigs in confined housing systems was [...] Read more.
This study examined climate change impacts (CCI) on productivity of pig production systems, their resource use, environmental impacts and the relevance of potential adaptation options. The impact of increasing temperature and temperature-humidity index (THI) on performance of pigs in confined housing systems was analysed by a meta-analysis. Using climate data for an Austrian site for the period 1981 to 2010, different scenarios (cold year, warm year, hot year, worst case scenario) were modelled and compared. Although significant differences between thermoneutral and heat stress conditions were detected for the analysed traits of growing and finishing pigs, overall performance, resource use (cumulative energy demand) and environmental impacts (global warming, acidification and eutrophication potential) per kg of live mass for finished pigs and reared piglets did not significantly differ between most scenarios. Elements of pig production systems resilient to CCI, which were not considered under performance and environmental impacts (LCA), were addressed in a system analysis that was based on literature and expert knowledge. The most important detected system elements are plants and animals with an appropriate genetic potential, securing the access to inexpensive feed, including land for feed production, securing water supply and the implementation of health plans and measures against diseases associated with CCI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Sustainable Agriculture)
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Article
An Overview of Environmental Policies for Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change and Application of Multilevel Regression Analysis to Investigate the CO2 Emissions over the Years of 1970 to 2018 in All Brazilian States
Sustainability 2020, 12(21), 9175; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12219175 - 04 Nov 2020
Viewed by 771
Abstract
Background: Brazil, one of the largest greenhouse gas emitting countries in the world, emitted approximately 2 billion gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) in 2018. This data is practically the same recorded in the previous year, suggesting that the country’s trajectory of [...] Read more.
Background: Brazil, one of the largest greenhouse gas emitting countries in the world, emitted approximately 2 billion gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) in 2018. This data is practically the same recorded in the previous year, suggesting that the country’s trajectory of CO2 emissions is stabilized. Methods: This study presents an overview of environmental protection and climate change mitigation policies adopted in Brazil, as well as makes use the multilevel regression modeling technique to investigate the relationship between economic activities variables in relation to CO2 emissions over the years of 1970 to 2018 in all Brazilian states. Results: The results show that the CO2 emissions in the states have the same behavior as the timeline of the change in land use. Conclusions: The public policies and actions by society and the private sector were fundamental to the reduction verified from the year of 2004 that followed until 2010, both in CO2 emissions and in the change in land use and forests. As of this year, there has been a trend towards stability in CO2 emissions. Another important characteristic is that even with a drop in the number of deforestation, the production variables continued to grow, which shows that there may be an increase in production activities, while there is a reduction in deforestation and in CO2 emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Sustainable Agriculture)
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Article
Teleconnections between Snow Cover Change over Siberia and Crop Growth in Northeast China
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7632; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187632 - 16 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1119
Abstract
Snow cover is a sensitive indicator of climate change, and the variations in snow cover can influence the global climate system and terrestrial water cycling. However, the teleconnections between snow cover changes of the northern hemisphere and the crop growth of Northeast China [...] Read more.
Snow cover is a sensitive indicator of climate change, and the variations in snow cover can influence the global climate system and terrestrial water cycling. However, the teleconnections between snow cover changes of the northern hemisphere and the crop growth of Northeast China (NEC) are less documented. In this study, we estimated the correlations between spring snow cover area over Siberia (SSCA) and the regional climate, as well as the crop growth in NEC based on both satellite measurement and observational climate records from 1982 to 2015. The local temperature, including minimum temperature (Tmin) in May–June, maximum temperature (Tmax), and Tmin in July–August, showed significant negative correlations with SSCA. SSCA is found to be negatively correlated to rainfall during the beginning of the growing season, while positively correlated to rainfall during the peak growing season for the agricultural ecosystem of NEC. The remote responses of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to SSCA varied across different climate zones and different growing periods. The NDVI variations over cold and dry cultivated regions exhibit negative correlations with SSCA in May–June, which is opposite for the wetter areas. The negative correlation between NDVI over the agricultural ecosystem and SSCA during the peak growing season was also detected, implying the variations in SSCA might be an essential driving factor in affecting the crop growth through modifying the regional climate of NEC. In the future, more in situ observations and model simulations should be conducted to verify our results described here, which would have significant implications for maintaining regional food security and sustainable development in Northeast China under the changing climate background. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Sustainable Agriculture)
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Article
Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Options for Farm Performance Using Bio-Economic Models in Southwestern France
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7528; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187528 - 12 Sep 2020
Viewed by 659
Abstract
Regional impact studies are needed to explore possible adaptation options to climate change. We estimated impacts and adaptation options for future scenarios that feature different assumptions regarding climate, cropping pattern and access to irrigation with two bio-economic farm models. Farm profit, soil organic [...] Read more.
Regional impact studies are needed to explore possible adaptation options to climate change. We estimated impacts and adaptation options for future scenarios that feature different assumptions regarding climate, cropping pattern and access to irrigation with two bio-economic farm models. Farm profit, soil organic matter balance and labor input are used as indicators of farm performance. The difference between the baseline and the alternative configurations computed by models is referred as adaptation potential, indicative of the adaptation options including the corresponding changes in cropping patterns. Our results show that as long as there is sufficient access to irrigation water, there is little incentive to change current practices, as farming is at the economic optimum, has a positive soil organic matter balance and labor requirements can be met. Conversely, if irrigation is no longer possible, drastic impacts occur, causing a need to sustainably adjust on-going farm practices. Adaptation through changed crop selection reduced losses to some extent. We conclude that the use of bio-economic models can assist in evaluating the qualitative findings of participatory studies by quantitatively assessing possible climate change impacts and adaptation measures. Strong impacts of climate change, however, cannot be offset by changes in cropping patterns and need further adaptation measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Sustainable Agriculture)
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Article
Role of Information in Farmers’ Response to Weather and Water Related Stresses in the Lower Bengal Delta, Bangladesh
Sustainability 2020, 12(16), 6598; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166598 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1391
Abstract
Farmers in the lower Bengal Delta around the city of Khulna, Bangladesh, are particularly vulnerable to hydro-climatic variability. Phenomena such as heavy rain, drought and salt intrusion increasingly affect their crop production, with far-reaching socio-economic and environmental impacts. Reliable hydro-climatic information service received [...] Read more.
Farmers in the lower Bengal Delta around the city of Khulna, Bangladesh, are particularly vulnerable to hydro-climatic variability. Phenomena such as heavy rain, drought and salt intrusion increasingly affect their crop production, with far-reaching socio-economic and environmental impacts. Reliable hydro-climatic information service received in a timely manner could help farmers improve their responses to hydro-climatic variability, thus improving their agricultural decision-making. However, significant challenges persist regarding information uptake and the role of information from the available sources. We designed an explorative research framework combining different participatory methods and analysis of climate data. Our aim was to examine three key research questions: (i) what information is currently available to farmers for agricultural practices and decision-making? (ii) what is the perceived quality of the available hydro-climatic information in response to water and weather related stresses? (iii) how does the available information influence farmers’ decision-making? We found that farmers had access to information from five main sources: informal contacts, formal contacts, education and training programs, traditional media (like television) and modern ICT tools/social media. However, informal contacts, particularly with peer farmers and private input suppliers, were the farmers’ main source, in addition to their own previous experiences. Farmers perceived hydro-climatic variability as high and the quality of available hydro-climatic information as poor. They indicated a need for more accurate, time-specific, trusted and actionable information for improving agricultural decision-making. We conclude that there is high potential and need for hydro-climatic information services tailored for farmers in the study area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Sustainable Agriculture)
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Article
Multi-Source Data Modeling of the Spatial Distribution of Winter Wheat Yield in China from 2000 to 2015
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5436; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135436 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 684
Abstract
Yield gridded datasets are essential for agricultural land management, food security and harmonious human–land relationships. Many studies have developed yield spatialization models that are based on cropland areas. However, crop planting areas, phenological dates, and net primary production (NPP) have received minimal attention. [...] Read more.
Yield gridded datasets are essential for agricultural land management, food security and harmonious human–land relationships. Many studies have developed yield spatialization models that are based on cropland areas. However, crop planting areas, phenological dates, and net primary production (NPP) have received minimal attention. This study proposes a novel method to simulate winter wheat yields in China from 2000 to 2015 using crop phenological datasets, phenological observations, and NPP. The results showed that the NPP in the growing season and statistical yield showed a significant positive correlation (R2 = 0.93, p < 0.01). The mean prediction error of the gridded yield dataset was 12.01%. The relative errors of the gridded yield dataset for approximately half of the samples were between −10% and 10%. Furthermore, the yield distribution was high in the east and low in the west. The high yield was primarily concentrated in the North China Plain, while low yield was observed in eastern Gansu, central Shanxi, southern Hebei, and eastern Sichuan. From 2000 to 2015, the yield mainly showed an increasing trend in the study area, with the average rate of 0.17 t ha−1 yr−1, especially in the North China Plain. This study suggests that NPP is a key indicator to evaluate the yield of winter wheat. Furthermore, this method can be used to generate gridded yield maps along with providing credible and fundamental data for climate change and sustainable agricultural development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Sustainable Agriculture)
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Article
Identification of Shift in Sowing and Harvesting Dates of Rice Crop (L. Oryza sativa) through Remote Sensing Techniques: A Case Study of Larkana District
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3586; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093586 - 28 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1333
Abstract
The present study aimed to determine the impact of climate variability on rice crops in terms of sowing and harvesting dates and crop period. The identification of sowing and harvesting dates were spotted by mask identification, variations in land surface temperature (LST) on [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to determine the impact of climate variability on rice crops in terms of sowing and harvesting dates and crop period. The identification of sowing and harvesting dates were spotted by mask identification, variations in land surface temperature (LST) on a temporal scale in the respective months, and a field-level social inquiry. The study was conducted during a time period (1994–2017), in which geo-referenced crop samples, farmer’s perception survey data, Landsat satellite images, and climate data of district Larkana were used. The analysis of satellite imageries revealed that on 20 June 1994, the rice was transplanted on 14.7% of the area of the region while it was only 7.1% of the area in 2017. Similarly, the area under rice crop in the first week of July 1994 was 18.3% compared to 8.15% during the same period in 2017. However, in the first week of October 2017, the rice crop was standing on 46.8% of the area while it was on 34.6% of the area during the year 1994 on the same date. This LST variation depicts a delay in the sowing and harvesting of the rice crop. This changing pattern is further confirmed through mean LST. Mean LST (°C) has been increasing in the sowing period of rice crop from 31.9 °C in June 1994 to 35.8 °C in June 2017, and from 32.8 °C in July 1994 to 36.8 °C in July 2017. Furthermore, the LST decreased during the harvesting period of rice crop from 31 °C in October 1994 to 28.6 °C in October 2017. The present study quantifies a delay of 15–30 days in sowing and harvesting dates of the rice crop in the district due to climate variability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Sustainable Agriculture)
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Review

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Review
How to Improve the Diffusion of Climate-Smart Agriculture: What the Literature Tells us
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 5168; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125168 - 24 Jun 2020
Viewed by 982
Abstract
Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is a technologically innovative response to the challenges faced by agriculture due to climate change. Its implementation needs a change of mentality in the direction of an approach that takes into account how the increase in technologically induced productivity affects [...] Read more.
Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is a technologically innovative response to the challenges faced by agriculture due to climate change. Its implementation needs a change of mentality in the direction of an approach that takes into account how the increase in technologically induced productivity affects climate change. In the belief that the in-depth analysis conducted by scientific research plays a fundamental role, we explore the characteristics, actors, and pillars of CSA, examining both the scientific literature and financed projects. Specifically, through a systematic review of the literature we address both the application and barriers to implementation at a global level, and then we focus on a case study of the geographical distribution of CSA projects in Europe. Our results show a heterogeneous framework in which we can note discrepancies among countries. Finally, as conclusive remarks, we consider the type of policies that could be implemented to improve the diffusion of CSA in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Sustainable Agriculture)
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Review
Climate Change, Rangelands, and Sustainability of Ranching in the Western United States
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 4942; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12124942 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1142
Abstract
Accelerated climate change is a global challenge that is increasingly putting pressure on the sustainability of livestock production systems that heavily depend on rangeland ecosystems. Rangeland management practices have low potential to sequester greenhouse gases. However, mismanagement of rangelands and their conversion into [...] Read more.
Accelerated climate change is a global challenge that is increasingly putting pressure on the sustainability of livestock production systems that heavily depend on rangeland ecosystems. Rangeland management practices have low potential to sequester greenhouse gases. However, mismanagement of rangelands and their conversion into ex-urban, urban, and industrial landscapes can significantly exacerbate the climate change process. Under conditions of more droughts, heat waves, and other extreme weather events, management of risks (climate, biological, financial, political) will probably be more important to the sustainability of ranching than capability to expand output of livestock products in response to rising demand due to population growth. Replacing traditional domestic livestock with a combination of highly adapted livestock and game animals valued for both hunting and meat may be the best strategy on many arid rangelands. Eventually, traditional ranching could become financially unsound across large areas if climate change is not adequately addressed. Rangeland policy, management, and research will need to be heavily focused on the climate change problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Sustainable Agriculture)
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Other

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Project Report
Proposed Research for Innovative Solutions for Chickpeas and Beans in a Climate Change Scenario: The Mediterranean Basin
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1315; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041315 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1077
Abstract
In order to gain insight into the complex molecular networks driving legume adaptation caused by climate change, it is necessary to deeply characterize the existing germplasm in response to the environmental constraint predicted to worsen in the near future: drought. In this study, [...] Read more.
In order to gain insight into the complex molecular networks driving legume adaptation caused by climate change, it is necessary to deeply characterize the existing germplasm in response to the environmental constraint predicted to worsen in the near future: drought. In this study, we propose to perform a three-year deep agronomic characterization of local genotypes of selected legumes in abiotic stressing conditions through controlled and field experiments conducted in several countries of the Mediterranean basin (Italy, Spain, Algeria, Tunisia, Turkey, Lebanon, and Croatia). These phenotypic analyses will be integrated with a multi-omic approach aiming at identifying the key players involved in the modulation of the analyzed traits that includes the analysis of the plant methylome, transcriptome, and proteome. Following this approach, we propose to deliver epigenomic markers linked with rapid adaptation mechanisms in response to drought. Besides, new genetic variability by breeding could be created in stressing conditions and produce the basis for the obtainment of more productive cultivars in worsening environments. The epigenetic marks identified in “omic” activities will be validated in molecular marker-assisted selection in F2–F4 populations. Finally, specific rhizobia strains for the best evaluated genotypes will be identified in order to enhance symbiotic nitrogen fixation in drought stress conditions with selected cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Sustainable Agriculture)
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