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Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Tourism, Culture, and Heritage".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 64090

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Tourism and Recreation, University School of Physical Education, 31-571 Kraków, Poland
Interests: sustainable tourism; inclusive tourism; special interest tourism (mountain tourism; ecotourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourism, sport tourism); tourism attractions; regional aspects of the geography of tourism
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Guest Editor
University College of Tourism and Ecology, Faculty of Tourism and Recreation, Zamkowa 1, 34-200 Sucha Beskidzka, Poland
Interests: sustainable tourism; tourism promotion, tourism policy, tourism marketing, urban tourism

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The purpose of this Special Issue is to show progress regarding current research and literature on the theme of “Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications for Sustainability”.

In particular, this Special Issue of the peer-reviewed international journal Sustainability aspires to expand the discussion and scientific debate on a range of viewpoints, trends, approaches, cases, impacts, challenges, models and/or frameworks relating to tourism in the time of COVID-19, as well as the possibility of implementing the principles of sustainable tourism development in the post-pandemic period. Restarting the frozen tourism economy is an opportunity to build healthy relations between various groups of tourism stakeholders, including entrepreneurs and tourists. "New tourism" also requires legal and organizational solutions in order to balance the economic relations between global and local market actors in terms of consumer protection and preventing the phenomenon of overtourism. Digitization of tourism services in the area of marketing and sales should be one of the priorities addressed by entrepreneurs and DMOs.

In the literature, as well as in the media and the scientific community, the impact of the pandemic on tourism has been the most commonly discussed topic over the last two years. Nevertheless, with the development of the situation our knowledge is being supplemented day by day. This Special Issue aims to explore further sustainable tourism practices. Please send articles on topics such as:

  • Diagnosis of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on all sectors of tourism: hotels, tour operators, gastronomy, air transport
  • The impact of the pandemic on tourist destinations (especially cities) and travel geography
  • Challenges and opportunities for sustainable development in tourism in the post-Covid period
  • Tourism reconstruction forecasts
  • Trends in tourism demand and supply
  • Scenarios for the development of tourism in the post-Covid period
  • Priorities of tourism policy during the pandemic and in the post-Covid period
  • New models for DMOs and NTOs
  • Tools for sustainable urban tourism
  • Tourism stakeholder conflicts
  • Tourism recovery assessment indicators
  • New technologies in marketing communication and sales of tourist services
  • Segmentation of tourists in the post-Covid period

Prof. Dr. Zygmunt Kruczek
Prof. Dr. Bartłomiej Walas
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  •  Tourism
  •  COVID-19
  •  trends
  •  sustainable tourism
  •  development and planning
  •  strategies
  •  smart tourism
  •  diagnostic indicators
  •  tourism policy
  •  new technology
  •  conflicts
  •  restart
  •  segmentation
  •  monitoring

Published Papers (24 papers)

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17 pages, 2424 KiB  
Article
The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Tourism Sector in the Autonomous Region of Madeira
by Paulo Rita, Nuno António and João Neves
Sustainability 2023, 15(16), 12298; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151612298 - 11 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1261
Abstract
The highly regarded and award-winning tourism destination that is the autonomous region of Madeira (ARM), in the Madeira and Porto Santo islands, has suffered the consequences that the COVID-19 pandemic has brought to tourism through the mobility limitations as well as the fear [...] Read more.
The highly regarded and award-winning tourism destination that is the autonomous region of Madeira (ARM), in the Madeira and Porto Santo islands, has suffered the consequences that the COVID-19 pandemic has brought to tourism through the mobility limitations as well as the fear faced by travelers. From data collected on tourism, COVID-19, and demography in ARM from the years 2019 to 2020, this study makes use of data science techniques, including statistics, data mining, and data visualization, to analyze the direct and indirect effects of the coronavirus outbreak as well as the weight of population density in the propagation of the virus. The results validate a direct effect and show evidence of dense regions having aggravated virus propagation, but they do not corroborate the idea that an indirect effect was significant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications)
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14 pages, 604 KiB  
Article
Museums without Visitors? Crisis of the Polish Museums during the COVID-19 Pandemic and Their Revival under the Digital Experience Offer
by Łukasz Gaweł
Sustainability 2023, 15(15), 11844; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151511844 - 1 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1155
Abstract
Museums, as many other organisations, froze during the lockdown. Museums offer insights into varying cultures and since no forms of culture can sustain without the engagement of audiences, participants, or visitors, the lockdown forced by the pandemic compelled museum authorities to look for [...] Read more.
Museums, as many other organisations, froze during the lockdown. Museums offer insights into varying cultures and since no forms of culture can sustain without the engagement of audiences, participants, or visitors, the lockdown forced by the pandemic compelled museum authorities to look for new ways to reach audiences and establish relationships with them, thereby facilitating previously untapped forms of cultural participation. This worldwide experience of the pandemic undoubtedly accelerated the digital transformation of the entire cultural sector. To what extent these new opportunities have changed the forms of participation in the cultural realm remains an open question. This current research carried out in some of the largest Polish museums allowed us to conclude that the pandemic period saw a significant leap forward in terms of the involvement of digital technologies in popularising museum collections, as well as in seeking contact with audiences at various levels. At the same time, the reopening of museums resulted in increased attendances on an unprecedented scale. It could be said that the pandemic made us realise how global threats can, in a short span of time, take away the possibility of enjoying traditional forms of cultural participation, but at the same time enable the development of digital technologies that can significantly contribute to the popularisation of museum collections or exhibitions. This research was designed to find out whether museum audiences wanted a change in the way they experience the collections and exhibitions held in museums, and whether the digital experience created during the pandemic was attractive enough to compete with a personal visit to an art gallery. The results of the research clearly indicated that despite the rich digital experience offered in Polish museums, viewers still stated a desire to return to a “real museum”. The pandemic allowed the museum authorities to learn novel administration techniques and numerous technological solutions that were previously never used have now become a permanent feature of regular museum operations. However, the reaction of the audiences after the lockdown was clear: they still wanted to enjoy traditional forms of cultural participation, valuing above all the possibility of personal contact with an original work of art in a museum gallery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications)
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26 pages, 324 KiB  
Article
Actual and Expected Competencies in the Meetings Industry Sector during the Post-COVID-19 Era: The Case Studies Poland, Ireland, and Hungary
by Marek Nocoń, Lucyna Jurzak, Paweł Kruszelnicki, Marcin Ziobro and Aleksandra Fabin-Jadczak
Sustainability 2023, 15(15), 11686; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151511686 - 28 Jul 2023
Viewed by 894
Abstract
The main purpose of the article is to identify the key competencies of the management staff and employees of meetings industry enterprises during the COVID-19 pandemic, which made it possible to secure the functioning of these entities during the crisis. The results of [...] Read more.
The main purpose of the article is to identify the key competencies of the management staff and employees of meetings industry enterprises during the COVID-19 pandemic, which made it possible to secure the functioning of these entities during the crisis. The results of this survey, conducted in 2020 and 2021 among employees of this industry in three countries—Poland, Ireland, and Hungary, are the basis for a discussion on the competency profiles and competency gaps of employees in the meetings industry. Further research in this area of MICE competencies and the preparation of recommendation packages are necessary in order to prepare the industries for future possible crises based on the knowledge gained during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications)
20 pages, 1558 KiB  
Article
How Has Online Digital Technology Influenced the On-Site Visitation Behavior of Tourists during the COVID-19 Pandemic? A Case Study of Online Digital Art Exhibitions in China
by Yanqing Xia
Sustainability 2023, 15(14), 10889; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151410889 - 11 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2068
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the global tourism industry, leading to a decrease in peoples’ willingness to travel and a sense of insecurity regarding tourist destinations. Therefore, restoring people’s willingness to travel is the greatest challenge faced by this [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the global tourism industry, leading to a decrease in peoples’ willingness to travel and a sense of insecurity regarding tourist destinations. Therefore, restoring people’s willingness to travel is the greatest challenge faced by this industry in the post-pandemic era. The tourism industry requires innovative solutions to achieve sustainable recovery. While there is a considerable amount of research on its recovery during the pandemic, there are few studies exploring people’s willingness to travel to encourage sustainable and resilient recovery in the post-pandemic era. This study employed a quality model to examine the satisfaction and intention of tourists towards the application of online digital art exhibitions under the influence of COVID-19. The aim was to investigate the promoting role of online digital art exhibitions in the sustainability and resilient recovery of the tourism industry. To achieve these objectives, this study focuses on the online digital art exhibition of Song Dynasty figure paintings launched by China Central Television (CCTV), with post-exhibition surveys conducted and 512 valid questionnaires collected. The research model and hypotheses are tested using structural equation modeling. The results of this study indicate that travelers’ intentions to engage in on-site visits through online digital exhibitions are determined by three factors: perceived value, satisfaction, and art therapy. Furthermore, online digital art exhibitions not only represented the most important form of tourism during the pandemic, but they also provided significant psychological healing. They have become a driving force for the transformation of the current culture and tourism industry and the promotion of its sustainable development. This research provides a benchmark for future research on the tourism industry, and it offers new research directions in the field of sustainable tourism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications)
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18 pages, 751 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Perceived Quality of Government Subsidies on Residents’ Travel Intention Post-COVID-19 in Wuhan, China
by Yajuan Dong, Yi Jin and Khan Anwar Kamal
Sustainability 2023, 15(14), 10812; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151410812 - 10 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1335
Abstract
To stimulate tourism demand and promote internal circulation, government subsidy policies have been introduced in many places in recent years due to public health concerns. In this paper, we propose a mechanistic model of the impact of the perceived quality of government subsidies [...] Read more.
To stimulate tourism demand and promote internal circulation, government subsidy policies have been introduced in many places in recent years due to public health concerns. In this paper, we propose a mechanistic model of the impact of the perceived quality of government subsidies on the travel intentions of residents based on consumer perception. Data were collected from Wuhan, China for empirical analysis. The results of this study showed that the perceived quality of government subsidies influenced travel intentions through the perceived behavioral control of travel consumers. Government subsidies were more likely to promote perceived behavioral control among residents with higher public health concerns, and their willingness to travel was stronger. Predicted risks undermine the positive effect of the perceived quality of government subsidies on travel intentions. The analysis suggested that a precise implementation of subsidy policies can enhance the efficiency of effects. We are keen to help China’s tourism market sustain growth in the post-COVID-19 period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications)
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23 pages, 3651 KiB  
Article
What Does the Concept of Resilience in Tourism Mean in the Time of COVID-19? Results of a Bibliometric Analysis
by Oumaima Lamhour, Larbi Safaa and Dalia Perkumienė
Sustainability 2023, 15(12), 9797; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15129797 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3455
Abstract
The spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on tourism, giving significant importance to resilience strategies for this sector. Indeed, over the past three years, an increasing amount of research has been conducted on tourism resilience without any overall analysis [...] Read more.
The spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on tourism, giving significant importance to resilience strategies for this sector. Indeed, over the past three years, an increasing amount of research has been conducted on tourism resilience without any overall analysis of these publications. This study aims to conduct a bibliometric analysis in order to identify research trends in the field as well as explore the various gaps in the literature on the subject studied during and after the pandemic. A selection of 114 Scopus-indexed articles published between 2020 and early 2023 on tourism resilience was analyzed by two bibliometric tools, VOS viewer and R bibliometrix. The results show that China, the United States, and Spain are the leading countries in this field of research. The articles’ authors, the affiliations, and the countries involved in research in this field were not able to compose a close, extensive, and collaborative network. The journal Sustainability (Switzerland), published by MDPI, is at the top of the list. This work identifies three dominant study themes: (1) tourism and sustainable resilience; (2) livelihood resilience; and (3) community resilience. This study provides a benchmark for future researchers with new study directions in the field of tourism resilience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications)
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13 pages, 762 KiB  
Article
Tourism Recovery and Sustainability Post Pandemic: An Integrated Approach for Kenya’s Tourism Hotspots
by David Chiawo, Collins Haggai, Veronica Muniu, Rose Njuguna and Peggy Ngila
Sustainability 2023, 15(9), 7291; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15097291 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3133
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the tourism industry, leading to global economic and societal disruptions, and a growing risk of a global recession. This project aimed to investigate the impact of the pandemic on conservation, communities, and businesses in [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the tourism industry, leading to global economic and societal disruptions, and a growing risk of a global recession. This project aimed to investigate the impact of the pandemic on conservation, communities, and businesses in Masai Mara, and identify critical factors for sustainable tourism recovery. Four objectives were explored: (1) awareness of critical factors for tourism recovery and sustainability during and after the pandemic period; (2) socio-economic vulnerabilities of indigenous communities to COVID-19; (3) lessons learned to enhance adaptation and resilience; and (4) the impact of COVID-19 on conservation management of the destination. We used mixed methods, including field observations, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions, to collect data from tourism industry businesses and policymakers in the Masai Mara conservation area. The findings indicated a negative large-scale effect on conservation, tourism business, and communities in the area. The study recommends integrated interventions by both county and national governments, targeting small, medium, and micro enterprises. The persistence of the economic damage to the tourism sector will depend on how both county and national governments handle policy interventions towards the funding of tourism SMMEs, the community livelihood programme, and conservation partnerships to incentivize tourism recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications)
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18 pages, 2675 KiB  
Article
Factors Determining ROPO Behaviors of Travel Agencies Customers during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Andrzej Dudek, Daria Elżbieta Jaremen and Izabela Michalska-Dudek
Sustainability 2023, 15(7), 6142; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15076142 - 3 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1622
Abstract
Tourist decision-making has been heavily affected by the pandemic crisis, which increases the complexity of the tourism business operations and shakes the foundations of tourism sustainable development. Thus, studying and comprehension of tourists’ behaviors, including the purchasing decisions, and incorporating this knowledge into [...] Read more.
Tourist decision-making has been heavily affected by the pandemic crisis, which increases the complexity of the tourism business operations and shakes the foundations of tourism sustainable development. Thus, studying and comprehension of tourists’ behaviors, including the purchasing decisions, and incorporating this knowledge into the strategies of tourism companies, has a key importance to the organizations’ survival during hard times. The article contains the characteristics of tourist behavior schemes related to decision-making in buying package holidays during COVID-19 crisis. The study was based on analysis of the results of a computer assisted web interview using the CAWI method, conducted among 1502 Poles using the classification tree method (the R statistical package and the RPART library). Research allowed us to identify the four purchase decision-making patterns and to describe four segments of holidaymakers’ buying according to these patterns. In the profiling process, nine demographic and social variables were used, including gender, age, education, residence, marital status, number of all household members, minor children in a household, assessment of own financial standing, and professional situation. The results of the analysis confirm the existence of a relationship between (1) the research online purchase offline behavior and the age, the number of children under 18 in the household, and the marital status of the package holidays buyers, (2) the research offline purchase online behavior and the age and the number of children up to 18 in the households of the buyers of tourist packages, (3) the research offline purchase offline behavior and the age, the number of children under 18 in the household, the assessment of the financial situation, and sex of the buyers of tourist packages, and (4) the research offline purchase online behavior and the age and assessment of financial situation of package holidays purchasers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications)
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17 pages, 1224 KiB  
Article
Smartphones as a Platform for Tourism Management Dynamics during Pandemics: A Case Study of the Shiraz Metropolis, Iran
by Hadigheh Morabi Jouybari, Amir Ghorbani, Hossein Mousazadeh, Azadeh Golafshan, Farahnaz Akbarzadeh Almani, Dávid Lóránt Dénes and Ritter Krisztián
Sustainability 2023, 15(5), 4051; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15054051 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2795
Abstract
During the past three years and with the spread of the pandemic, smartphones were the most important communication bridge between tourists and organizations; now more than ever, they are intertwined with the lives of tourists and destination management organizations. Although much research has [...] Read more.
During the past three years and with the spread of the pandemic, smartphones were the most important communication bridge between tourists and organizations; now more than ever, they are intertwined with the lives of tourists and destination management organizations. Although much research has been conducted in this field, the investigation of the effects of the pandemic on the technology and functionality of smartphones is one of the topics that has been less discussed. Therefore, the current research was conducted to determine the role of smartphones in tourism management dynamics during the pandemic. The research method was qualitative (content analysis, theme analysis), and 32 people participated in the interview process as a statistical sample. Then, the oral interviews were transcribed, and a thematic analysis was performed. For the analysis of the interviews, MAXQDA 2020 software was used. The results of the research indicate that smartphones were one of the most important platforms for tourism management dynamics during the pandemic, and in the event of a pandemic in the future, they can help contain the destruction to a great extent in their current position. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications)
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11 pages, 562 KiB  
Article
Extraordinary and Unavoidable Circumstances in Tourism under COVID-19 and Post Pandemic Times—Casus Poland as Example of Sustainability Management
by Dominik Borek and Daniel Puciato
Sustainability 2023, 15(3), 2416; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15032416 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1837
Abstract
The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and should not be taken as reflecting the position of any authority, entity or institution. This article presents the legal status as of 25 June 2022. In accordance with the Directive (EU) [...] Read more.
The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and should not be taken as reflecting the position of any authority, entity or institution. This article presents the legal status as of 25 June 2022. In accordance with the Directive (EU) 2015/2302 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 November 2015 on package travel and linked travel arrangements, amending Regulation (EC) No 2006/2004 and Directive 2011/83/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council and repealing Council Directive 90/314/EEC, tour operators registered in Poland are required to refund payments to travelers in the case of cancellation of their travel package due to extraordinary and unavoidable circumstances within 14 days of its termination. The traveler has the right to terminate the package travel contract before the start of the trip without paying any termination fee in the event of unavoidable and extraordinary circumstances occurring at the destination or its immediate vicinity and which significantly affect the implementation of the package or the transport of passengers to their final destination. In the case of termination of the package travel contract due to unavoidable and extraordinary circumstances, the traveler is entitled to a full refund of any payments made for the package travel but is not entitled to any additional compensation. The tour operator makes the return within 14 days from the effective termination of the travel contract. In the article we will describe the situation during the COVID-19 pandemic and post-COVID times. The significance and implications of our findings and arguments show how important this is in designing a state’s tourism policy. Targeted aid can be designed well in advance of extraordinary and unavoidable circumstances. In our opinion and the opinions of business practitioners, extraordinary and unavoidable circumstances in tourism occur on average every ten years, e.g., the1992 Yugoslavia war, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center, 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption, and the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. The results of the research show the effectiveness of legal instruments enacted by the Polish government during the COVID 19 crisis and the war in Ukraine. In the article we use two methods—empirical, related to the authors’ own experience, and dogmatic–exegetical. The empirical research was based on the authors’ experience as those responsible for the implementation of statutory regulations (director in the Ministry of Sport and Tourism and Ministry’s advisor) and on the concept of law as one of the normative systems in society—the operation of law in the sphere of social and economic life, which is tourism. A dogmatic–exegetical method was also used, which allowed for the study of the literature on the subject and the review of legal regulations. In our research, we also used the method of the economic analysis of law (law and economics method). Graphical presentation of the research results and the impact of the introduced support mechanisms on supply and demand indicate the desirability of solutions in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications)
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20 pages, 682 KiB  
Article
The COVID-19 Pandemic and Tourists’ Risk Perceptions: Tourism Policies’ Mediating Role in Sustainable and Resilient Recovery in the New Normal
by Shiqi Zhang, Tianwei Sun and Yuan Lu
Sustainability 2023, 15(2), 1323; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15021323 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3519
Abstract
The COVID-19 health crisis has had unprecedented impacts on the global tourism industry, creating a sense of insecurity among tourists about destinations. Thus, rebuilding tourists’ confidence in the tourism industry is the biggest challenge faced by policymakers in the new normal. The tourism [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 health crisis has had unprecedented impacts on the global tourism industry, creating a sense of insecurity among tourists about destinations. Thus, rebuilding tourists’ confidence in the tourism industry is the biggest challenge faced by policymakers in the new normal. The tourism industry needs innovative solutions for sustainable recovery, but limited literature is available on the tourism policies necessary for sustainable and resilient recovery in the new normal. This study investigated the impact of COVID-19 and risk perception on the recovery of tourism. Moreover, this study also explored the mediating role of attitudes toward tourism policies between COVID-19, risk perceptions, and tourism recovery. Data collected from 1437 tourists through an online survey were analyzed using PLS-SEM and descriptive statistics. The results showed that a large majority of the tourists still felt unsafe and insecure about tourism destinations. COVID-19 risk perceptions were found to be negatively associated with tourism recovery in the new normal. Risk perceptions had a significant positive impact on transportation selection behavior (β = 0.725, p < 0.01), as did avoiding overcrowded places (β = 0.692, p < 0.01). Transportation selection behaviors also had a statistically significant negative impact on the recovery of tourism (β = −0.220, p < 0.01). The findings showed that attitudes toward tourism policies mediated the effect between COVID-19 and tourism intentions. This study has important policy implications for the sustainable recovery of the tourism industry and for making it resilient against future crises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications)
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15 pages, 325 KiB  
Article
How Does Personality Affect COVID-19 Pandemic Travel Risk Perceptions and Behaviors? Evidence from Segment Analysis in Taiwan
by Tsung-Hung Lee and Fen-Hauh Jan
Sustainability 2023, 15(1), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15010655 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
This study aims to assess the risk perceptions and travel intentions of travelers who were segmented into groups based on their personality traits. In total, 684 useful questionnaires were obtained from Taiwan. A multivariate statistical analysis was performed for data analysis. Five clusters [...] Read more.
This study aims to assess the risk perceptions and travel intentions of travelers who were segmented into groups based on their personality traits. In total, 684 useful questionnaires were obtained from Taiwan. A multivariate statistical analysis was performed for data analysis. Five clusters of travelers were identified via cluster analysis: sensitive travelers, cogitative travelers, temperate travelers, introverted travelers, and moderate travelers. These clusters exhibited significant differences in the personality traits, risk perceptions, and behavioral intentions of travelers. By introducing strategies for market segmentation that destination managers can use to develop better marketing strategies that target tourist personality traits during pandemic outbreaks, this study potentially contributes to the literature on travel risk, satisfaction, and behavioral intention, and applies marketing strategies from researchers in tourism studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications)
21 pages, 321 KiB  
Article
Perspectives for Tourism Development in the Post-Pandemic Period in the Opinions of University Students
by Dariusz Jacek Olszewski-Strzyżowski, Marcin Pasek and Mariusz Lipowski
Sustainability 2022, 14(24), 16833; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142416833 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3206
Abstract
The dynamic growth and evolution of tourism in recent times and its growing importance for the economies of many countries has been drastically hampered by the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic has not only affected tourism through travel restrictions and the associated difficulties faced [...] Read more.
The dynamic growth and evolution of tourism in recent times and its growing importance for the economies of many countries has been drastically hampered by the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic has not only affected tourism through travel restrictions and the associated difficulties faced by the tourism industry, but it has also changed people’s tourism preferences (mass tourism has been replaced by more sustainable tourism), as well as their motives for undertaking tourism. The aim of this study is to assess students’ views on the role of the COVID-19 pandemic in shaping their tourism experiences and beliefs about the future of tourism in the perspective of the pandemic and its global implications. The issue is of interest given the young age of the study participants and the belief that they are key influencers in shaping the image of global tourism in the post-pandemic period. The participants of this study were 196 students from higher education institutions in Gdansk, representing both tourism- and non-tourism-related majors. The aim of this study was achieved using the diagnostic survey method, collecting information about the respondents’ beliefs based on a research tool in the form of a survey questionnaire. The results suggest that tourism activities and students’ motives for engaging in them may change after the pandemic expires compared to before COVID-19. In general, studying tourism is associated with moderate attitudes towards the aftermath of the coronavirus compared to the more radical responses of students who do not study tourism. A limitation of this pilot study was the geographical restriction of the respondents to the Polish population, which makes it difficult at this stage to draw more generalized conclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications)
19 pages, 1202 KiB  
Article
Risks in the Role of Co-Creating the Future of Tourism in “Stigmatized” Destinations
by Tamara Gajić, Dragan Vukolić, Marko D. Petrović, Ivana Blešić, Miloš Zrnić, Drago Cvijanović, Dejan Sekulić, Ana Spasojević, Maja Obradović, Ana Obradović, Ilija Savić, Jasmina M. Jovanović, Mirjana Gajić, Dobrila Lukić and Željko Anđelković
Sustainability 2022, 14(23), 15530; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142315530 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1940
Abstract
The primary goal of this paper was to investigate the strength of the influence of different types of risk on the travelers’ intention to visit destinations in future, that are, prejudiced due to COVID-19, marked as “stigmatized”, “isolated”, or “risky destinations”. Field interview [...] Read more.
The primary goal of this paper was to investigate the strength of the influence of different types of risk on the travelers’ intention to visit destinations in future, that are, prejudiced due to COVID-19, marked as “stigmatized”, “isolated”, or “risky destinations”. Field interview research was conducted at the “Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport” (Serbia). The results obtained by multiple regression analysis showed that all types of risks influenced the intention of travelers, with financial risk showing a more significant impact. Canonical discriminant analysis indicated that men were most afraid of human induced risk, service quality risk, natural disaster and COVID-19 risk, and they chose safer destinations. Among the women, the biggest fear was financial risk, socio-psychological risk, and food safety risk. Older respondents and those under the influence of external factors decided on safer destinations, while financial status did not play a significant role in predicting the choice of destination. The selection of the destination according to the degree of security was determined by the ordinal regression methodology. The entire research presents a certain novelty, because so far in the numerous studies on the topic of the negative consequences of COVID-19 on tourism, there has been no discussion of stigmatized or risky destinations that received that epithet, and were therefore negatively and unfairly marked in the minds of tourists for future visits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications)
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12 pages, 259 KiB  
Article
Crisis Management in Restaurants: The Case of Polish Restaurants during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Marek Nowacki and Marianna Nurkowska
Sustainability 2022, 14(21), 14631; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142114631 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1994
Abstract
The article aims to identify effective actions taken by the catering industry as part of crisis management during the COVID-19 pandemic. The time scope of the research concerns the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the period from 13 March to 18 [...] Read more.
The article aims to identify effective actions taken by the catering industry as part of crisis management during the COVID-19 pandemic. The time scope of the research concerns the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the period from 13 March to 18 May 2020. The research method used in the study was a questionnaire survey (CAWI). The survey results showed that the most frequent action taken by restaurants was applying for government assistance. On the other hand, most marketing activities were related to the assessment of the situation and the prospects for restaurants. Relationships were also found between restaurant management activities and restaurant characteristics (number of employees, number of years of operation and location). The developed research tool can help in assessing effective actions taken by restaurant managers during a crisis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications)
20 pages, 743 KiB  
Article
Contextual Factors of Resilient Tourism Destinations in a Pandemic Situation: Selected Cases from North and South Tyrol during the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic
by Elisabeth Nöhammer, Marco Haid, Philipp Corradini, Susanne Attenbrunner, Peter Heimerl and Robert Schorn
Sustainability 2022, 14(21), 13820; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142113820 - 25 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3189
Abstract
This study examines critical factors for tourism destination resilience in the first year of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in North Tyrol (AT) and South Tyrol (IT). Based on a mixed-method approach, the summer seasons of 2019 and 2020 are compared regarding change in overnight [...] Read more.
This study examines critical factors for tourism destination resilience in the first year of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in North Tyrol (AT) and South Tyrol (IT). Based on a mixed-method approach, the summer seasons of 2019 and 2020 are compared regarding change in overnight stays in 26 municipalities. The results highlight the importance of the classical 4Ps of marketing and specific contextual factors. These and their implications for research and practice are discussed. Marketing mix aspects most relevant for resilience in a highly tourism-dependent region are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications)
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14 pages, 4427 KiB  
Article
Structural Model of Community Social Capital for Enhancing Rural Communities Adaptation against the COVID-19 Pandemic: Empirical Evidence from Pujon Kidul Tourism Village, Malang Regency, Indonesia
by Gunawan Prayitno, Ainul Hayat, Achmad Efendi, Aidha Auliah and Dian Dinanti
Sustainability 2022, 14(19), 12949; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141912949 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2074
Abstract
Pujon Kidul Village, Pujon District, Malang Regency, is an area with tourism potential that has been developed since 2017 with the concept of agricultural tourism. Throughout the development of tourism villages, Pujon Kidul Village has succeeded in accelerating economic growth and providing jobs [...] Read more.
Pujon Kidul Village, Pujon District, Malang Regency, is an area with tourism potential that has been developed since 2017 with the concept of agricultural tourism. Throughout the development of tourism villages, Pujon Kidul Village has succeeded in accelerating economic growth and providing jobs for the community. However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, tourism villages have been severely affected, leading to the temporary closure of tourist attractions and community businesses. This research aimed to identify what indicators form social capital variables and the relationship between social capital variables and community adaptation patterns in dealing with pandemics in the study location. This was quantitative research with confirmatory factor analysis to determine the indicators of forming social capital and structural equation modeling analysis to determine the relationship between the variables. Based on the findings, it is known that trust in forming a social network is 0.468. Furthermore, the social network forms community actions of 0.046 and influences community resilience by 0.007. Therefore, good social capital will make it easier for the community to participate in collective action as a form of caring for each other during the pandemic. This action also influences the community to survive in a pandemic crisis, thus creating an adaptation pattern for the Pujon Kidul Tourism Village community in facing a pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications)
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20 pages, 1532 KiB  
Article
How Did the COVID-19 Pandemic Affect Functional Relationships in Activities between Members in a Tourism Organization? A Case Study of Regional Tourism Organizations in Poland
by Wojciech Fedyk, Mariusz Sołtysik, Justyna Bagińska, Mateusz Ziemba, Małgorzata Kołodziej and Jacek Borzyszkowski
Sustainability 2022, 14(19), 12671; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141912671 - 5 Oct 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1821
Abstract
A key research question that fits within the main objective is to identify the negative and positive effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the functional relationships between members of regional tourism organizations (RTOs) in Poland. The study consisted of three stages: desk research, [...] Read more.
A key research question that fits within the main objective is to identify the negative and positive effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the functional relationships between members of regional tourism organizations (RTOs) in Poland. The study consisted of three stages: desk research, a diagnostic survey, as well as qualitative, and statistical analyses. Empirical data from all 16 Polish RTOs (regional DMOs) on 19 variables were collected. No significant symptoms of the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the functional relationship between RTOs and their stakeholders were found, except for the observed increased number of limitations of RTOs’ activities aimed at benefiting their members. As part of the study’s secondary objectives, key variables and methods were indicated. They identify the functional relationships of RTOs with member entities, with the environment, and are useful in building the effectiveness of the organization at the regional level in crisis situations. As the pragmatic goal of the study, a research tool was proposed that can be implemented to evaluate relations with the environment in other tourism destination management organizations at various levels of the tourism economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications)
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16 pages, 2286 KiB  
Article
Course of Values of Key Performance Indicators in City Hotels during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Poland Case Study
by Monika Widz, Renata Krukowska, Bartłomiej Walas and Zygmunt Kruczek
Sustainability 2022, 14(19), 12454; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141912454 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2299
Abstract
The main goal of this article is to assess the functioning of hotels during the crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The analysis was carried out on the basis of selected Key Performance Indicators (KPI) in hotels in Polish cities (Kraków; Poznań; Tri-City: [...] Read more.
The main goal of this article is to assess the functioning of hotels during the crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The analysis was carried out on the basis of selected Key Performance Indicators (KPI) in hotels in Polish cities (Kraków; Poznań; Tri-City: Gdańsk, Gdynia, Sopot; Warsaw; Wrocław). The time range of the analysis covers the whole period of the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland (March 2020–February 2022) with data for 2019—before the outbreak of the pandemic. The analysis of the collected results of OCC, ADR, and RevPAR generally indicates instability of the basic economic indicators dependent not only on the demand limited by the pandemic restrictions but also on the type of tourism prevailing in individual cities. There is a difference between the hotel industry in cities, based mainly on foreign guests and business tourism, and the hotel industry in tourist/coastal regions, which are dominated by leisure tourism. During the greatest restrictions, hotels in Poland recorded huge drops in KPIs: a 95% drop in OCC and RevPAR. It was also found that the instability of demand during the pandemic and rapid changes in the values of the indicators prove the need for greater use of KPI benchmarks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications)
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19 pages, 1337 KiB  
Article
Changes in DMO’s Orientation and Tools to Support Organizations in the Era of the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Wojciech Fedyk, Mariusz Sołtysik, Justyna Bagińska, Mateusz Ziemba, Małgorzata Kołodziej and Jacek Borzyszkowski
Sustainability 2022, 14(18), 11611; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141811611 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1917
Abstract
Following the COVID-19 pandemic, the tourism industry has been hit by the biggest crisis in its history. Its effects are visible throughout the tourism industry, including the management system (DMOs). The study aim is to the determine the changes that have been taking [...] Read more.
Following the COVID-19 pandemic, the tourism industry has been hit by the biggest crisis in its history. Its effects are visible throughout the tourism industry, including the management system (DMOs). The study aim is to the determine the changes that have been taking place in the operation of the destination management organizations (DMOs) in Poland as a result, including the usage of existing or expected organizational support tools. The study consisted of three stages: desk research, diagnostic survey, and qualitative and statistical analyses. Empirical data from all 16 regional DMOs in Poland were collected, including the use and effectiveness of the anti-crisis assistance programs, expectations towards the support tools, actions taken to mitigate the pandemic effects, and the changes in selected marketing activities and support strategies in the pre- and post-pandemic period. The study results indicated the insufficient availability of tools supporting the organizations’ activities during a pandemic and little use by the DMOs of most of the tools offered by the anti-crisis programs, alongside a moderate assessment of their effectiveness. The need to modify anti-crisis programs and/or expand them to include other forms of assistance available to the DMOs was identified. The proposed research tool can be implemented to assess the necessary actions taken during the crisis in other types of tourism organizations in various regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications)
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15 pages, 3687 KiB  
Article
Beyond Airbnb. Determinants of Customer Satisfaction in P2P Accommodation in Time of COVID-19
by Adam Pawlicz, Ema Petaković and Ana-Marija Vrtodušić Hrgović
Sustainability 2022, 14(17), 10734; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141710734 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2697
Abstract
As the P2P (peer-to-peer) accommodation market is expanding, there is a growing interest in the factors affecting customer satisfaction. The previous literature largely concentrates on Airbnb users and tends to use online questionnaires as research data. To address this gap, we analyze the [...] Read more.
As the P2P (peer-to-peer) accommodation market is expanding, there is a growing interest in the factors affecting customer satisfaction. The previous literature largely concentrates on Airbnb users and tends to use online questionnaires as research data. To address this gap, we analyze the key attributes affecting customer satisfaction in the P2P accommodation market in 2020, the first year of the pandemic, based on onsite research. This will allow the authors to examine the key determinants of customer satisfaction across many platforms. Based on previous research, a conceptual model was developed, and two dimensions of service quality were created: host service quality and facility service quality. An offline primary survey was conducted, and the model was tested using exploratory factor analysis, correlation analysis, and regression analysis. The empirical results show a strong relationship between host service quality and facility service quality and customer satisfaction. This study provides clear theoretical insights to advance our knowledge about the determinants of customer satisfaction. Our results are in line with previous research, despite the survey being conducted during the first year of the pandemic and with the use of offline questionnaires. Furthermore, this study offers practical implications for both peer-to-peer and institutional market actors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications)
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17 pages, 642 KiB  
Article
Measuring the Impact of Greece as a Safe Branding Tourist Destination: Evidence from Spain and Greece
by Theodore Metaxas, Laura Juárez and Meletios Andrinos
Sustainability 2022, 14(8), 4440; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14084440 - 8 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2515
Abstract
After the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak, many tourist destinations promoted a safe, COVID-free image to attract tourists. The main purpose of this paper is to examine and analyze the effect that the image of a place as a safe tourist destination [...] Read more.
After the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak, many tourist destinations promoted a safe, COVID-free image to attract tourists. The main purpose of this paper is to examine and analyze the effect that the image of a place as a safe tourist destination (STD)—in our case, Greece—can have on the decision-making processes of tourists who were willing to take summer holidays in 2020 amid the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined the relationships between destination safety perceptions, trust, attractive attributes of destinations, travel intentions, and health-protective behavior for domestic and inbound tourists from Spain. This study confirms differences in destination safety perceptions among domestic and inbound tourists from countries that have suffered significant negative impacts due to the novel coronavirus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications)
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21 pages, 1030 KiB  
Article
The Bridge at the End of the World: Linking Expat’s Pandemic Fatigue, Travel FOMO, Destination Crisis Marketing, and Vaxication for “Greatest of All Trips”
by Umer Zaman, Stuart J. Barnes, Saba Abbasi, Mahwish Anjam, Murat Aktan and Muddasar Ghani Khwaja
Sustainability 2022, 14(4), 2312; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14042312 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3694
Abstract
The rebirth of global tourism with a massive rebound is anticipated due to an emerging touristic behavior coined as vaxication (i.e., post-vaccination travel). Despite the ongoing fatigue triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic, travelers’ fear of missing out (FOMO), and destination crisis marketing (DCM) [...] Read more.
The rebirth of global tourism with a massive rebound is anticipated due to an emerging touristic behavior coined as vaxication (i.e., post-vaccination travel). Despite the ongoing fatigue triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic, travelers’ fear of missing out (FOMO), and destination crisis marketing (DCM) can further accelerate travelers’ momentum towards vaxication. To address this critical knowledge gap in COVID-19 tourism, the present study aimed to examine the effect of pandemic fatigue on vaxication intention for the greatest of all trips (GOAT) under the moderating influence of travel FOMO and destination crisis marketing. Drawing on data of international expatriates in the United Arab Emirates (N = 356) and using covariance-based structural equation modeling with Mplus, the findings provide new evidence supporting a positive impact of international expat’s pandemic fatigue on vaxication intention for GOAT. Interestingly, this relationship is significantly reinforced by the international expat’s travel FOMO as well as tourism destinations switching gears from ‘managing crisis’ to ‘marketing crisis’. Based on prominent theories (i.e., theory of planned behavior, cognitive load theory, and protection motivation theory) and newly developed scales (i.e., travel FOMO and destination crisis marketing), the study implications are directed towards an outpacing trajectory of global tourism return prompted by pandemic fatigue, travel FOMO, destination crisis marketing, and vaxication intention for the greatest of all trips. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications)
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Review

Jump to: Research

14 pages, 2615 KiB  
Review
Systematic Literature Review Analysing Smart Tourism Destinations in Context of Sustainable Development: Current Applications and Future Directions
by Youssef El Archi, Brahim Benbba, Zhulduz Nizamatdinova, Yerlan Issakov, Gálicz Ivett Vargáné and Lóránt Dénes Dávid
Sustainability 2023, 15(6), 5086; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15065086 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 7116
Abstract
The growing popularity of smart tourism destinations (STDs) has increased the need to investigate their potential impact on sustainable development. This systematic literature review (SLR) aims to analyse the past achievements and future directions of smart tourism destinations in the context of sustainable [...] Read more.
The growing popularity of smart tourism destinations (STDs) has increased the need to investigate their potential impact on sustainable development. This systematic literature review (SLR) aims to analyse the past achievements and future directions of smart tourism destinations in the context of sustainable development. The review was conducted through a systematic literature review that examined 20 papers using a rigorous framework of the research problem, the primary delimitation of the research, and the definition of the data collection and extraction tools. The review focuses on identifying and analysing the current state of the research on SLRs in smart tourism destinations and their implications for sustainable development. This includes the research questions, methods, journals, dates of publications, and key themes. The review also examines the implications and limitations of SLRs in this field, and it identifies gaps in the literature and areas for future directions. The review found that SLRs have been used to examine the impacts of smart tourism destinations on various aspects of sustainable development, such as economic, social, and environmental aspects. Additionally, the review found that there is a growing interest in smart cities, with a focus on reducing the environmental footprint of tourism and promoting sustainable tourism development. The review also identified the emerging research areas in the literature, such as the achievement of the sustainable development goals, the adoption of green IT, smart energy, and waste management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Tourism under COVID-19 and Future Implications)
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