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Special Issue "Transport Inequalities, Transport Poverty and Sustainability"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Transportation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Carmen Lizarraga
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Applied Economics, University of Granada, Faculty of Business and Economics, Campus Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain
Interests: urban mobility; human development; sustainable development; transport inequalities; gender inequality
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

This Special Issue of the journal Sustainability is related to the analysis of transport poverty and inequalities to deepen into the social side of sustainability. The papers to be included in this issue should reflect questions related to transport inequalities and transport poverty highlighting the relationship among transport provision, social exclusion and transport disadvantages. We welcome contributions discussing how transport disadvantage impacts, to a greater extent, particular groups that include the elderly, people with health problems, low-income groups, those living in conditions of poverty, the unemployed or disabled people. Proposed papers may show that transportation inequity also has economic consequences, since there can be individuals that spend an excessive amount of time or money travelling. This way, transport inequalities can result in different environmental impacts by gender, age or income level. At the same time, inadequate public transport facilities may hinder access for individuals to work, education, health care services and sociocultural activities. In another vein, papers that point out how dangerous, unsafe or unhealthy travel conditions for individuals can go against sustainability are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Carmen Lizárraga
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sustainable transportation
  • Transport inequalities
  • Transport poverty
  • Social exclusion
  • Sustainable mobility

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
Transport Inequalities and the Adoption of Intelligent Transportation Systems in Africa: A Research Landscape
Sustainability 2021, 13(22), 12891; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212891 (registering DOI) - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 298
Abstract
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), also known as Smart Transportation, is an infusion of information and communication technologies into transportation. ITS are a key component of smart cities, which have seen rapid global development in the last few decades. This has in turn translated [...] Read more.
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), also known as Smart Transportation, is an infusion of information and communication technologies into transportation. ITS are a key component of smart cities, which have seen rapid global development in the last few decades. This has in turn translated to an increase in the deployment and adoption of ITS, particularly in countries in the Western world. Unfortunately, this is not the case with the developing countries of Africa and Asia, where dilapidated road infrastructure, poorly maintained public/mass transit vehicles and poverty are major concerns. However, the impact of Westernization and “imported technologies” cannot be overlooked; thus, despite the aforementioned challenges, ITS have found their way into African cities. In this paper, a systematic review was performed to determine the state of the art of ITS in Africa. The output of this systematic review was then fed into a hybrid multi-criteria model to analyse the research landscape, identify connections between published works and reveal research gaps and inequalities in African ITS. African peculiarities inhibiting the widespread implementation of ITS were then discussed, followed by the development of a conceptual architecture for an integrated ITS for African cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Inequalities, Transport Poverty and Sustainability)
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Article
Towards Equity in Micromobility: Spatial Analysis of Access to Bikes and Scooters amongst Disadvantaged Populations
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 11856; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132111856 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 414
Abstract
In recent years, cities around the world have launched various micromobility programs to offer more convenient and efficient mobility options that make transit networks more accessible. However, the question of whether micromobility services are accessible to and equitably distributed amongst all populations still [...] Read more.
In recent years, cities around the world have launched various micromobility programs to offer more convenient and efficient mobility options that make transit networks more accessible. However, the question of whether micromobility services are accessible to and equitably distributed amongst all populations still remains unanswered. In this study, we investigate the spatial accessibility of disadvantaged communities, such as racial and ethnic minorities, low-income populations, and transit-dependent populations, to scooter and bike services. The ultimate goal of this study is to examine associations between the level of access to bikes and scooters and the racial and social characteristics of communities throughout the City of Austin, Texas. To achieve this goal, first, equity analysis with a Lorenz curve was performed to understand how bike and scooter accessibility is distributed among the population. Then, both Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models were generated to explore factors associated with bike and scooter accessibility. The analysis of the residuals showed more consistent results in the GWR models than in the OLS models. The equity analysis with the Lorenz curve conducted herein reveals extreme inequity in access to micromobility services. Almost 80 percent of residents have no access to bikes and scooters. Access is even worse for transit-dependent people when compared to the general population. The regression models further revealed that areas with a higher proportion of Black residents were less likely to have access to both bikes and scooters, yet positive associations were found for both bike and scooter accessibility and low-income populations. Increased understanding of spatial access to bikes and scooters can support ongoing efforts to deliver equitable transportation systems, improve transportation alternatives for disadvantaged populations, and support future policy actions related to bike and scooter services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Inequalities, Transport Poverty and Sustainability)
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Article
Sustainable Public Transport Service Adapted for People with Disabilities and Reduced Mobility in the Municipality of León, Guanajuato, Mexico
Sustainability 2021, 13(13), 7471; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13137471 - 05 Jul 2021
Viewed by 875
Abstract
Urban mobility makes it possible to incorporate new perspectives that make it possible to question and problematize the way in which social links and relations between city dwellers are shaped. In this way, mobility constitutes an increasingly massive, recurrent, and complex social practice, [...] Read more.
Urban mobility makes it possible to incorporate new perspectives that make it possible to question and problematize the way in which social links and relations between city dwellers are shaped. In this way, mobility constitutes an increasingly massive, recurrent, and complex social practice, strongly conditioned by the existing levels of inequality and particularly those that entail processes of social exclusion. In the present research, the efficiency of the modality of adapted public transportation for people with disabilities in the city of León, Guanajuato, Mexico, which came into operation in 2012, receiving the 2019 Building Equality Award from the International Center for the Promotion of Human Rights and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), is analyzed. The management, design, and implementation of Inclusive Urban Transportation (TÜI), demonstrated how the articulation of actors (public, private, and civil society) are of vital importance for the success of the project. In this sense, it is important to count on the permanent participation of focus groups that identify and understand the real needs of users with reduced mobility. The results achieved allow establishing an evaluation that contributes to detect and mitigate the conditions of vulnerability, risk, and segregation of people with disabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Inequalities, Transport Poverty and Sustainability)
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Article
Linking Loyalty Card Data to Public Transport Data to Explore Mobility and Social Exclusion in the Older Population
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6217; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116217 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 776
Abstract
Inequalities in the provision of public transport and the accessibility of both public transport services and key facilities can impact wellbeing and increase social exclusion. This study explores the relationship between the provision of public transport services, mobility and social exclusion by utilising [...] Read more.
Inequalities in the provision of public transport and the accessibility of both public transport services and key facilities can impact wellbeing and increase social exclusion. This study explores the relationship between the provision of public transport services, mobility and social exclusion by utilising loyalty card transaction data to estimate the activity spaces of the older population in the West Midlands (England) metropolitan area. Bus time table data were used to calculate bus service provision and travel times to retail areas. Regression analyses were then used to quantify the impacts that the provision and efficiency of public transport services have on the area of older cardholders’ activity spaces. The provision of public transport services was found to have a significant impact on the size of these activity spaces, along with several sociodemographic variables, including age, deprivation and health. The results suggested that access to reliable public transport increased the mobility levels of the older population and allowed for a wider range of retail opportunities to be accessed. Inequalities in the provision of public transport could therefore exacerbate the wider social issues that affect some of the most vulnerable groups of the population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Inequalities, Transport Poverty and Sustainability)
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Article
Travelling with a Guide Dog: Experiences of People with Vision Impairment
Sustainability 2021, 13(5), 2840; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052840 - 05 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1853
Abstract
There is considerable research on people with vision impairment (PwVI) in the transport, travel and tourism sectors, which highlights the significance of real-time information and consistency in services to accessibility. Based on interviews with guide dog owners in the United Kingdom, this paper [...] Read more.
There is considerable research on people with vision impairment (PwVI) in the transport, travel and tourism sectors, which highlights the significance of real-time information and consistency in services to accessibility. Based on interviews with guide dog owners in the United Kingdom, this paper contributes an additional dimension to our understanding of transport accessibility for PwVI by focusing specifically on guide dog owners’ experiences in the travel and tourism sector. A guide dog is more than a mobility tool, but a human–dog partnership that improves the quality of life for PwVI; however, it also introduces constraints related to the dog’s welfare and safety. Further, lack of understanding of guide dog owners’ rights to reasonable accommodation leads to discrimination through service refusals and challenges to service access. This paper concludes that the limited and inconsistent public knowledge of disability diversity has serious ramifications for transport accessibility and suggests specific industry and legislative interventions in response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Inequalities, Transport Poverty and Sustainability)
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Article
(In)Equitable Accessibility to Sustainable Transport from Universities in the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area, Mexico
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010055 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 805
Abstract
The equitable accessibility to higher education favours social fairness in economic opportunities. This paper provides an empirical approach to the assessment of the (in)equity of accessibility from universities to sustainable transport modes: Light Rail Transit, Bus Rapid Transit, buses, and bicycle infrastructure in [...] Read more.
The equitable accessibility to higher education favours social fairness in economic opportunities. This paper provides an empirical approach to the assessment of the (in)equity of accessibility from universities to sustainable transport modes: Light Rail Transit, Bus Rapid Transit, buses, and bicycle infrastructure in the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area (Mexico). In particular, the study designed and calculated an Access to Sustainable Transport from University Index by combining governmental and crowdsourced Open Access Data. It used spatial analysis techniques within a Geographic Information Systems environment, and multivariate statistical methods such as Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis. The findings highlight the weakness in the accessibility to sustainable transport modes from the universities in the Metropolitan Area. Furthermore, this study revealed an unfavourable bias in the location of sustainable transport stations/stops in the vicinity of public universities. The results provide a methodology and empirical evidence for transport policy makers to reduce inequalities and therefore transport-related social exclusion in this under-represented, but socially relevant, student community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Inequalities, Transport Poverty and Sustainability)
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Article
Gender and Age Differences in Metropolitan Car Use. Recent Gender Gap Trends in Private Transport
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7286; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187286 - 05 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 923
Abstract
Urban mobility is currently undergoing significant changes in cities worldwide, as gendered mobilities are converging and automobility is on a downward trend among younger cohorts. The aim of this study was to examine the dynamics of gendered mobilities over generations and across three [...] Read more.
Urban mobility is currently undergoing significant changes in cities worldwide, as gendered mobilities are converging and automobility is on a downward trend among younger cohorts. The aim of this study was to examine the dynamics of gendered mobilities over generations and across three different urban contexts in the Barcelona Metropolitan Region (northeast Spain), in an effort to understand whether the mobility gender gap is closing and whether young adults have lowered their private transport levels. Generalized linear models were built to analyze travel survey data from the Working Day Mobility Survey (EMEF) to comprehend mobility changes between 2008 and 2018. The study identified a generational countertrend among new generations of young adults, who reported more sustainable mobility practices than their predecessors. Furthermore, results show a general trend towards gender convergence of travel behavior on the outskirts of the Barcelona Metropolitan Region, but also a tendency towards gender divergence in the core area of Barcelona City. Since the mobility gender gap is closer to convergence in those areas where private transport use is more widespread, future efforts towards achieving climate objectives should aim at decoupling such gender convergence from car-dependent built environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Inequalities, Transport Poverty and Sustainability)
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Review

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Review
Transport Poverty in Chinese Cities: A Systematic Literature Review
Sustainability 2021, 13(9), 4707; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094707 - 22 Apr 2021
Viewed by 755
Abstract
The widening income gap in post-reform China has given rise to social inequality. Among those, transport poverty and inequality have significantly affected the daily life of low-income groups. While important, this is an under-researched topic in China. This gap in the academic literature [...] Read more.
The widening income gap in post-reform China has given rise to social inequality. Among those, transport poverty and inequality have significantly affected the daily life of low-income groups. While important, this is an under-researched topic in China. This gap in the academic literature is glaring given the country’s urbanization rates, sprawling cities and income differentials. Most previous studies have only focused on two aspects of transport poverty—job-housing imbalance and accessibility. A comprehensive understanding of the causes and impacts of transport inequality is currently lacking. Therefore, a systematic review of academic literature based on keywords relevant to transport poverty in China was conducted to provide a more complete assessment of the situation in Chinese cities. In total, 62 relevant studies were identified after close examination of the articles (including titles, abstracts, and full-texts). This set of articles allowed a number of general patterns to be identified. It was found that the most common causes of transport poverty include: a lack of access to private vehicles; uneven access to alternative transport options; inadequate public transport provision; jobs-housing imbalance; and the hukou system (a system of household registration which aims to regulate population distribution and rural-to-urban migration). The main impacts of transport poverty include: curtailed mobility and longer travel times; higher household expenditures on travel; reduced access to jobs and essential services; higher household expenditures on travel; and health and environmental issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Inequalities, Transport Poverty and Sustainability)
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Review
Transport Poverty with Special Reference to Sustainability: A Systematic Review of the Literature
Sustainability 2021, 13(3), 1451; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031451 - 30 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 707
Abstract
The aim of this work is to analyse the state of the art of scientific research related to transport poverty with special reference to sustainability and to identify new research needs. To this end, a methodology has been used in line with the [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to analyse the state of the art of scientific research related to transport poverty with special reference to sustainability and to identify new research needs. To this end, a methodology has been used in line with the objective set out, choosing the systematic review of the literature as the most suitable method. The results show that transport poverty is an under-exploited issue and is not well articulated by researchers, and there are great differences between the different areas of knowledge studied. The subjects related to health and medicine have more publications, almost 58%, with the rest distributed among 11 different subjects. Of the works analysed, only 26.69% refer to the topic of sustainability, and therefore this is a branch which is little studied in the literature in this field. Another relevant finding is that all the articles analysed highlight the vulnerability and inequality of the groups affected by transport poverty, with the elderly being the least studied in the research work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Inequalities, Transport Poverty and Sustainability)
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