Special Issue "Toward Sustainability: Transport Geography and Mobility"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Transportation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Jianhong (Cecilia) Xia Website E-Mail
School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845, 92667563,Australia
Interests: Geographic information system (GIS); Spatial analysis and modelling; Transport analysis and modelling
Guest Editor
Prof. Jun Liu Website E-Mail
Tourism School, Sichuan University, Sichuan, 610064, China
Interests: sustainable tourism; impact of climate change on vegetation landscape; phenology and tourism; carbon emissions of tourism
Guest Editor
Dr. Jun Yang Website E-Mail
Liaoning Key Laboratory of Physical Geography and Geomatics, Liaoning Normal University, China
Interests: transport geography; transportation and high-speed rail; land-use change and transportation; urbanization and suburbanization
Guest Editor
Dr. Wei Sun Website E-Mail
Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Interests: regional development and planning; land-use change and eco-environmental effects; transportation and spatial equality
Guest Editor
Dr. Feng Zhen Website E-Mail
School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Nanjing University
Interests: big data and urban space; smart cities; urban and regional planning
Guest Editor
Dr. Guangliang Xi Website E-Mail
School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Nanjing University
Interests: information and communication technologies (ICT) and mobility; smart cities; urban and regional planning

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Rapid global population growth has led to the high demand of freight and passenger transport, which in turn creates enormous pressure on transportation infrastructures and the environment. Congestion, air pollution and urban sprawl have become increasingly apparent worldwide. Sustainable transport and mobility alternatives have been sought by industries, government bodies and local communities to address these issues. Many innovative theories, methods, technologies and policies have been developed and implemented to reduce the projected risks and ensure compact, connected and efficient growth.

As such, this Special Issue aims to understand the geographic dimension of transport and mobility and its development towards sustainability. We invite authors to submit original research as well as review articles that will stimulate continuing efforts to understand the theories, technologies and methods contributing to the sustainable movement of people, goods and information by any mode at any geographic scale. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Transport, travel behavior and accessibility and their relationship to environment, energy and climate changes;
  • Innovative sustainable mobility technologies: connected mobility, smart mobility, active mobility and shared mobility;
  • The geographic dimension of land use and transport integration for sustainable cities and regions;
  • Sustainable policy development for effective and efficient transport and mobility;
  • The relationship between sustainable mobility and ecotourism;
  • The relationship between tourism transportation and the ecological effect;
  • Human factors in sustainable transport and mobility;
  • Big data applications in sustainable transport and mobility;
  • Innovative spatial technologies in analyzing and modeling transport geography and mobility data.

Dr. Jianhong (Cecilia) Xia
Dr. Jun Liu
Dr. Jun Yang
Dr. Wei Sun
Dr. Feng Zhen
Dr. Guangliang Xi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mobility
  • transport geography
  • sustainability
  • accessibility
  • climate change
  • ecotourism
  • smart city

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Effectiveness of Ring Roads in Reducing Traffic Congestion in Cities for Long Run: Big Almaty Ring Road Case Study
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 4973; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11184973 - 11 Sep 2019
Abstract
It is common to increase road capacity by constructing ring roads to reduce traffic congestion in city areas, although this is often found to be ineffective in the long run. Accordingly, this study investigates various traffic congestion management approaches and their effectiveness in [...] Read more.
It is common to increase road capacity by constructing ring roads to reduce traffic congestion in city areas, although this is often found to be ineffective in the long run. Accordingly, this study investigates various traffic congestion management approaches and their effectiveness in major cities, and explores an identical transport problem in Almaty, Kazakhstan: The Big Almaty Ring Road (BAKAD). Several case examples from the existing literature are examined in which various approaches were taken for managing traffic congestion problems, and these approaches are classified into three concepts. The first concept comprises heavy engineering measures such as ring road development, new road construction, expansion of existing roads, etc. Such measures can initially reduce traffic congestion, but often become ineffective with time due to the generation of induced traffic. Many cities have taken Push and Pull measures that ensure more efficient use of existing capacity and have initiated environmentally friendly alternative transportation modes such as decreased car usage; promotion of public transport, biking and walking; minimization of the necessity of people’s movement by changing urban land use patterns; and so on. These approaches have been found to be effective in providing sustainable transportation solutions and are classified as concept 2. Nevertheless, Push and Pull measures might not be enough for managing traffic congestion, and it might be necessary to increase the road capacity through heavy engineering measures, especially if the city experiences heavy transit traffic. This combined approach is categorized as concept 3. Consequently, the BAKAD project is examined under the umbrella of three concepts, and recommendations are provided based on the findings from the experience of different cities and interviews with experts from Almaty city. Both the results and recommendations developed are relevant for this specific case only, and are not necessarily transferable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Sustainability: Transport Geography and Mobility)
Open AccessArticle
Estimating the Cost of Biofuel Use to Mitigate International Air Transport Emissions: A Case Study in Palau and Seychelles
Sustainability 2019, 11(13), 3545; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11133545 - 27 Jun 2019
Abstract
International air transport is one of the fast-growing sources of CO2 emissions. However, it has always been omitted from the international emission mitigation pledges. The delayed mitigation process in this area may slow down the process of global CO2 emission control. [...] Read more.
International air transport is one of the fast-growing sources of CO2 emissions. However, it has always been omitted from the international emission mitigation pledges. The delayed mitigation process in this area may slow down the process of global CO2 emission control. In this article, we evaluated the potential to realize the emission mitigation targets in air transport through biofuel and estimated the corresponding cost. The emission from international air transport of Palau and Seychelles was taken as the example. Then, the emission caused by each airline to these two islands was calculated by the distance-based method, with information of the travelers’ arrival data, fuel consumption of different aircraft types, routes, and aircraft seat data. Future scenarios with and without commitment to CO2 mitigation targets were predicted to evaluate the emission difference. Then, we estimated the amount of biofuel required to fill the emission gap, and the corresponding cost based on the future biofuel price prediction. The results show that distance is the determining factor of international air transport emission per capita. The component of origin can decrease the aggregated emission per capita to small island destinations by 0.5–2%. The accumulated emission gaps are 3.15 Mt and 9 Mt for Palau and Seychelles, which indicates that 7.64 and 19.34 Mb of biofuel are needed for emission mitigation, respectively. The corresponding costs are $27–163 million and $72–424 million per year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Sustainability: Transport Geography and Mobility)
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Open AccessArticle
Comfort First! Vehicle-Sharing Systems in Urban Residential Areas: The Importance for Everyday Mobility and Reduction of Car Use among Pilot Users
Sustainability 2019, 11(9), 2521; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11092521 - 30 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim of this study is to explore to what extent a vehicle-sharing system (VSS) that includes electric bicycles and cars, connected to a block of apartments in a middle-sized city in Sweden, can cater for individuals’ everyday mobility needs and reduce the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to explore to what extent a vehicle-sharing system (VSS) that includes electric bicycles and cars, connected to a block of apartments in a middle-sized city in Sweden, can cater for individuals’ everyday mobility needs and reduce the need to own a car. The study connects to two different research areas: the usage of VSS and mobility transitions through pilot projects. Our results show a reluctance to voluntarily sacrifice comfort regarding everyday energy use. Owning and using a private car is to a high degree interpreted as convenient. The results from this study suggest that a VSS has the potential to satisfy mobility needs for people living in urban areas. However, in order for it to be successful, both in terms of satisfying mobility needs as well as being regarded as an attractive alternative to private car ownership, we argue that reconfiguration of modal choice and accessibility on different sociotechnical levels is a necessity. Interventions such as satisfactory public transport and better infrastructure for cycling and walking are suggested, as well as stricter parking regulations, banning cars in certain areas and making car use and ownership more expensive. In other words, the deployment of both soft and hard measures in combination is necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Sustainability: Transport Geography and Mobility)
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Open AccessArticle
Measurement of Rural Residents’ Mobility in Western China: A Case Study of Qingyang, Gansu Province
Sustainability 2019, 11(9), 2492; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11092492 - 28 Apr 2019
Abstract
Mobility is a popular topic in the fields of humanities and social sciences. China’s rapid urbanization has resulted in the acceleration of urban–rural mobility. Moreover, the implementation of the New Urbanization and Rural Revitalization Strategy has demonstrated the prospects of urban–rural integration and [...] Read more.
Mobility is a popular topic in the fields of humanities and social sciences. China’s rapid urbanization has resulted in the acceleration of urban–rural mobility. Moreover, the implementation of the New Urbanization and Rural Revitalization Strategy has demonstrated the prospects of urban–rural integration and development. However, research on rural mobility is mainly focused in the fields of economics and sociology, with insufficient attention paid to spatial mobility. The main purpose of this study is to introduce a new theoretical explanation of the four dimensions of rural mobility based on a complete understanding of the current socio-economic background, namely, network mobility, green mobility, people-oriented mobility, and smart mobility. On this basis, a rural mobility evaluation index system is proposed by attempting to build a synthetic rural mobility index from the four aforementioned dimensions. Qingyang, a typical city in Western China located in the Loess Hilly Region, is taken as an example. Accordingly, the comprehensive rural and four-dimensional mobilities are analyzed and evaluated, and the effectiveness of the index system is verified. Results show that Qingyang’s rural mobility is at a low level, but differences in the types of rural residents, districts and counties, and dimensions of mobility are observed. At the end of this paper, the inclusion of mobility promotion in the policy system of rural revitalization is emphasized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Sustainability: Transport Geography and Mobility)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Structural Characteristics of China’s Passenger Airline Network Based on Network Motifs Analysis
Sustainability 2019, 11(9), 2484; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11092484 - 28 Apr 2019
Abstract
The air passenger transport network system is an important agent of social and economic connections between cities. Studying on the airline network structure and providing optimization strategies can improve the airline industry sustainability evolution. As basic building blocks of broad networks, the concept [...] Read more.
The air passenger transport network system is an important agent of social and economic connections between cities. Studying on the airline network structure and providing optimization strategies can improve the airline industry sustainability evolution. As basic building blocks of broad networks, the concept of network motifs is cited in this paper to apply to the structural characteristic analysis of the passenger airline network. The ENUMERATE SUBGRAPHS (G, k) algorithm is used to identify the motifs and anti-motifs of the passenger airline network in China. A total of 37 airline companies are subjected to motif identification and exploring the structural and functional characteristics of the airline networks corresponding to different motifs. These 37 airline companies are classified according to the motif concentration curves into three development stages, which include mono-centric divergence companies at the low-level development stage, transitional companies at the intermediate development stage, and multi-centric and hierarchical companies at the advanced development stage. Finally, we found that adjusting the number of proper network motifs is useful to optimize the overall structure of airline networks, which is profitable for air transport sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Sustainability: Transport Geography and Mobility)
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Open AccessArticle
Research on the Complex Characteristics of Freight Transportation from a Multiscale Perspective Using Freight Vehicle Trip Data
Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 1897; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11071897 - 29 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
To better guide the sustainable developing of freight transport aligning with environmental objectives it is of strategic importance to capture freight transportation characteristics more realistically. This paper characterizes freight transportation by using a complex network approach from multidimensional perspectives based on freight vehicle [...] Read more.
To better guide the sustainable developing of freight transport aligning with environmental objectives it is of strategic importance to capture freight transportation characteristics more realistically. This paper characterizes freight transportation by using a complex network approach from multidimensional perspectives based on freight vehicle trips data. We first build two subnetworks from prefecture-level city-scale and county-level city-scale. Subsequently, network analysis indices based on complex network theory were applied to examine the topological structure and complexity of the freight transportation networks. Furthermore, the community detection method is introduced to reveal the networks’ clustering characteristics. The findings show that the prefecture-level city-scale network and the county-level city-scale network both have obvious small-world network characteristics, but the prefecture-level city-scale network has higher operating efficiency for goods movement. Additionally, the influence of the cross-border effect on the freight transportation network was verified. In terms of the community structure, the freight network shows distinct clustering features only at the county-level city-scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Sustainability: Transport Geography and Mobility)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Employment Self-Sufficiency Measures on Commuting Time: Case Study of Perth, Australia
Sustainability 2019, 11(5), 1488; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051488 - 11 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The level of commuting in cities is an important indicator of the efficiency of urban spatial structure. Recent research has come out in support of land use policies that promote balancing the number of employment opportunities and residents in local geographical units to [...] Read more.
The level of commuting in cities is an important indicator of the efficiency of urban spatial structure. Recent research has come out in support of land use policies that promote balancing the number of employment opportunities and residents in local geographical units to reduce excess commuting. This study explores three employment self-sufficiency indices: job-worker balance (JWB), employment self-sufficiency (ESS) and employment self-containment (ESC), as measures for reducing the level of commuting. Using the case of Perth, Western Australia, we perform a trip-based evaluation of these three variables and investigate their effect on commuting time through statistical correlation. The results reveal that JWB, ESS and ESC levels are relatively poor across the metropolitan region. Higher ESS correlates with lower inflow travel time, but better JWB and higher ESC do not necessarily lead to shorter travel times. The findings of this study suggest that policies solely relying on these measures may not be effective in reducing commuting times. ESS and ESC do not account for the component of the trip outside the zone, which can misrepresent the level of commuting in an area. Incorporating travel time in these measures can complement their reliability, and better represent overall commuting levels within an urban structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Sustainability: Transport Geography and Mobility)
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Open AccessArticle
Coupling Coordination Relationships between Urban-industrial Land Use Efficiency and Accessibility of Highway Networks: Evidence from Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration, China
Sustainability 2019, 11(5), 1446; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051446 - 08 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The implementation of the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei coordinated development strategy has seriously increased the influence of land use and urban traffic. Thus, understanding the coordination between urban land and transportation systems is important for the efficient and sustainable development of cities, especially [...] Read more.
The implementation of the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei coordinated development strategy has seriously increased the influence of land use and urban traffic. Thus, understanding the coordination between urban land and transportation systems is important for the efficient and sustainable development of cities, especially in this rapidly urbanizing era. Urban–industrial land and highway networks are, respectively, primary types of urban land and transportation systems, and have significant impacts on social and economic development. However, limited studies have been conducted to examine the relationships between urban–industrial land and highway networks. Therefore, this paper aims to examine the coupling coordination relationship between urban–industrial land use efficiency, and the accessibility of the highway networks of cities. Specifically, in the context of the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) urban agglomeration, the coupling coordination between urban-industrial land use efficiency and accessibility of the highway traffic network was empirically analyzed. The results show that: (i) The differences in urban-industrial land use efficiency in the BTH region are significant. Capital cities in the BTH urban agglomeration have higher economic, social, and comprehensive efficiency, while in industrial cities, the use of urban–industrial land should prioritize ecological and environmental issues. (ii) Because of its good geographical location Beijing has the best accessibility, with an accessibility index of 1.416, while Qinhuangdao had the lowest accessibility index of 0.039. (iii) In most BTH cities, the urban-industrial comprehensive land use level has fallen behind the highway network development level. The results of this study can provide references for the coordinated development of the BTH urban agglomeration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Sustainability: Transport Geography and Mobility)
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainability Development of High-Speed Rail and Airline—Understanding Passengers’ Preferences: A Case Study of the Beijing–Shanghai Corridor
Sustainability 2019, 11(5), 1352; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051352 - 04 Mar 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
With the rapid construction of high-speed railways (HSR), the supply structure of the transportation modes in China has changed greatly. In order to seek the sustainable development of HSR and air transport from the perspective of passenger mode choice behavior, this paper applied [...] Read more.
With the rapid construction of high-speed railways (HSR), the supply structure of the transportation modes in China has changed greatly. In order to seek the sustainable development of HSR and air transport from the perspective of passenger mode choice behavior, this paper applied a binary logit model to explore the mode choice patterns in the Beijing–Shanghai corridor, which has the most successfully operated HSR line in China. By using the data collected in airports and HSR stations in the two cities, passenger flow composition and passenger mode choice behavior was analyzed. It was found that passengers’ preference for air transport decreases with the accompanying number of passengers and access time, and increases with income; female passengers and younger passengers have a higher probability of choosing air transport, ceteris paribus; and leisure passengers are more price-sensitive, they tend to travel by air transport when the air transport prices are lower. The study results reveal the travel characteristics of passengers between Beijing–Shanghai and provide information for policy design and infrastructure management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Sustainability: Transport Geography and Mobility)
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Open AccessArticle
Competition and Cooperation between Shared Bicycles and Public Transit: A Case Study of Beijing
Sustainability 2019, 11(5), 1323; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051323 - 03 Mar 2019
Abstract
As an eco-friendly transportation mode, shared bicycles provide a new option for public transit users in urban areas. China’s bicycle-sharing market began flourishing in July 2016 and reached a plateau in 2017. How shared bicycles influenced public transit systems during this period is [...] Read more.
As an eco-friendly transportation mode, shared bicycles provide a new option for public transit users in urban areas. China’s bicycle-sharing market began flourishing in July 2016 and reached a plateau in 2017. How shared bicycles influenced public transit systems during this period is an interesting topic. A case study of Beijing is conducted. This study aims to identify the competitive and cooperative influences of shared bicycles on public transit by exploring the changes in public transit trip distances before and after the upsurge in bicycle-sharing. A histogram shifting method is introduced to examine the influences of shared bicycles on public transit services from a travel distance perspective. A spatial correlation of bicycling usage and public transit changes is calculated using units of gridded cell spaces. The results show: (1) overall transit usage continued growing after the shared bicycles market reached a plateau; (2) short public transits within 2 km decreased while transfers within 2 km increased; and (3) the decrease of short transits and increase of transfers within 3 km were spatially highly correlated to the usage of shared bicycles. Hence, the role of bicycle-sharing systems is competitive for existing public transit systems during short trips and cooperative for connecting transits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Sustainability: Transport Geography and Mobility)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization Model of Taxi Fleet Size Based on GPS Tracking Data
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030731 - 30 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A reasonable taxi fleet size has a significant impact on the satisfaction of urban traffic demand, the alleviation of urban traffic congestion, and the stability of taxi business groups. Most existing studies measure the overall scale by using macro indices, and few studies [...] Read more.
A reasonable taxi fleet size has a significant impact on the satisfaction of urban traffic demand, the alleviation of urban traffic congestion, and the stability of taxi business groups. Most existing studies measure the overall scale by using macro indices, and few studies are from the micro level. To meet the transportation demand for taxis, mitigating the mismatch between taxi supply and demand, this research proposes an urban taxi fleet size calculating model based on GPS tracking data. Firstly, on the basis of road network segmentation, the probability model of a passenger taxi-taking a road section as a unit is built to evaluate the difficulty of taxi-taking on a road section. Furthermore, a user queuing model is built for the “difficult to take a taxi” road section in the peak period, and the service mileage required by potential taxi users is calculated. After that, a transportation capacity measurement model is built to estimate the number of taxis required in different time periods, Finally, the income constraint model is used to explain the impact of different vehicle fleet sizes on the income of taxi groups, so as to provide a reference for the determination of the final fleet size. The model is applied to data from Xi’an. The calculation results are based on data from May 2014, and show that the scale of taxi demand is about 654–2237, and after considering the impact of different fleet size increases on income, when the income variation index is limited to 0.10, i.e., the decrease of drivers’ income will not exceed 10%, an increase of 1286 taxis will be able to meet 66% of the unmet demand in the peak period. The conclusion indicates that the model can effectively calculate the required fleet size and formulate the constraint solutions. This method provided can be considered as a support for formulating the regulation strategy of an urban taxi fleet size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Sustainability: Transport Geography and Mobility)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of the Built Environment on School Children’s Metro Ridership: An Exploration Using Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression Models
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4684; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124684 - 09 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Long-distance school commuting is a key aspect of students’ choice of car travel. For cities lacking school buses, the metro and car are the main travel modes used by students who have a long travel distance between home and school. Therefore, encouraging students [...] Read more.
Long-distance school commuting is a key aspect of students’ choice of car travel. For cities lacking school buses, the metro and car are the main travel modes used by students who have a long travel distance between home and school. Therefore, encouraging students to commute using the metro can effectively reduce household car use caused by long-distance commuting to school. This paper explores metro ridership at the station level for trips to school and return trips to home in Nanjing, China by using smart card data. In particular, a global Poisson regression model and geographically weighted Poisson regression (GWPR) models were used to examine the effects of the built environment on students’ metro ridership. The results indicate that the GWPR models provide superior performance for both trips to school and return trips to home. Spatial variations exist in the relationship between the built environment and students’ metro ridership across metro stations. Built environments around metro stations, including commercial-oriented land use; the density of roads, parking lots, and bus stations; the number of docks at bikeshare stations; and the shortest distance between bike stations and metro stations have different impacts on students’ metro ridership. The results have important implications for proposing relevant policies to guide students who are being driven to school to travel by metro instead. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Sustainability: Transport Geography and Mobility)
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring Spatiotemporal Variation in Hourly Metro Ridership at Station Level: The Influence of Built Environment and Topological Structure
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4564; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124564 - 03 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Reliable and accurate estimates of metro demand can provide metro authorities with insightful information for the planning of route alignment and station locations. Many existing studies focus on metro demand from daily or annual ridership profiles, but only a few concern the variation [...] Read more.
Reliable and accurate estimates of metro demand can provide metro authorities with insightful information for the planning of route alignment and station locations. Many existing studies focus on metro demand from daily or annual ridership profiles, but only a few concern the variation in hourly ridership. In this paper, a geographically and temporally weighted regression (GTWR) model was used to examine the spatial and temporal variation in the relationship between hourly ridership and factors related to the built environment and topological structure. Taking Nanjing, China as a case study, an empirical study was conducted with automatic fare collection (AFC) data in three weeks. With an analysis of variance (ANOVA), it was found that the GTWR model produced the best fit for hourly ridership data compared with traditional regression models. Four built-environment factors, namely residence, commerce, scenery, and parking, and two topological-structure factors, namely degree centrality and closeness centrality, were proven to be significantly related to station-level ridership. The spatial distribution pattern and temporal nonstationarity of these six variables were further analyzed. The result of this study confirmed that the GTWR model can provide more realistic and useful information by capturing spatiotemporal heterogeneity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Sustainability: Transport Geography and Mobility)
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