Healthy Power: Reimagining Hospitals as Sustainable Energy Hubs
1. Introduction: Health and Energy
2. Materials and Methods: Technology Assessment and Design Approach
2.1. Power Generation
2.1.1. Diesel Combustion
2.1.2. Gas Combustion
2.1.3. Fuel Cells
2.1.4. Renewable Energy Technologies
2.1.5. Comparison of Technologies
2.2. Energy Storage
2.2.2. Flow Batteries
2.2.3. Hybrid Batteries
2.3. Related Technologies and Resource Considerations
2.4. Design Approach
2.4.1. Regulation Constraints
2.4.2. Specification Constraints
2.4.3. Design Goals
- 41 MWh per day total average energy demand.
- 49 percent of total demand is electrical energy.
- 708 kg per day of medical oxygen.
- Uninterruptible power supply with N + 1 redundancy.
- Battery systems designed for continuous float charging.
3. Results and Discussion: Design Specification for Hospital Renewable Energy Ecosystem
3.1. Replacing Engines and Turbines
3.2. Multi-Generation for Coupled Power and Resources
3.3. Illustration of Multi-Generation Hospital Precinct Energy System
4. Conclusions: A New Energy Ecosystem
Conflicts of Interest
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|Diesel combustion||Well understood and easily refueled||Expensive and polluting||Existing system|
|Gas combustion||High energy efficiency||Polluting||Existing system|
|Hydrogen fuel cell||Clean and can be refueled||Expensive for conventional backup||Fuel flexibility|
|Renewables||Sustainable and scalable||Variable output requires storage||Low marginal cost power|
|Hydrogen electrolysis||Sustainable and flexible||Expensive when considered alone||Oxygen supply and demand management|
|Lithium-ion battery||High power density||Sustainability concerns and limited storage||Electricity network support|
|Lead-acid hybrid battery||Readily recyclable and high peak power||Limited storage capacity||Electricity network support|
|Vanadium flow battery||Recyclable, stable and non-flammable||Low power and energy density||Electricity network and electric vehicle support|
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Gurieff, N.; Green, D.; Koskinen, I.; Lipson, M.; Baldry, M.; Maddocks, A.; Menictas, C.; Noack, J.; Moghtaderi, B.; Doroodchi, E. Healthy Power: Reimagining Hospitals as Sustainable Energy Hubs. Sustainability 2020, 12, 8554. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208554
Gurieff N, Green D, Koskinen I, Lipson M, Baldry M, Maddocks A, Menictas C, Noack J, Moghtaderi B, Doroodchi E. Healthy Power: Reimagining Hospitals as Sustainable Energy Hubs. Sustainability. 2020; 12(20):8554. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208554Chicago/Turabian Style
Gurieff, Nicholas, Donna Green, Ilpo Koskinen, Mathew Lipson, Mark Baldry, Andrew Maddocks, Chris Menictas, Jens Noack, Behdad Moghtaderi, and Elham Doroodchi. 2020. "Healthy Power: Reimagining Hospitals as Sustainable Energy Hubs" Sustainability 12, no. 20: 8554. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208554