Special Issue "Sustainable | Sustaining City Streets"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Urban and Rural Development".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Ken Tamminga
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Landscape Architecture, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Interests: convivial greenstreets, community/landscape co-resilience, novel ecosystems, urban ecological design, riparian urbanism
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Knüvener
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Knüvener Architekturlandschaft, Brüsseler Straße 89-93 D - 50672 Köln, Germany
Interests: urbanism; urban design; interface between architecture and open space, city and landscape, inside and outside

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In 1958 urbanist Jane Jacobs wrote “there is real potential in the street.” Sixty years later, this potential remains. In this Special Issue we invite a dialogue of perspectives on the street, one that we hope will appeal to a wide range of sustainability scholars and practitioners: How do good/effective streets of all types contribute to sustaining us individually and communally in the city? Conversely, how do we promote sustainability on and near streets so that they may continue sustaining urban life?

Social and natural scientists might examine streets as socio-ecological systems, sustaining interacting life forms, human and otherwise. Interventionists—planners, designers, activists, engineers, managers—might explore morphologies, infrastructures and phenomena that sustain life along the street, and by extension the metropolis. We also call for research on those immediate contexts that exude onto, frame, and interact with the street corridor: Built form, public space, artefacts and interstices.

We hope this special issue expands the space of possible insights, technologies and best practices as they address the city street. We invite contributions from a wide range of research approaches: Empirical to experimental, conceptual to mixed-method. While we highlight the local, there is room for research at multiple scales. We especially welcome comparative and case studies.

Prof. Ken Tamminga
Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Knüvener
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • street as place
  • street as ecology
  • multi-function streets
  • green transitways
  • open streets
  • convivial greenstreets
  • walkable streets
  • complete versus incomplete streets
  • active streets
  • street mobility
  • transition streets
  • low-carbon streets
  • smart streets

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
On Sustainable|Sustaining City Streets
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 1895; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041895 - 10 Feb 2021
Viewed by 322
Abstract
City streets have long been the subject and context for research [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable | Sustaining City Streets)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Understanding Green Street Design: Evidence from Three Cases in the U.S.
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 1916; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041916 - 10 Feb 2021
Viewed by 714
Abstract
World cities need more green areas to promote social, economic, and environmental well-being; the problem, however, is that the space available for green infrastructure (GI) within the built environment is limited. Finding empty, free, or underutilized spaces within the built environment to be [...] Read more.
World cities need more green areas to promote social, economic, and environmental well-being; the problem, however, is that the space available for green infrastructure (GI) within the built environment is limited. Finding empty, free, or underutilized spaces within the built environment to be repurposed for GI has been a challenge. Streets are public, numerous, and evenly distributed, being a desirable place to fulfill this requirement. However, they are also heavily regulated public spaces, where design is standardized, and ruled by codes and manuals. Some cities in the US have implemented an increasing number of green streets (green infrastructures within the rights-of-way with environmental purposes), because of green stormwater management federal policies. This paper aims to understand the green street design procedure, based on empirical evidence. Three cities were studied (Portland, Seattle, and Philadelphia) by means of documentary information, visual inspections, and interviews. It is of special interest to unveil how traditional street design has been modified to adopt these new green elements within rights-of-way (ROW). Results show a longer and more complex street design process for green streets, where many more disciplines intervene. These results are discussed in the light of recent movements and trends in street design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable | Sustaining City Streets)
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Open AccessArticle
Does Facilitating Human–Place Bonds Alleviate the Negative Effects of Incivilities on Health?
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 1894; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041894 - 10 Feb 2021
Viewed by 369
Abstract
The present study has two purposes—methodological and theoretical. The methodological purpose is to examine a method for the analysis of perceived incivilities and health in urban neighbourhoods. The current study investigates the direct and indirect relationships between the two variables. The theoretical purpose [...] Read more.
The present study has two purposes—methodological and theoretical. The methodological purpose is to examine a method for the analysis of perceived incivilities and health in urban neighbourhoods. The current study investigates the direct and indirect relationships between the two variables. The theoretical purpose is to measure neighbourhood incivility as a second-order latent variable that represents physical and social incivilities, and investigates place identity and place attachment as mediators in the relationship between incivilities and health. Previous research has focused on a single dimension of incivility. By contrast, the current study considers a multidimensional form of incivility. This quantitative study comprises 265 residents from an urban neighbourhood in Penang, Malaysia. The results of the structural equation modelling suggest that perceptions towards neighbourhood play a mediating role in the relationship between incivility and health. The mediation roles of place identity and place attachment in the relationship between incivilities and health are also supported. Thus, facilitating human–place bonds alleviates the negative effects of incivilities on health in the study neighbourhood. Residents are less attached to neighbourhoods that are perceived as socially and physically deteriorated. Thus, reducing incivilities and improving place attachment may enhance neighbourhood health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable | Sustaining City Streets)
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Open AccessArticle
The Visual Effect of Signboards on the Vitality of the Streetscapes Using Eye-Tracking
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010030 - 22 Dec 2020
Viewed by 486
Abstract
This study focuses on whether signboards attract people’s visual concentration as a foreground element of the streetscape and check the difference in streetscape image according to the area of the signboard. For this purpose, 133 street-view photographs were taken at five major commercial [...] Read more.
This study focuses on whether signboards attract people’s visual concentration as a foreground element of the streetscape and check the difference in streetscape image according to the area of the signboard. For this purpose, 133 street-view photographs were taken at five major commercial districts in Seoul and 17 photos were selected for this study. The photos were then classified into the High Signboard Group (HSG) and Low Signboard Group (LSG) according to the area of the signboards and conducted eye-tracking experiments and surveys. Finally, data from 33 people were collected and a t-test was conducted to identify differences between the two groups. As a result, the number of fixations, the fixation time, and the revisits of fixation on signboards were measured higher in HSG, and the distance of gaze movement (saccade) was lower. The results of the image survey analysis showed that HSG groups had low streetscape satisfaction, signboard satisfaction, and streetscape aesthetic quality. However, Dynamic and Interesting factors were high. Taken together, the signboard can be seen as a landscape element that focuses attention by giving people an active and interesting image, which shows the importance and possibility of using signboards in future streetscape design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable | Sustaining City Streets)
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Open AccessArticle
Effectiveness of Fear and Crime Prevention Strategy for Sustainability of Safe City
Sustainability 2020, 12(24), 10593; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410593 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 739
Abstract
Crime is a manifestation of incivility that society attempts to curb, yet faces enormous challenges, as crime is a by-product of urbanization and human advancement. As more agglomeration of the population in cities around the globe, humankind’s safety from being threatened by crime [...] Read more.
Crime is a manifestation of incivility that society attempts to curb, yet faces enormous challenges, as crime is a by-product of urbanization and human advancement. As more agglomeration of the population in cities around the globe, humankind’s safety from being threatened by crime needed to be safeguard to sustain everyday living in cities. Humans’ co-existence with crime and fear of crime in cities vis-a-vis efforts preventing it from occurring has been widely carried out in developed countries. An increasing trend is showing in emerging and developing countries. Therefore, this article provides empirical evidence regarding a safe city program launched in Malaysia. This study aims to identify the factors contributing to the prevention of crime and fear of crime. This study employed a survey questionnaire to 400 pedestrians’ perceptions of Kuala Lumpur city’s central business district. The result showed that prevention methods through the actor of “capable guardians” (i.e., authorities) are effective; however, methods through the actor of “suitable victims” (i.e., communities) is ineffective. Further studies should explore perspective of the actor of “likely offenders” (i.e., criminals) to fill in the gap of safe city program’s effectiveness and sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable | Sustaining City Streets)
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Open AccessArticle
From Transfer to Knowledge Co-Production: A Transdisciplinary Research Approach to Reduce Black Carbon Emissions in Metro Manila, Philippines
Sustainability 2020, 12(23), 10043; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122310043 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 635
Abstract
Air pollution, which kills an estimated 7 million people every year, is one of the greatest environmental health risks of our times. Finding solutions to this threat poses challenges to practitioners and policymakers alike. Increasing awareness on the benefits of transdisciplinary research in [...] Read more.
Air pollution, which kills an estimated 7 million people every year, is one of the greatest environmental health risks of our times. Finding solutions to this threat poses challenges to practitioners and policymakers alike. Increasing awareness on the benefits of transdisciplinary research in solution-oriented sustainable development projects has led to the establishment of the research project “A Transdisciplinary Approach to Mitigate Emissions of Black Carbon” (TAME-BC). This paper introduces the TAME-BC research setup that took place with Metro Manila, Philippines, case study. The approach integrates BC measurements with technological, socio-political, and health aspects to improve the scientific state of the art, policymaking, transport sector planning, and clinical studies related to air pollution health effects. The first pillar in the setup presents an (1) air quality assessment through aerosol measurements and instrumentation, complemented by a (2) description and assessment of the current policies, technologies, and practices of the transport sector that is responsible for pollution levels in the Philippines, as well as a (3) BC exposure and associated health impacts assessment. The fourth pillar is intercrossing, fostering (4) knowledge co-creation through stakeholder involvement across scales. We argue that this transdisciplinary approach is useful for research endeavors aiming for emission mitigation in rapidly urbanizing regions beyond Metro Manila. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable | Sustaining City Streets)
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Open AccessArticle
How to Create Walking Friendly Cities. A Multi-Criteria Analysis of the Central Open Market Area of Rijeka
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9470; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229470 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 665
Abstract
Current mobility strategies tend to pursue sustainable solutions with low environmental and economic impact, such as the disincentive to the use of private vehicles. Mobility on foot is among the most advantageous forms for short distances, especially if different technological and infrastructural solutions [...] Read more.
Current mobility strategies tend to pursue sustainable solutions with low environmental and economic impact, such as the disincentive to the use of private vehicles. Mobility on foot is among the most advantageous forms for short distances, especially if different technological and infrastructural solutions are inserted in the urban context such as underpasses that limit the likely conflicts with motor vehicles. These solutions, however, are not easily perceived as positive because people often do not like to change their usual routes or because they feel psychological discomfort when they pass through closed places. This research work focuses on the evaluation of the benefits of including a small underpass in the city of Rijeka, Croatia and through an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), a multi-criteria analysis, it was possible to prioritize a number of decision-making alternatives, related to qualitative and quantitative evaluations, otherwise not directly comparable, and combining multidimensional measurement scales into a single priority scale. This analysis allows to provide cues for local and non-local urban planning, encouraging through the participatory form an active comparison between the population and local authorities and at the same time allows to assess which multidisciplinary processes (psychological/engineering) are possible to put in place to encourage the research on pedestrian behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable | Sustaining City Streets)
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Open AccessArticle
The Paradox of “Eyes on the Street”: Pedestrian Density and Fear of Crime in Yaoundé, Cameroon
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5300; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135300 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 939
Abstract
Most studies highlighting the link between the urban environment and fear of crime (FoC) have focused on less populated spaces in urban areas, and concluded that the presence of activities and people in a space makes its users more confident. This study analyses [...] Read more.
Most studies highlighting the link between the urban environment and fear of crime (FoC) have focused on less populated spaces in urban areas, and concluded that the presence of activities and people in a space makes its users more confident. This study analyses the paradoxical phenomenon of FoC in occupied public spaces in the setting of Yaoundé, Cameroon. To this end, this study analyses the relationship between intersection level, pedestrian density and perceived FoC. The results of the multi-level binary logistic regression demonstrate that women, vulnerable age groups, people with a weak sense of community and high-income people tend to express a higher level of FoC. Among the major FoC theories, these results confirm the theories of physical vulnerability and social networks and invalidate the theory of social vulnerability in the local context. The results also reveal that the relationship between “pedestrian density” and FoC seems to be a convex curve with the minimum value, implying that the concept of ‘eyes on the street’ is not valid in places where pedestrian density exceeds a specific threshold. This suggests that policy makers and planners should consider pedestrian density when designing public spaces, not only to secure wellbeing, but also due to the impact it can have on perceived FoC among those who use such spaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable | Sustaining City Streets)
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Open AccessArticle
Green Streets to Serve Urban Sustainability: Benefits and Typology
Sustainability 2019, 11(22), 6483; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226483 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1286
Abstract
Urbanization and climate change have impacted the ecosystems of the US cities. Impervious surfaces in the urbanized areas are a critical issue for both challenges and green infrastructure can be an alternative solution to achieve urban sustainability. Green infrastructure protects urban ecosystems by [...] Read more.
Urbanization and climate change have impacted the ecosystems of the US cities. Impervious surfaces in the urbanized areas are a critical issue for both challenges and green infrastructure can be an alternative solution to achieve urban sustainability. Green infrastructure protects urban ecosystems by reducing imperviousness as treating stormwater runoff and providing other multifaceted benefits. However, even with the great potential, its adoption is still discouraged due to limited understanding and guidance especially for the cities with a growth-driven policy. This paper proposes that green infrastructure, particularly green streets in relation to impervious surfaces, can deliver urban sustainability by providing a better understanding to promote the acceptance and successful adoption of green streets through literature review and case studies in the US. Green streets are primarily implemented within the right-of-way and facilitate stormwater treatment along with diverse street designs providing multiple benefits such as flood management, wildlife habitat and natural pathway creation, neighborhood beautification, cost-effective solution, and more. The defined green street typology in this paper is an important tool for communicating among planners and the public by providing form-based standardized classification. Green streets can be utilized as a sustainable development approach, fulfilling a variety of environmental, social, and economic objectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable | Sustaining City Streets)
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Open AccessArticle
Creative Street Regeneration in the Context of Socio-Spatial Sustainability: A Case Study of a Traditional City Centre in Podgorica, Montenegro
Sustainability 2019, 11(21), 5989; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11215989 - 28 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
The physical structure of Podgorica was predominantly developed with a traditional planning concept, whereby public open spaces of the city are as important as the city’s architectural objects. The focus of this paper is the perception of a traditional street in the context [...] Read more.
The physical structure of Podgorica was predominantly developed with a traditional planning concept, whereby public open spaces of the city are as important as the city’s architectural objects. The focus of this paper is the perception of a traditional street in the context of sustainable urban regeneration. The aim of this study is to submit a proposal, through the Urban Design course at the Faculty of Architecture in Podgorica, for the physical regeneration of twelve traditional streets (eight street directions) that define the central core of Podgorica, known as Mirkova Varoš. These streets are the sites of social processes, interpreters of cultural and identity values of the society, and primary keepers of collective memory. It was detected that the attractiveness of the case study streets is weakening due to inadequate social and professional engagement in the processes of preservation and regeneration over time and also due to new users’ needs. Global requirements reflect the weakened role of public open spaces as places of social interaction, in favour of primarily closed shopping centres that are the new urban artefacts of the 21st century city. The first phase of this study is related to the theoretical interpretation of regeneration and the role of public space in the context of socio-spatial sustainability. The second phase of the study is directed toward estimating the perception of the current state of the street area in Mirova Varoš, as seen by the case study area users and architecture students, using (1) visual, (2) tactile, and (3) auditory criteria. The obtained results serve as a platform for concrete urban design proposals for sustainable street regeneration that will reflect a stronger socio-spatial interaction between (1) user–place, (2) the place–city system, and (3) local processes–global flows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable | Sustaining City Streets)
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Open AccessArticle
Shared Space and Pedestrian Safety: Empirical Evidence from Pedestrian Priority Street Projects in Seoul, Korea
Sustainability 2019, 11(17), 4645; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11174645 - 26 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 912
Abstract
To provide safe and comfortable walking environments on narrow streets without sidewalks, the Seoul city government has implemented the Pedestrian Priority Street (PPS) projects. Based on Monderman’s “shared space” concept, the PPS involves applying diverse paving design techniques, particularly stamped asphalt pavement of [...] Read more.
To provide safe and comfortable walking environments on narrow streets without sidewalks, the Seoul city government has implemented the Pedestrian Priority Street (PPS) projects. Based on Monderman’s “shared space” concept, the PPS involves applying diverse paving design techniques, particularly stamped asphalt pavement of various colors and patterns. This study investigated the effectiveness of the PPS for pedestrian safety. Data sources were (1) video recordings of the nine concurrent PPS in 2014 before and after the projects were completed and (2) a cross-sectional survey at the nine streets. Two groups of multiple regression models analyzed the objective safety, by using the variables, mean vehicle speed and change in mean speed, which were then compared with subjective safety through a questionnaire analysis. The results found that the design strategies reduced the vehicle speed and increased perceptions of pedestrian safety. These suggest that the PPS principles are practical and feasible ways to tackle the safety problems of narrow streets without sidewalks. Further, vehicle speeds increased on streets where the pedestrian zone was clearly distinguishable from the vehicular zone by applying PPS techniques only at the roadside. Thus, clearly separating pedestrians from vehicular zones, which is neither the original principle nor the intent of the PPS, should be avoided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable | Sustaining City Streets)
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Open AccessArticle
Understanding Visual Engagement with Urban Street Edges along Non-Pedestrianised and Pedestrianised Streets Using Mobile Eye-Tracking
Sustainability 2019, 11(15), 4251; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11154251 - 06 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1693
Abstract
Existing knowledge of street edge experience has often been constructed using methods that offer a limited opportunity to gain empirical insight from the first-hand perspective of pedestrians. In order to address this, mobile eye-tracking glasses were used during the current investigation to provide [...] Read more.
Existing knowledge of street edge experience has often been constructed using methods that offer a limited opportunity to gain empirical insight from the first-hand perspective of pedestrians. In order to address this, mobile eye-tracking glasses were used during the current investigation to provide a detailed understanding of pedestrian visual engagement with street edges along both non-pedestrianised and pedestrianised urban streets. Through this, the current study advances empirical knowledge of street edge experience from a perspective that has previously been challenging to capture and quantify. The findings demonstrate that people visually engage with street edge ground floors more than their upper floors, that visual engagement is distributed more towards the street edge on the walked side of non-pedestrianised streets than the opposite side, and that visual engagement with street edges of pedestrianised streets is balanced across both sides. The study findings also highlight how the everyday activities of pedestrians and different streets being walked often influence the amount of visual engagement within these street edge areas. These insights provide a new understanding that develops existing knowledge of pedestrian street edge experience. Significantly, they also provide an empirical foundation from which to examine how design intervention can become more considerate of peoples’ routine use of and experiential engagement with street edges along non-pedestrianised and pedestrianised urban streets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable | Sustaining City Streets)
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Open AccessArticle
A Hybrid Tool for Visual Pollution Assessment in Urban Environments
Sustainability 2019, 11(8), 2211; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11082211 - 12 Apr 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1757
Abstract
With increasing focus on more nuanced aspects of quality of life, the phenomenon of urban visual pollution has been progressively gaining attention from researchers and policy makers, especially in the developed world. However, the subjectivity and complexity of assessing visual pollution in urban [...] Read more.
With increasing focus on more nuanced aspects of quality of life, the phenomenon of urban visual pollution has been progressively gaining attention from researchers and policy makers, especially in the developed world. However, the subjectivity and complexity of assessing visual pollution in urban settings remain a challenge, especially given the lack of robust and reliable methods for quantification of visual pollution. This paper presents a novel systematic approach for the development of a robust Visual Pollution Assessment (VPA) tool. A key feature of our methodology is explicit and systematic incorporation of expert and public opinion for listing and ranking Visual Pollution Objects (VPOs). Moreover, our methodology deploys established empirical complex decision-making techniques to address the challenge of subjectivity in weighting the impact of individual VPOs. The resultant VPA tool uses close-ended options to capture the presence and characteristics of various VPOs on a given node. Based on these inputs, it calculates a point based visual pollution scorecard for the observation point. The performance of the VPA tool has been extensively tested and verified at various locations in Pakistan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such tool, both in terms of quantitative robustness and broad coverage of VPOs. Our VPA tool will help regulators in assessing and charting visual pollution in a consistent and objective manner. It will also help policy makers by providing an empirical basis for gathering evidence; hence facilitating evidence-based and evidence-driven policy strategies, which are likely to have significant impact, especially in the developing countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable | Sustaining City Streets)
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Open AccessArticle
Urban Transit Network Properties Evaluation and Optimization Based on Complex Network Theory
Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 2007; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11072007 - 04 Apr 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1121
Abstract
Urban public transportation contributes greatly to sustainable urban development. An urban public transportation network is a complex system. It is meaningful for theory and practice to analyze the topological structure of an urban public transportation network and explore the spatial structure of an [...] Read more.
Urban public transportation contributes greatly to sustainable urban development. An urban public transportation network is a complex system. It is meaningful for theory and practice to analyze the topological structure of an urban public transportation network and explore the spatial structure of an urban transportation network so as to mitigate and prevent traffic congestion and achieve sustainability. By examining the Xi’an bus network, the degree distribution, average path length, aggregation coefficient, and betweenness centrality of the bus station network were computed using models in complex network theory. The results show that the node degrees of the Xi’an bus network are unevenly distributed and present a polarization diagram with long average path length and high aggregation. A model based on betweenness and its solution method was developed to improve the public transportation network’s sustainability and discuss the possibility of optimizing the sustainability by network analyzing methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable | Sustaining City Streets)
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