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Challenges and Issues of the Smart Grid Technologies Implementation: Targeting Grid Resilience with Digitalization

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2023) | Viewed by 8526

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
UBITECH Energy Sprl, Koningin Astridlaan 59b, 1780 Wemmel, Belgium
Interests: high-voltage engineering; transmission and distribution lines; distributed generation; lightning performance and protection; energy storage; energy markets and artificial neural networks
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Educators, ASPETE—School of Pedagogical and Technological Education, 14121 N. Heraklion, Greece
Interests: applied and computational mathematics; electrical power engineering; electomagnetic compatibility; electrostatic discharge; high votages; lightning; microgrids; power engineering; power system analysis; power system simulation; power system protection; smart grids; power transmission
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The aim of power system development is the transformation of conventional power systems, which are based on centralized power generation and automation for supervision and control, to decentralized and flexible systems with dispersed power generation and the expansion of automation at the power distribution level. In this way, both the production of electricity from distributed energy sources and its consumption at Medium-Voltage (MV) and High-Voltage (HV) levels can be managed efficiently.

Smart grid in real time using information and communication technologies; this allows for renewable energy source implementation and distributed generation, reducing the carbon footprint, using a mix of energy sources, its integration in smart devices and smart homes, and new smart job opportunities. The most important requirement for this decarbonization process is a grid that is robust, resilient, reliable, and capable of withstanding internal effects from a continuously changing demand and supply patterns and bidirectional power flows as well as external effects from extreme weather events. The "digital grid", with digitalization at its core, grew with the emergence of OT and IT solutions and a growing knowledge of the effects on utility operations.

This Special Issue focuses on the analysis, design, and implementation of smart grid systems and to cutting-edge digital solutions for the transformation of electricity distribution networks.

Prof. Dr. Lambros Ekonomou
Dr. Georgios Fotis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • AC and DC microgrid systems
  • black start in a smart grid after a blackout
  • digitization of the electrical grid
  • electric vehicles
  • energy storage technologies
  • energy management systems and advanced control
  • environmental impact
  • load management
  • microgrids and sustainable communities
  • modeling and simulation techniques for smart grids
  • renewable technologies
  • regulatory and techno-economic aspects of smart grids
  • risk prevention
  • smart grid cyber security
  • smart maintenance

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 4062 KiB  
Article
A Grid-Connected Optimal Hybrid PV-BES System Sizing for Malaysian Commercial Buildings
by Jahangir Hossain, Aida. F. A. Kadir, Hussain Shareef, Rampelli Manojkumar, Nagham Saeed and Ainain. N. Hanafi
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10564; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310564 - 4 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2360
Abstract
In this article, the optimal sizing of hybrid solar photovoltaic and battery energy storage systems is evaluated with respect to rooftop space and feed-in tariff rates. The battery scheduling is performed using a proposed rule-based energy management strategy. The rules are formulated based [...] Read more.
In this article, the optimal sizing of hybrid solar photovoltaic and battery energy storage systems is evaluated with respect to rooftop space and feed-in tariff rates. The battery scheduling is performed using a proposed rule-based energy management strategy. The rules are formulated based on the demand limit, PV export power limit, and state of charge of the battery. Furthermore, optimization modeling with initial choices of parameters and constraints in terms of solar photovoltaic and battery energy storage capabilities is developed to minimize the total net present cost. The hourly values of solar irradiance, air temperature, electrical loads, and electricity rates are considered the inputs of the optimization process. The optimization results are achieved using particle swarm optimization and validated through an uncertainty analysis. It is observed that an optimal photovoltaic and battery energy storage system can reduce the cost of electricity by 12.33%, including the sale of 5944.029 kWh of electricity to the grid. Furthermore, energy consumption, peak demand, and greenhouse gas emissions are reduced by 13.71%, 5.85%, and 62.59%, respectively. A comprehensive analysis between the variable and fixed data for the load, energy from PV, batteries, and the grid, and costs demonstrates that the optimal sizing of photovoltaic and battery energy storage systems with the best mix of energy from PV, batteries, and the grid provides the optimal solution for the proposed configuration. Full article
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23 pages, 5793 KiB  
Article
Technical and Economic Analysis of Solar PV/Diesel Generator Smart Hybrid Power Plant Using Different Battery Storage Technologies for SRM IST, Delhi-NCR Campus
by Shilpa Sambhi, Himanshu Sharma, Vikas Bhadoria, Pankaj Kumar, Ravi Chaurasia, Georgios Fotis and Vasiliki Vita
Sustainability 2023, 15(4), 3666; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15043666 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2947
Abstract
This paper presents atechnical and economic analysis of the proposed solar PV/diesel generator smart hybrid power plant for a part of SRM IST, Delhi-NCR campus. The analysis was performed using five battery storage technologies: lead-acid, lithium-ion, vanadium flow, zinc bromide and nickel-iron. The [...] Read more.
This paper presents atechnical and economic analysis of the proposed solar PV/diesel generator smart hybrid power plant for a part of SRM IST, Delhi-NCR campus. The analysis was performed using five battery storage technologies: lead-acid, lithium-ion, vanadium flow, zinc bromide and nickel-iron. The analysis also used the HOMER Pro software. The analysis was conducted to assess performance parameters such as initial cost, simple payback period, return on investment, energy produced, renewable penetration and emission of air pollutants. The optimal solution was obtained as SPP(200 kW)/DG(82 kW)/ZB(2000 kWh), with cycle charging dispatch strategy. The initial cost of this configuration is estimated to be USD163,445, and the operating cost is USD534 per year. The net present cost is estimated to be USD170,348, and the estimated cost of energy with this configuration has been obtained as USD0.090 per kWh. It is estimated that with this optimal solution, the diesel generator may consume only 110 L/year of diesel, which is the minimum of all configurations. Sensitivity analysis was performed between the size of the solar PV array and the size of the battery, along with variations in the battery’s nominal capacity and renewable fraction. Full article
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21 pages, 3307 KiB  
Article
A New Restoration Strategy in Microgrids after a Blackout with Priority in Critical Loads
by Vasiliki Vita, Georgios Fotis, Christos Pavlatos and Valeri Mladenov
Sustainability 2023, 15(3), 1974; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15031974 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 2233
Abstract
The danger of a total blackout in a wide area or, even worse, in a country is always present. The restoration methods after a blackout mainly focus on the strategy that the dispatchers in the control centers of the Transmission System Operator will [...] Read more.
The danger of a total blackout in a wide area or, even worse, in a country is always present. The restoration methods after a blackout mainly focus on the strategy that the dispatchers in the control centers of the Transmission System Operator will follow than the abilities that the distribution’s microgrids have. This study suggests a restoration technique to improve distribution system resilience following a blackout, using distributed generation for the restoration of important loads. The goal of the restoration problem is to maximize the number of critical loads that are restored following the catastrophic incident. Under the restrictions of the DGs and the network, the DGs with good black start capability are restored first. Load weight and node importance degree are suggested during the recovery path selection procedure, while taking node topological importance and load importance into account. A mixed-integer linear program (MILP) is used to simulate the issue, and the modified IEEE 39-bus test system is used to verify the efficacy of the suggested restoration approach. Full article
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