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Special Issue "Systems Engineering for Sustainable Development Goals"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Cecilia Haskins
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
Interests: systems engineering (SE); social systems engineering; applications of SE to SDG, e.g., eco-industrial parks, sustainable, and secure food supply, and sustainable use of natural resources; engineers’ education using project-based learning approaches and SE

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The recent pandemic has united the planet in unprecedented solidarity and appreciation for the unknown and the unseen. The variety of governmental and individual responses are evidence of our global lack of preparedness for such situations. A renewed appreciation for the importance of holistic and systemic thinking permeates both industry and academia. The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) contain thematic areas that are relevant for reflection as the countries regroup, repair, and move forward.
Systems engineering is a discipline that goes beyond its initial benefits, creating complex technological systems. Domains such as health care, transportation, natural resource management, social economics, and governance recognize the value of applying systemic thinking and systems engineering practices to find solutions that go beyond band-aid symptomatic issues to address root cause fixes.
This Special Issue of Sustainability invites researchers and practitioners using systems engineering approaches to share their practices and findings as they address SDG thematic areas. We are looking for ways systems methods help mitigate and resolve socio-economic and natural environmental challenges, such as by engineering better vaccines and medicines; personalizing education; imrpoving access to clean water; maintaining and improving urban infrastructures; and applying systems engineering to help shape resilient and trustworthy policies related to these and similar challenges. This Issue will highlight the most promising and innovative techniques for working toward and achieving the UN SDG.

References

  1. INCOSE, 2014. A world in motion: systems engineering vision 2025. International Council on Systems Engineering, San Diego, CA, USA.
  2. Sillitto, H., Griego, R., Arnold, E., Dori, D., Martin, J., McKinney, D., Godfrey, P., Krob, D. and Jackson, S., 2018, July. A fresh look at Systems Engineering–what is it, how should it work? In INCOSE International Symposium (Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 955-970).

Dr. Cecilia Haskins
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • systems engineering (SE)
  • applications of SE to UN Sustainable Development Goals
  • social systems engineering
  • enterprise systems engineering

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Systems Engineering for Sustainable Development Goals
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10293; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810293 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 612
Abstract
Sustainability is expanding the discipline and practice of systems engineering [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systems Engineering for Sustainable Development Goals)

Research

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Article
Patterns for Resilient Value Creation: Perspective of the German Electrical Industry during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6090; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116090 - 28 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 745
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic represents a massive, often unanticipated, external disruption for many companies. As a concept for responding to such disruption, organizational resilience has recently received great attention. In the organizational context, the overriding question is how companies can become more resilient. This [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic represents a massive, often unanticipated, external disruption for many companies. As a concept for responding to such disruption, organizational resilience has recently received great attention. In the organizational context, the overriding question is how companies can become more resilient. This study aims to contribute to answering this question by identifying, categorizing, and providing specific business model patterns for achieving resilience on the corporate level. For this purpose, a review of publications by major consulting firms was conducted. Patterns were extracted from publications until a convergence criterion indicated that no new pattern could be identified considering further publications. The 110 extracted unique patterns were clustered into 13 objectives, and additionally categorized according to resilience phases, as well as business model elements, to support the application in practice. The final catalog of patterns was validated through expert interviews and thus provides organizations, such as those in the electrical industry, with an overview and specific approaches on how to tackle industrial resilience through the adaption of their business model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systems Engineering for Sustainable Development Goals)
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Article
Applying System-Oriented Sustainability Scoring for Cruise Traffic Port Operators: A Case Study of Geiranger, Norway
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6046; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116046 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 565
Abstract
Balancing the positive and negative impacts of cruise tourism is a challenging task for port operators. Necessary information for cruise port planning and decision making may be laborious to acquire and further combine for holistic decision support. The current study applies a system-oriented [...] Read more.
Balancing the positive and negative impacts of cruise tourism is a challenging task for port operators. Necessary information for cruise port planning and decision making may be laborious to acquire and further combine for holistic decision support. The current study applies a system-oriented sustainability scoring model to the port of Geiranger, Norway. The aim is to provide a practical and low-threshold approach for appraising sustainability aspects in cruise port planning and decision making. The scoring model provides an estimate of performance on sustainability indicators based on cruise call itinerary information and readily available ship data. Results demonstrate how using the scoring model can prove useful for both port management, planning, stakeholder communication and scenario evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systems Engineering for Sustainable Development Goals)
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Article
Developing a Participatory Planning Support System for Sustainable Regional Planning—A Problem Structuring Case Study
Sustainability 2021, 13(10), 5723; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13105723 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 854
Abstract
In this paper, we report on the application of systems engineering in initiating the synthesis of a participatory planning support system (PSS) for sustainable regional planning. The systems engineering SPADE approach is applied in a model-based fashion to define and link sustainable development [...] Read more.
In this paper, we report on the application of systems engineering in initiating the synthesis of a participatory planning support system (PSS) for sustainable regional planning. The systems engineering SPADE approach is applied in a model-based fashion to define and link sustainable development goals (SDGs) to regional and urban planning policies in a co-creative multi-stakeholder environment. The approach is demonstrated through a case study from the interregional climate, land-use, and transportation planning process (PAKT) in the Ålesund region in Norway. The work was performed using focus groups with planning stakeholders over a series of workshops to analyze, design, verify and validate the problem structure. Our study shows that the approach is useful for integrating and operationalizing the SDGs in a planning context. The methodology also brings clarity and structure to planning problems and provides a pedagogical frame to engage stakeholders in co-creative PSS synthesis. Further research is necessary to explore how structured elements may be exploited in PSS synthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systems Engineering for Sustainable Development Goals)
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Article
HoReCa Food Waste and Sustainable Development Goals—A Systemic View
Sustainability 2021, 13(10), 5510; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13105510 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 835
Abstract
A significant share of food waste originates in the food services domain and HoReCa sector. Organizational improvements leading to the decrease of food waste and related costs in HoReCa are needed to make progress in this issue. A systems engineering approach was applied [...] Read more.
A significant share of food waste originates in the food services domain and HoReCa sector. Organizational improvements leading to the decrease of food waste and related costs in HoReCa are needed to make progress in this issue. A systems engineering approach was applied to examine the links between food waste generated in the HoReCa industry and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). A literature review discovered two dimensions of actions leading to decreasing food waste in HoReCa; i.e., actions triggered by companies and by authorities (e.g., governmental policies). Additionally, customers and society were also considered. A framework is proposed to explicitly illustrate the dependencies of different micro actions devoted to food waste reduction in HoReCa in support of the SDGs. The other dimension of this framework is macro policies and their impact on SDGs. To increase food waste reduction awareness and collaboration, stakeholders on both the macro (launched by authorities for the whole sector) and micro (initiated by single organizations on their own) levels must work together. The results of this research will be useful in coordinating the efforts of all (consumers, HoReCa companies and suppliers, policymakers and administrations on different levels) involved in the supply chain of food production and consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systems Engineering for Sustainable Development Goals)
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Article
Systems Engineering for the Energy Transition: Potential Contributions and Limitations
Sustainability 2021, 13(10), 5423; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13105423 - 12 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 617
Abstract
Systems engineering finds its origin in analyzing and exploring complicated technical systems. In this positioning paper, we set out to discuss the value and limitations of a Systems Engineering approach in its contribution to societal challenges, notably the energy transition. We conceptualize the [...] Read more.
Systems engineering finds its origin in analyzing and exploring complicated technical systems. In this positioning paper, we set out to discuss the value and limitations of a Systems Engineering approach in its contribution to societal challenges, notably the energy transition. We conceptualize the energy system as a sociotechnical system. We specifically explore stakeholders and their roles, agency, and acceptance. We illustrate the relevance by a case at the municipal level that shows the relevance of acceptance, pluralism, distributed agency, context, and process aspects. The municipality is still in a phase of exploration and conceptualization. Systems Engineering can be of great value in this phase to explore the problem and solution space. However, to make the most of this requires that Systems Engineering addresses policy making, distributed agency, and complexity. We discuss the challenges this poses for the traditional Systems Engineering approach; we indicate several potential strategies to address these challenges, and we show two fields that can help clarify how to address these challenges: transition studies and sustainability assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systems Engineering for Sustainable Development Goals)
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Article
Merging Systems Thinking with Entrepreneurship: Shifting Students’ Mindsets towards Crafting a More Sustainable Future
Sustainability 2021, 13(9), 4946; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094946 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 944
Abstract
The major challenges confronting humanity are systemic in nature: climate change, pollution, poverty, and inequality. Entrepreneurship fails to tackle these challenges, and ‘creative destruction’ is mostly just leading to the destruction of the natural world that we inhabit. The present economic, financial, and [...] Read more.
The major challenges confronting humanity are systemic in nature: climate change, pollution, poverty, and inequality. Entrepreneurship fails to tackle these challenges, and ‘creative destruction’ is mostly just leading to the destruction of the natural world that we inhabit. The present economic, financial, and productive systems can and should be transformed to lead and power a shift towards sustainability. If we are to reverse the course of destruction that current capitalist systems are creating, we need to introduce more of a systems perspective into entrepreneurial education. This article addresses how merging systems thinking and entrepreneurship can be used to nudge students towards sustainability. Through a single case study, we argue that a practice-based pedagogy that combines perspectives from entrepreneurship and systems thinking can be used as a catalyst to bring about local changes in business models by making the business case go beyond the individual organization and seeing entrepreneurship as being about creating more sustainable business systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systems Engineering for Sustainable Development Goals)
Article
Application of Systems Engineering and Sustainable Development Goals towards Sustainable Management of Fishing Gear Resources in Norway
Sustainability 2021, 13(9), 4914; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094914 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 754
Abstract
Commercial fishing is a critical economic sector for Norway, yet deficiency of scientific information, regulatory instruments, inadequate implementation, and lack of management infrastructure are among the significant causes of mismanagement of fishing gear (FG) resources. Mismanagement of FGs results in leakage of plastics [...] Read more.
Commercial fishing is a critical economic sector for Norway, yet deficiency of scientific information, regulatory instruments, inadequate implementation, and lack of management infrastructure are among the significant causes of mismanagement of fishing gear (FG) resources. Mismanagement of FGs results in leakage of plastics through abandoned, lost, or discarded fishing gears (ALDFG), which is the most threatening litter fraction for marine wildlife. In EU-EEA states, the management of ALDFG is prioritized through a dedicated circular economy (CE) action plan. Historically, systems engineering (SE) methods are successfully applied for resource management studies. This study adopts and applies the SPADE method to evaluate sustainable management for the system of FG resources in Norway. SPADE comprises five problem-solving activities covering stakeholders, problem formulation, analysis, decision-making, and continuous evaluation. Each activity is accomplished by data collected through stakeholder interviews and literature analysis to establish an initial structure of problems and associated management strategies across FG’s life cycle phases. The application of SPADE spanned across four years (2017–2020) and resulted in scientific outcomes aimed at the common goal of improving the system of FG resources in Norway within the framework of sustainable development goals and CE. SPADE’s practice to integrate stakeholders at each step and provision for continual systems evaluation proved effective in building a holistic understanding of the complex system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systems Engineering for Sustainable Development Goals)
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Article
An Approach to Sustainability Management across Systemic Levels: The Capacity-Building in Sustainability and Environmental Management Model (CapSEM-Model)
Sustainability 2021, 13(9), 4910; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094910 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 729
Abstract
A toolbox for assessing the environmental impacts of processes, products and services has been gradually developed over the last 30 years. The tools and methods place attention on a growing holistic concern to also consider stakeholders’ views connected to impacts of the entire [...] Read more.
A toolbox for assessing the environmental impacts of processes, products and services has been gradually developed over the last 30 years. The tools and methods place attention on a growing holistic concern to also consider stakeholders’ views connected to impacts of the entire life cycle of products. Another change is the gradual increase in consideration of the economic and social dimensions of sustainability since the 1990s. This paper presents this development using two interlinked models that illustrate the changes from the scopes of time and system complexity. The two initial models are further merged into one, the Capacity-building in Sustainability and Environmental Management model (the CapSEM-model), which presents organizations a systemic way to transition to sustainability, seen from the scopes of system complexity and performance complexity. The CapSEM-model attempts to integrate the different dimensions of systems and of methodologies and their contribution to increased environmental and sustainability performance. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are further mapped onto the model as an example of how they can be useful in the transition to sustainability. The model is, therefore, a conceptualization and needs further development to specify accurate level boundaries. However, it has proven to be helpful for organizations that struggle to find a systematic approach toward implementing sustainability. This is described through a brief example from the manufacturing industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systems Engineering for Sustainable Development Goals)
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Article
Applying Roadmapping and Conceptual Modeling to the Energy Transition: A Local Case Study
Sustainability 2021, 13(7), 3683; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13073683 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 601
Abstract
The climate crisis requires a global transition toward sustainable practices. In this transition, policy makers face the challenge to take along a wide variety of stakeholders with own interests, needs, and concerns. This research explores the combined use of conceptual models and roadmapping [...] Read more.
The climate crisis requires a global transition toward sustainable practices. In this transition, policy makers face the challenge to take along a wide variety of stakeholders with own interests, needs, and concerns. This research explores the combined use of conceptual models and roadmapping to facilitate understanding, communication, reasoning, and decision-making between a large heterogeneous set of stakeholders. We apply these methods, in the form of action research, in several smaller research projects at a small town in the Netherlands. We find that the combination of conceptual modeling and roadmapping facilitates discussions between heterogeneous stakeholders on complex transition problems, such as the energy transition, at a local scale. However, we see a significant gap in the way of thinking and communicating between experts and decision-makers, which requires additional means to connect them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systems Engineering for Sustainable Development Goals)
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Article
The Crossovers and Connectivity between Systems Engineering and the Sustainable Development Goals: A Scoping Study
Sustainability 2021, 13(6), 3176; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063176 - 14 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 656
Abstract
The United Nation’s sustainable development goals (SDGs) are interconnected and indivisible and need to be addressed in a systematic and holistic way. However, a lack of stakeholder perspective, fragmented responses, and a dearth of integration across sectors have long been perceived as the [...] Read more.
The United Nation’s sustainable development goals (SDGs) are interconnected and indivisible and need to be addressed in a systematic and holistic way. However, a lack of stakeholder perspective, fragmented responses, and a dearth of integration across sectors have long been perceived as the SDGs’ main pitfalls. In recent years, scholars are calling to address these issues by adopting a systems engineering perspective, as this approach espouses a stakeholder-focused position, embraces a holistic and dynamic mindset, and provides a variety of technical and managerial toolkits, which can help to untangle the complexity and interactions inherent in global sustainability. Nevertheless, little has been done to map the existing literature, comprehensively review, and synthesize research evidence in this field. Therefore, this paper aims to conduct a scoping study that analyzes the extant evidence to uncover the contributions of systems engineering in advancing the SDGs. A three-phase methodology integrating natural language processing and systematic literature review is used to investigate this space. We conclude that systems engineering has been an active catalyst promoting the SDGs, and that systems engineering has the potential to support more transdisciplinary research to achieve long-term transformational and sustainable change across sectors and disciplines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systems Engineering for Sustainable Development Goals)
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Article
Systemic Modeling of the Peace–Development Nexus
Sustainability 2021, 13(5), 2522; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052522 - 26 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 653
Abstract
As we enter the third decade of the 21st century, the value proposition of promoting sustainability and peace in the world has become more imperative than ever. It is an appropriate time to pause and reflect on what a post-pandemic COVID-19 world will [...] Read more.
As we enter the third decade of the 21st century, the value proposition of promoting sustainability and peace in the world has become more imperative than ever. It is an appropriate time to pause and reflect on what a post-pandemic COVID-19 world will look like and what constitutes a new mindset toward a more sustainable, stable, peaceful, and equitable world where all humans live with dignity and at peace. As emphasized in this paper, the new mindset must acknowledge that sustainability and peace are two entangled states of dynamic equilibrium. It is hard to envision a sustainable world that is not peaceful and a peaceful world that has not endorsed sustainable practices. This paper looks more specifically at the value proposition of adopting a systems approach to capture the linkages between selected development sectors (e.g., SDGs) and peace sectors (e.g., positive, negative, and cultural). Basic system dynamics (SD) models are presented to illustrate the peace–development nexus dynamics. The models are general enough to be used for different contexts and scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systems Engineering for Sustainable Development Goals)
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Article
Cleaning Up Our Act: Systems Engineering to Promote Business Model Innovation for the Offshore Exploration and Production Supply Chain Operations
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 2113; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042113 - 16 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 953
Abstract
Oil and gas offshore exploration and production (E & P) will remain necessary to meet increasing global energy demands. However, appraising and exploring these resources has a major impact on sustainability and faces many challenges. Improving the supply chain operations that support E&P [...] Read more.
Oil and gas offshore exploration and production (E & P) will remain necessary to meet increasing global energy demands. However, appraising and exploring these resources has a major impact on sustainability and faces many challenges. Improving the supply chain operations that support E&P activities presents opportunities to contribute to the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), but relies on organizations being able to adopt new strategies and technology and, innovate their current business models. Business model innovation (BMI) has not been actively pursued in this industry, partially due to the traditional operation management and due to the complexity in changing established models or adopting full-fledged archetypes. Thus, the present study proposes a more flexible and granular approach to BMI by defining elements to be adopted rather than proposing business models archetypes. To define the elements, an application of systems engineering (SE) is adopted through a morphological analysis (MA). They are presented in morphological boxes in three dimensions—technology, organization, and the human element—inspired by sustainable business model (SBM) literature. The elements are proposed as “bricks” for BMI where they can be adopted and re-arranged as necessary, providing granularity and flexibility to facilitate BMI for organizations of varying sizes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systems Engineering for Sustainable Development Goals)
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Article
A Systems Engineering Framework for Bioeconomic Transitions in a Sustainable Development Goal Context
Sustainability 2020, 12(16), 6650; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166650 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 862
Abstract
To address sustainable development goals (SDGs), national and international strategies have been increasingly interested in the bioeconomy. SDGs have been criticized for lacking stakeholder perspectives and agency, and for requiring too little of business. There is also a lack of both systematic and [...] Read more.
To address sustainable development goals (SDGs), national and international strategies have been increasingly interested in the bioeconomy. SDGs have been criticized for lacking stakeholder perspectives and agency, and for requiring too little of business. There is also a lack of both systematic and systemic frameworks for the strategic planning of bioeconomy transitions. Using a systems engineering approach, we seek to address this with a process framework to bridge bioeconomy transitions by addressing SDGs. In this methodology paper, we develop a systems archetype mapping framework for sustainable bioeconomy transitions, called MPAST: Mapping Problem Archetypes to Solutions for Transitions. Using this framework with sector-specific stakeholder data facilitates the establishment of the start (problem state) and end (solution state) to understand and analyze sectorial transitions to the bioeconomy. We apply the MPAST framework to the case of a Norwegian agricultural bioeconomy transition, using data from a survey of the Norwegian agricultural sector on transitioning to a bioeconomy. The results of using this framework illustrate how visual mapping methods can be combined as a process, which we then discuss in the context of SDG implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systems Engineering for Sustainable Development Goals)
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Article
Systemic Analysis of the Contributions of Co-Located Industrial Symbiosis to Achieve Sustainable Development in an Industrial Park in Northern Spain
Sustainability 2020, 12(14), 5802; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145802 - 19 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 962
Abstract
Resource efficiency is a strategy with great potential to make progress towards the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), since it can contribute to meeting a variety of economic, environmental and social targets. In this context, this investigation developed a systemic analysis of co-located [...] Read more.
Resource efficiency is a strategy with great potential to make progress towards the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), since it can contribute to meeting a variety of economic, environmental and social targets. In this context, this investigation developed a systemic analysis of co-located Industrial Symbiosis (IS) synergies in an industrial park formed of four companies. To this end, public data showing that the main activity in this park concerned materials, water and steam flows were supported with short visits to the companies for verification purposes. Then, the effects of nine exchange and twelve share synergies were analysed at different scales according to their impacts on sustainable development. The changes caused by these synergies in the flows in the industrial park enabled saving more than 10 k tonnes of raw materials and waste disposal and almost 10 Mm3 of raw water per year, as well as six auxiliary service systems. In the end, these figures might be translated into more than 200 kt CO2 eq. and EUR 6M saved per year, which in turn corresponds to 0.05% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the region in which the park is located. In terms of sustainable development, these modifications were translated into contributions to nine SDGs and 14 of their specific targets, proving the domino effect associated with the application of IS policies by governments and public entities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systems Engineering for Sustainable Development Goals)
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Erratum
Erratum: Yang, L.; Cormican, K. The Crossovers and Connectivity between Systems Engineering and the Sustainable Development Goals: A Scoping Study. Sustainability 2021, 13, 3176
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 8930; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13168930 - 10 Aug 2021
Viewed by 411
Abstract
The authors would like to make the following corrections to the published paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systems Engineering for Sustainable Development Goals)
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