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Sensor Technology for Sports Science

A topical collection in Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This collection belongs to the section "Wearables".

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Collection Editor
University Institute for Computing Research, Faculty of Education, University of Alicante, Alicante, Spain
Interests: sport; biomechanics; instrumentation; audio; video; performance; technology; rowing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Science and technology are changing sport around the world. Sports scientists are regularly trying to find the key to boost athletes’ performance while avoiding injury in competition and training. In attempting to jump higher, run faster, and perform better, athletes push their muscles, joints, and their whole bodies to the extreme. While the foundations for peak performance and injury prevention have been studied in the past, scientific instrumentation has not been within the reach of professionals and practitioners.

With the economic development and scientific technological progress, sensors for sports technology have rapidly emerged. Technology allows objectively monitoring athletes so that key sport-specific characteristics can be quantified to enhance their performance and promote effective decision-making processes among sport scientists and coaches. In recent years, significant sensor developments have led to broad usage of instrumentation in all sorts of fields of sport-related relevant information about athletes, such as tactical, technical, physical, and emotional performance.

The aim of this topical collection is to focus on innovative developments in the field of sensors for sports technology. Articles addressing this topic, particularly those providing new insights into their use for innovative technologies that allow the widespread use of sports instrumentation, are welcome. In order to bring the lab to the field, proposals must address the usefulness, precision, and consistency of the data collected to measure characteristics specific to the sport.

Prospective authors are cordially invited to submit their original research and review papers that address but are not restricted to the following topics:

  • Video technology;
  • Computer vision;
  • Wearable sensors;
  • Augmented and virtual reality;
  • Smartphone apps;
  • Biometrics;
  • Motion capture;
  • Piezoelectric transducers and strain gauges;
  • Inertial measurement units (IMU);
  • Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS);
  • Load cells and force plates;
  • Signal processing.

Prof. Dr. Basilio Pueo
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Sports
  • Instrumentation
  • Technology
  • Wearable
  • Biomechanics
  • Performance
  • Training

Published Papers (27 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020

13 pages, 1616 KiB  
Article
Effect of Rule Modifications on Kinematic Parameters Using Maturity Stage as a Moderating Variable in U-10 Football Players
by Francisco Javier García-Angulo, José Manuel Palao, José María Giménez-Egido and Enrique Ortega-Toro
Sensors 2024, 24(8), 2462; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24082462 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 479
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to analyse the effects of regulatory modifications in competitive situations on cinematic variables, considering maturity stage as a moderating factor, in youth football players. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in which 45 players with a mean [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to analyse the effects of regulatory modifications in competitive situations on cinematic variables, considering maturity stage as a moderating factor, in youth football players. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in which 45 players with a mean age of 9.47 ± 0.54 participated. The independent variable analysed was the modification of rules (playing time, scoring, and specific rules). The dependent variables analysed were cinematic variables. These variables were recorded with WimuTM. The maturity stage was considered a moderating factor in this effect. The main results indicate that the modified competition reduced the total distance covered, maximum acceleration speed, and distance covered in acceleration and deceleration in different speed zones. In addition, the maturity stage was found to moderate the effect of the intervention on the total distance covered, distance covered by accelerating in zone 3, and distance covered by decelerating in zone 3. Thus, the proposed modification appeared to reduce the physical demand for competition. Furthermore, it reduced the differences between players with early maturational development and those with late maturational development. Full article
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14 pages, 2499 KiB  
Article
Real World Interstitial Glucose Profiles of a Large Cohort of Physically Active Men and Women
by Kristina Skroce, Andrea Zignoli, Federico Y. Fontana, Felipe M. Maturana, David Lipman, Andrea Tryfonos, Michael C. Riddell and Howard C. Zisser
Sensors 2024, 24(3), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24030744 - 24 Jan 2024
Viewed by 2174
Abstract
The use of continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) in individuals living without diabetes is increasing. The purpose of this study was to profile various CGM metrics around nutritional intake, sleep and exercise in a large cohort of physically active men and women living without [...] Read more.
The use of continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) in individuals living without diabetes is increasing. The purpose of this study was to profile various CGM metrics around nutritional intake, sleep and exercise in a large cohort of physically active men and women living without any known metabolic disease diagnosis to better understand the normative glycemic response to these common stimuli. A total of 12,504 physically active adults (age 40 ± 11 years, BMI 23.8 ± 3.6 kg/m2; 23% self-identified as women) wore a real-time CGM (Abbott Libre Sense Sport Glucose Biosensor, Abbott, USA) and used a smartphone application (Supersapiens Inc., Atlanta, GA, USA) to log meals, sleep and exercise activities. A total of >1 M exercise events and 274,344 meal events were analyzed. A majority of participants (85%) presented an overall (24 h) average glucose profile between 90 and 110 mg/dL, with the highest glucose levels associated with meals and exercise and the lowest glucose levels associated with sleep. Men had higher mean 24 h glucose levels than women (24 h—men: 100 ± 11 mg/dL, women: 96 ± 10 mg/dL). During exercise, the % time above >140 mg/dL was 10.3 ± 16.7%, while the % time <70 mg/dL was 11.9 ± 11.6%, with the remaining % within the so-called glycemic tight target range (70–140 mg/dL). Average glycemia was also lower for females during exercise and sleep events (p < 0.001). Overall, we see small differences in glucose trends during activity and sleep in females as compared to males and higher levels of both TAR and TBR when these active individuals are undertaking or competing in endurance exercise training and/or competitive events. Full article
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12 pages, 899 KiB  
Article
Unlocking the Potential: Increasing Muscle Strength in Lower Limbs of Youth Soccer Players over Five Weeks through Mat Pilates Training—A Pilot Study
by Franciele Parolini, Gladson Bertolini, Rubim Santos, Manoela Abreu, Ana Laura Nogueira and Dernival Bertoncello
Sensors 2024, 24(2), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24020473 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 919
Abstract
The interest in soccer generally starts during childhood, with children and young people often looking for opportunities in sports. New exercise techniques can be effective in improving training. The aim of this study was to compare the effects on the strength and physical [...] Read more.
The interest in soccer generally starts during childhood, with children and young people often looking for opportunities in sports. New exercise techniques can be effective in improving training. The aim of this study was to compare the effects on the strength and physical posture of a group practicing Pilates with another not practicing Pilates, both undergoing continuous football training. In this controlled randomized clinical trial, the participants were 15 soccer club members, who had a training frequency of least three times weekly. The sample was divided into a control group (n = 7) of players who did not undergo any therapeutic intervention (only the usual training) and a Pilates group (n = 8) of players who participated in the mat Pilates program. The intervention consisted of fifteen sessions. Postural evaluations were performed using biophotogrammetry and force analysis. Significant improvements were obtained in terms of increased muscle strength (p = 0.001) for the Pilates group, but there were no significant postural alterations when comparing the two groups. Five weeks of mat Pilates was sufficient to increase lower limb muscle strength in young football players. This pilot study indicates that Mat Pilates as a method that could be planned to be included in training. Full article
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2023

Jump to: 2024, 2022, 2021, 2020

17 pages, 3828 KiB  
Article
Design and Characterization of Piezoresistive Sensors for Non-Planar Surfaces and Pressure Mapping: A Case Study on Kayak Paddle
by Abdo-Rahmane Anas Laaraibi, Gurvan Jodin, Corentin Depontailler, Nicolas Bideau and Florence Razan
Sensors 2024, 24(1), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24010222 - 30 Dec 2023
Viewed by 761
Abstract
This article focuses on the design of a sensor system for a non-planar surface, in particular a cylindrical shape, such as a kayak paddle. The main objective is to develop a piezoresistive sensor system to measure the pressure exerted by the hand on [...] Read more.
This article focuses on the design of a sensor system for a non-planar surface, in particular a cylindrical shape, such as a kayak paddle. The main objective is to develop a piezoresistive sensor system to measure the pressure exerted by the hand on the shaft. The study begins with static characterization of the sensors, including dispersion analysis to assess their sensitivity, linearity and measurement range. A calibration process is carried out using a dedicated test bench, and an inverse viscoelastic model is used to establish an accurate relationship between the measured resistance and the corresponding pressure. The sensor system is connected to a data acquisition board equipped with an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) that enables the direct conversion of analog data into digital resistance values. Furthermore, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) wireless communication is employed to facilitate data transfer to a computer, enabling a detailed pressure mapping of the kayak paddle and real-time data collection. The calibrated sensors are then tested and validated on the kayak paddle, facilitating the mapping of pressure zones on the paddle surface. This mapping provides information for locating areas of high pressure exertion during kayaker movements. Full article
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12 pages, 1678 KiB  
Article
Concurrent Validity and Reliability of Two Portable Powermeters (Power2Max vs. PowerTap) to Measure Different Types of Efforts in Cycling
by Javier Iglesias-Pino, Alba Herrero-Molleda, Miguel Ángel Saavedra-García and Juan García-López
Sensors 2023, 23(18), 7745; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23187745 - 7 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 606
Abstract
The purpose was to assess the concurrent validity and reliability of two portable powermeters (PowerTap vs. Power2Max) in different types of cycling efforts. Ten cyclists performed two submaximal, one incremental maximal and two supramaximal sprint tests on an ergometer, while pedaling power and [...] Read more.
The purpose was to assess the concurrent validity and reliability of two portable powermeters (PowerTap vs. Power2Max) in different types of cycling efforts. Ten cyclists performed two submaximal, one incremental maximal and two supramaximal sprint tests on an ergometer, while pedaling power and cadence were registered by both powermeters and a cadence sensor (GarminGSC10). During the submaximal and incremental maximal tests, significant correlations were found for power and cadence data (r = 0.992–0.997 and 0.996–0.998, respectively, p < 0.001), with a slight power underestimation by PowerTap (0.7–1.8%, p < 0.01) and a high reliability of both powermeters (p < 0.001) for measurement of power (ICC = 0.926 and 0.936, respectively) and cadence (ICC = 0.969 and 0.970, respectively). However, during the supramaximal sprint test, their agreement to measure power and cadence was weak (r = 0.850 and −0.253, p < 0.05) due to the low reliability of the cadence measurements (ICC between 0.496 and 0.736, and 0.574 and 0.664, respectively; p < 0.05) in contrast to the high reliability of the cadence sensor (ICC = 0.987–0.994). In conclusion, both powermeters are valid and reliable for measuring power and cadence during continuous cycling efforts (~100–450 W), but questionable during sprint efforts (>500 W), where they are affected by the gear ratio used (PowerTap) and by their low accuracy in cadence recording (PowerTap and Power2Max). Full article
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30 pages, 40539 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Computer Simulation Studies on Badminton Racquet Strings
by Narakorn Suwannachote, Thanongsak Imjai, Chirawat Wattanapanich, Fetih Kefyalew, Reyes Garcia and Pakjira Aosai
Sensors 2023, 23(13), 5957; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23135957 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3420
Abstract
This study investigates experimentally, numerically, and analytically the performance of different string materials (Kevlar, synthetic gut, natural gut, and polyester) on badminton racquets. Vibration and impact tests with a shuttlecock were performed using a racquet frame made of carbon graphite mixed with epoxy [...] Read more.
This study investigates experimentally, numerically, and analytically the performance of different string materials (Kevlar, synthetic gut, natural gut, and polyester) on badminton racquets. Vibration and impact tests with a shuttlecock were performed using a racquet frame made of carbon graphite mixed with epoxy resin. Different string tensions were considered in the tests (20, 22, 24, 28, 30, and 34 lb), as well as different hitting locations on the racquet frame. The results show that, as the diameter of the strings increased, the elasticity of the string decreased from 0.529 to 0.447 for diameters ranging from 0.62 to 0.70 mm. Subsequently, a badminton racquet and shuttlecock were modeled using SolidWorks2018® software (version 26), and a maximum displacement was applied to the ball to simulate an impact on the string bed. The natural frequency, maximum deformation and maximum stress were calculated analytically, and a finite element analysis was also performed using ANSYS2022 R2® software (version 22.2). The analytical and numerical results from ANSYS® showed good agreement (within 5% accuracy). The results of the study show that the natural frequency of a racquet with Kevlar strings was significantly higher than that of racquets with synthetic gut, natural gut, or polyester string materials. Specifically, the natural frequency of a racquet made of carbon graphite and epoxy resin was 23.0%, 30.7%, and 36.2% higher than that of racquets with synthetic gut, natural gut, and polyester string material, respectively. On the basis of this finding, Kevlar was chosen as the preferred material for badminton racquets strings, and a parametric analysis was then conducted. The study showed that slightly lowering the tension of the off-centered strings had a minimal effect on the von Mises stress distribution of the ball and string bed. In addition to investigating string materials, this study also examined the effects of pull and diameter variations of racquet strings on vibrations during impact. This study contributes to the understanding of the role of racquet and strings in badminton, and it also provides new insights into the factors that can affect performance in the sport. By analyzing the performance of different string materials and examining the effects of pull and diameter variations of racquet strings, this study provides valuable information for players and manufacturers looking to optimize their equipment for maximum performance. Full article
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14 pages, 1955 KiB  
Article
Acute Effects of Carbon Fiber Insole on Three Aspects of Sports Performance, Lower Extremity Muscle Activity, and Subjective Comfort
by Myeonghoon Ko, Tiejun Ma and Shuping Xiong
Sensors 2023, 23(4), 2154; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23042154 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3394
Abstract
Carbon fiber insole (CFI), which is lightweight and stiff to reduce energy loss and help wearers perform better in sports, has recently been introduced. However, reports are scarce on the effects of CFI on sports performance, muscle activation, and wearing comfort. This study [...] Read more.
Carbon fiber insole (CFI), which is lightweight and stiff to reduce energy loss and help wearers perform better in sports, has recently been introduced. However, reports are scarce on the effects of CFI on sports performance, muscle activation, and wearing comfort. This study investigated the acute effects of CFI on sports performance, lower extremity muscle activity, and subjective comfort. Thirty young healthy males with shoe sizes between 260 and 270 mm performed various sports tasks (power generation, agility, and speed) and treadmill runs with wearable sensors under two experimental insole conditions (benchmark insole as a baseline, CFI). The results showed that, compared to the benchmark insole, CFI significantly improved sports performance in terms of power generation (~1.5%) and agility (~1%). However, it activated more of the Tibialis Anterior (~0.7%) and Gastrocnemius Medialis (~0.8%) muscles, and was perceived to be stiffer and less comfortable. These findings suggested that CFI could improve sports performance, but could cause more lower extremity muscle activation and subjective discomfort. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2021, 2020

28 pages, 4345 KiB  
Article
A Query Language for Exploratory Analysis of Video-Based Tracking Data in Padel Matches
by Mohammadreza Javadiha, Carlos Andujar and Enrique Lacasa
Sensors 2023, 23(1), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23010441 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1973
Abstract
Recent advances in sensor technologies, in particular video-based human detection, object tracking and pose estimation, have opened new possibilities for the automatic or semi-automatic per-frame annotation of sport videos. In the case of racket sports such as tennis and padel, state-of-the-art deep learning [...] Read more.
Recent advances in sensor technologies, in particular video-based human detection, object tracking and pose estimation, have opened new possibilities for the automatic or semi-automatic per-frame annotation of sport videos. In the case of racket sports such as tennis and padel, state-of-the-art deep learning methods allow the robust detection and tracking of the players from a single video, which can be combined with ball tracking and shot recognition techniques to obtain a precise description of the play state at every frame. These data, which might include the court-space position of the players, their speeds, accelerations, shots and ball trajectories, can be exported in tabular format for further analysis. Unfortunately, the limitations of traditional table-based methods for analyzing such sport data are twofold. On the one hand, these methods cannot represent complex spatio-temporal queries in a compact, readable way, usable by sport analysts. On the other hand, traditional data visualization tools often fail to convey all the information available in the video (such as the precise body motion before, during and after the execution of a shot) and resulting plots only show a small portion of the available data. In this paper we address these two limitations by focusing on the analysis of video-based tracking data of padel matches. In particular, we propose a domain-specific query language to facilitate coaches and sport analysts to write queries in a very compact form. Additionally, we enrich the data visualization plots by linking each data item to a specific segment of the video so that analysts have full access to all the details related to the query. We demonstrate the flexibility of our system by collecting and converting into readable queries multiple tips and hypotheses on padel strategies extracted from the literature. Full article
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14 pages, 1503 KiB  
Article
Higher Hamstrings Strength and Stability Are Related to Lower Kinematics Alteration during Running after Central and Peripheral Fatigue
by Alberto Encarnación-Martínez, Antonio García-Gallart, Roberto Sanchis-Sanchis, Irene Jimenez-Perez, Jose I. Priego-Quesada and Pedro Pérez-Soriano
Sensors 2022, 22(5), 1990; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22051990 - 3 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2533
Abstract
Fatigue can be classified as peripheral or central depending on the extent of its effects. Muscle strength reduction, associated with the appearance of fatigue during running, produces kinetics and kinematics modifications which could lead to an increased risk of injury. This study aimed [...] Read more.
Fatigue can be classified as peripheral or central depending on the extent of its effects. Muscle strength reduction, associated with the appearance of fatigue during running, produces kinetics and kinematics modifications which could lead to an increased risk of injury. This study aimed to analyze the effect of peripheral and central fatigue protocols in running kinematics and to investigate the relationship between isokinetic strength and dynamic stability in fatigue related changes. Eighteen male recreational runners participated in the study. The dynamic postural stability index (DPSI) and quadriceps and hamstring isokinetic strength were assessed before the fatigue test. Then, angular kinematics during treadmill running were evaluated in pre- and post-fatigue states (central and peripheral). The results showed that runners with higher hamstring isokinetic strength and better DPSI had lower modifications after central fatigue of stance time, knee flexion, vertical and leg stiffness, and ankle dorsiflexion during the absorption and propulsion phases (r > 0.400, p < 0.05). Moreover, small changes in ankle dorsiflexion at initial contact after peripheral fatigue are related to a better DPSI and higher hamstring isokinetic strength (r > 0.400, p < 0.05). In summary, high values of hamstring isokinetic concentric strength and dynamic stability are related to lower increases of range of movements during running after central and peripheral fatigue. So, fatigue may affect to a lesser extent the running technique of those runners with higher hamstring strength and stability values. Full article
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13 pages, 1206 KiB  
Article
Individualization of Intensity Thresholds on External Workload Demands in Women’s Basketball by K-Means Clustering: Differences Based on the Competitive Level
by Sergio J. Ibáñez, Carlos D. Gómez-Carmona and David Mancha-Triguero
Sensors 2022, 22(1), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22010324 - 1 Jan 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1994
Abstract
In previous studies found in the literature speed (SP), acceleration (ACC), deceleration (DEC), and impact (IMP) zones have been created according to arbitrary thresholds without considering the specific workload profile of the players (e.g., sex, competitive level, sport discipline). The use of statistical [...] Read more.
In previous studies found in the literature speed (SP), acceleration (ACC), deceleration (DEC), and impact (IMP) zones have been created according to arbitrary thresholds without considering the specific workload profile of the players (e.g., sex, competitive level, sport discipline). The use of statistical methods based on raw data could be considered as an alternative to be able to individualize these thresholds. The study purposes were to: (a) individualize SP, ACC, DEC, and IMP zones in two female professional basketball teams; (b) characterize the external workload profile of 5 vs. 5 during training sessions; and (c) compare the external workload according to the competitive level (first vs. second division). Two basketball teams were recorded during a 15-day preseason microcycle using inertial devices with ultra-wideband indoor tracking technology and microsensors. The zones of external workload variables (speed, acceleration, deceleration, impacts) were categorized through k-means clusters. Competitive level differences were analyzed with Mann–Whitney’s U test and with Cohen’s d effect size. Five zones were categorized in speed (<2.31, 2.31–5.33, 5.34–9.32, 9.33–13.12, 13.13–17.08 km/h), acceleration (<0.50, 0.50–1.60, 1.61–2.87, 2.88–4.25, 4.26–6.71 m/s2), deceleration (<0.37, 0.37–1.13, 1.14–2.07, 2.08–3.23, 3.24–4.77 m/s2), and impacts (<1, 1–2.99, 3–4.99, 5–6.99, 7–10 g). The women’s basketball players covered 60–51 m/min, performed 27–25 ACC-DEC/min, and experienced 134–120 IMP/min. Differences were found between the first and second division teams, with higher values in SP, ACC, DEC, and IMP in the first division team (p < 0.03; d = 0.21–0.56). In conclusion, k-means clustering can be considered as an optimal tool to categorize intensity zones in team sports. The individualization of external workload demands according to the competitive level is fundamental for designing training plans that optimize sports performance and reduce injury risk in sport. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022, 2020

12 pages, 3058 KiB  
Article
Measuring Upper Limb Kinematics of Forehand and Backhand Topspin Drives with IMU Sensors in Wheelchair and Able-Bodied Table Tennis Players
by Jia-Wen Yam, Jing-Wen Pan and Pui-Wah Kong
Sensors 2021, 21(24), 8303; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21248303 - 12 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3982
Abstract
To better understand the biomechanics of para-table tennis players, this study compared the shoulder, elbow, and wrist joint kinematics among able-bodied (AB) and wheelchair players in different classifications. Nineteen participants (AB, n = 9; classification 1 (C1), n = 3; C2, n = [...] Read more.
To better understand the biomechanics of para-table tennis players, this study compared the shoulder, elbow, and wrist joint kinematics among able-bodied (AB) and wheelchair players in different classifications. Nineteen participants (AB, n = 9; classification 1 (C1), n = 3; C2, n = 3; C3, n = 4) executed 10 forehand and backhand topspin drives. Shoulder abduction/adduction, elbow flexion/extension, wrist extension/flexion, respective range of motion (ROM), and joint patterns were obtained using inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors. The results showed clear differences in upper limb kinematics between the able-bodied and wheelchair players, especially in the elbow and wrist. For the para-players, noticeable variations in techniques were also observed among the different disability classes. In conclusion, wheelchair players likely adopted distinct movement strategies compared to AB to compensate for their physical impairments and functional limitations. Hence, traditional table tennis programs targeting skills and techniques for able-bodied players are unsuitable for para-players. Future work can investigate how best to customize training programs and to optimize movement strategies for para-players with varied types and degrees of impairment. Full article
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12 pages, 1165 KiB  
Article
How Precisely Can Easily Accessible Variables Predict Achilles and Patellar Tendon Forces during Running?
by René B. K. Brund, Rasmus Waagepetersen, Rasmus O. Nielsen, John Rasmussen, Michael S. Nielsen, Christian H. Andersen and Mark de Zee
Sensors 2021, 21(21), 7418; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21217418 - 8 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3384
Abstract
Patellar and Achilles tendinopathy commonly affect runners. Developing algorithms to predict cumulative force in these structures may help prevent these injuries. Importantly, such algorithms should be fueled with data that are easily accessible while completing a running session outside a biomechanical laboratory. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Patellar and Achilles tendinopathy commonly affect runners. Developing algorithms to predict cumulative force in these structures may help prevent these injuries. Importantly, such algorithms should be fueled with data that are easily accessible while completing a running session outside a biomechanical laboratory. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate whether algorithms can be developed for predicting patellar and Achilles tendon force and impulse during running using measures that can be easily collected by runners using commercially available devices. A secondary objective was to evaluate the predictive performance of the algorithms against the commonly used running distance. Trials of 24 recreational runners were collected with an Xsens suit and a Garmin Forerunner 735XT at three different intended running speeds. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects multiple regression model, which was used to model the association between the estimated forces in anatomical structures and the training load variables during the fixed running speeds. This provides twelve algorithms for predicting patellar or Achilles tendon peak force and impulse per stride. The algorithms developed in the current study were always superior to the running distance algorithm. Full article
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11 pages, 2022 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Leg Push Forces and Their Relationship to Velocity in On-Water Sprint Kayaking
by Kent K. Klitgaard, Hans Rosdahl, Rene B. K. Brund, John Hansen and Mark de Zee
Sensors 2021, 21(20), 6790; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21206790 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2903
Abstract
The purpose of this work was to describe the leg-muscle-generated push force characteristics in sprint kayak paddlers for females and males on water. Additionally, the relationship between leg pushing force characteristics and velocity was investigated. Twenty-eight paddlers participated in the study. The participants [...] Read more.
The purpose of this work was to describe the leg-muscle-generated push force characteristics in sprint kayak paddlers for females and males on water. Additionally, the relationship between leg pushing force characteristics and velocity was investigated. Twenty-eight paddlers participated in the study. The participants had five minutes of self-chosen warm-up and were asked to paddle at three different velocities, including maximal effort. Left- and right-side leg extension force were collected together with velocity. Linear regression analyses were performed with leg extension force characteristics as independent variables and velocity as the dependent variable. A second linear regression analysis investigated the effect of paddling velocity on different leg extension force characteristics with an explanatory model. The results showed that the leg pushing force elicits a sinus-like pattern, increasing and decreasing throughout the stroke cycle. Impulse over 10 s showed the highest correlation to maximum velocity (r = 0.827, p < 0.01), while a strong co-correlation was observed between the impulse per stroke cycle and mean force (r = 0.910, p < 0.01). The explanatory model results revealed that an increase in paddling velocity is, among other factors, driven by increased leg force. Maximal velocity could predict 68% of the paddlers’ velocity within 1 km/h with peak leg force, impulse over 10 s, and stroke rate (p-value < 0.001, adjusted R-squared = 0.8). Sprint kayak paddlers elicit a strong positive relationship between leg pushing forces and velocity. The results confirm that sprint kayakers’ cyclic leg movement is a key part of the kayaking technique. Full article
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21 pages, 10592 KiB  
Article
Performance Analysis in Ski Jumping with a Differential Global Navigation Satellite System and Video-Based Pose Estimation
by Ola Elfmark, Gertjan Ettema, Daniel Groos, Espen A. F. Ihlen, Rune Velta, Per Haugen, Steinar Braaten and Matthias Gilgien
Sensors 2021, 21(16), 5318; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21165318 - 6 Aug 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4921
Abstract
This study investigated the explanatory power of a sensor fusion of two complementary methods to explain performance and its underlying mechanisms in ski jumping. A differential Global Navigation Satellite System (dGNSS) and a markerless video-based pose estimation system (PosEst) were used to measure [...] Read more.
This study investigated the explanatory power of a sensor fusion of two complementary methods to explain performance and its underlying mechanisms in ski jumping. A differential Global Navigation Satellite System (dGNSS) and a markerless video-based pose estimation system (PosEst) were used to measure the kinematics and kinetics from the start of the in-run to the landing. The study had two aims; firstly, the agreement between the two methods was assessed using 16 jumps by athletes of national level from 5 m before the take-off to 20 m after, where the methods had spatial overlap. The comparison revealed a good agreement from 5 m after the take-off, within the uncertainty of the dGNSS (±0.05m). The second part of the study served as a proof of concept of the sensor fusion application, by showcasing the type of performance analysis the systems allows. Two ski jumps by the same ski jumper, with comparable external conditions, were chosen for the case study. The dGNSS was used to analyse the in-run and flight phase, while the PosEst system was used to analyse the take-off and the early flight phase. The proof-of-concept study showed that the methods are suitable to track the kinematic and kinetic characteristics that determine performance in ski jumping and their usability in both research and practice. Full article
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24 pages, 3908 KiB  
Review
Wearable Technologies in Field Hockey Competitions: A Scoping Review
by Jolene Ziyuan Lim, Alexiaa Sim and Pui Wah Kong
Sensors 2021, 21(15), 5242; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21155242 - 3 Aug 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5003
Abstract
The aim of this review is to investigate the common wearable devices currently used in field hockey competitions, and to understand the hockey-specific parameters these devices measure. A systematic search was conducted by using three electronic databases and search terms that included field [...] Read more.
The aim of this review is to investigate the common wearable devices currently used in field hockey competitions, and to understand the hockey-specific parameters these devices measure. A systematic search was conducted by using three electronic databases and search terms that included field hockey, wearables, accelerometers, inertial sensors, global positioning system (GPS), heart rate monitors, load, performance analysis, player activity profiles, and competitions from the earliest record. The review included 39 studies that used wearable devices during competitions. GPS units were found to be the most common wearable in elite field hockey competitions, followed by heart rate monitors. Wearables in field hockey are mostly used to measure player activity profiles and physiological demands. Inconsistencies in sampling rates and performance bands make comparisons between studies challenging. Nonetheless, this review demonstrated that wearable devices are being used for various applications in field hockey. Researchers, engineers, coaches, and sport scientists can consider using GPS units of higher sampling rates, as well as including additional variables such as skin temperatures and injury associations, to provide a more thorough evaluation of players’ physical and physiological performances. Future work should include goalkeepers and non-elite players who are less studied in the current literature. Full article
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14 pages, 1890 KiB  
Article
The Q-Pass Index: A Multifactorial IMUs-Based Tool to Assess Passing Skills in Basketball
by Arturo Quílez-Maimón, Francisco Javier Rojas-Ruiz, Gabriel Delgado-García and Javier Courel-Ibáñez
Sensors 2021, 21(13), 4601; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134601 - 5 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2540
Abstract
Despite being a key sport-specific characteristic in performance, there is no practical tool to assess the quality of the pass in basketball. The aim of this study is to develop a tool (the quality-pass index or Q-Pass) able to deliver a quantitative, practical [...] Read more.
Despite being a key sport-specific characteristic in performance, there is no practical tool to assess the quality of the pass in basketball. The aim of this study is to develop a tool (the quality-pass index or Q-Pass) able to deliver a quantitative, practical measure of passing skills quality based on a combination of accuracy, execution time and pass pattern variability. Temporal, kinematics and performance parameters were analysed in five different types of passes (chest, bounce, crossover, between-the-leg and behind-the-back) using a field-based test, video cameras and body-worn inertial sensors (IMUs). Data from pass accuracy, time and angular velocity were collected and processed in a custom-built excel spreadsheet. The Q-pass index (0–100 score) resulted from the sum of the three factors. Data were collected from 16 young basketball players (age: 16 ± 2 years) with high (experienced) and low (novice) level of expertise. Reliability analyses found the Q-pass index as a reliable tool in both novice (CV from 4.3 to 9.3%) and experienced players (CV from 2.8 to 10.2%). Besides, important differences in the Q-pass index were found between players’ level (p < 0.05), with the experienced showing better scores in all passing situations: behind-the-back (ES = 1.91), bounce (ES = 0.82), between-the-legs (ES = 1.11), crossover (ES = 0.58) and chest (ES = 0.94). According to these findings, the Q-pass index was sensitive enough to identify the differences in passing skills between young players with different levels of expertise, providing a numbering score for each pass executed. Full article
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28 pages, 3177 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Speed and Accuracy Trade-Off for Sports Ball Detection in Videos—Finding Fast Moving, Small Objects in Real Time
by Alexander Hiemann, Thomas Kautz, Tino Zottmann and Mario Hlawitschka
Sensors 2021, 21(9), 3214; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21093214 - 6 May 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4691
Abstract
The detection and localization of the ball in sport videos is crucial to better understand events and actions occurring in those sports. Despite recent advances in the field of object detection, the automatic detection of balls remains a challenging task due to the [...] Read more.
The detection and localization of the ball in sport videos is crucial to better understand events and actions occurring in those sports. Despite recent advances in the field of object detection, the automatic detection of balls remains a challenging task due to the unsteady nature of balls in images. In this paper, we address the detection of small, fast-moving balls in sport video data and introduce a real-time ball detection approach based on the YOLOv3 object detection model. We apply specific adjustments to the network architecture and training process in order to enhance the detection accuracy and speed: We facilitate an efficient integration of motion information, avoiding a complex modification of the network architecture. Furthermore, we present a customized detection approach that is designed to primarily focus on the detection of small objects. We integrate domain-specific knowledge to adapt image pre-processing and a data augmentation strategy that takes advantage of the special features of balls in images in order to improve the generalization ability of the detection network. We demonstrate that the general trade-off between detection speed and accuracy of the YOLOv3 model can be enhanced in consideration of domain-specific prior knowledge. Full article
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12 pages, 1212 KiB  
Communication
Quantitative and Qualitative Running Gait Analysis through an Innovative Video-Based Approach
by Laura Simoni, Alessandra Scarton, Claudio Macchi, Federico Gori, Guido Pasquini and Silvia Pogliaghi
Sensors 2021, 21(9), 2977; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21092977 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3956
Abstract
Quantitative and qualitative running gait analysis allows the early identification and the longitudinal monitoring of gait abnormalities linked to running-related injuries. A promising calibration- and marker-less video sensor-based technology (i.e., Graal), recently validated for walking gait, may also offer a time- and [...] Read more.
Quantitative and qualitative running gait analysis allows the early identification and the longitudinal monitoring of gait abnormalities linked to running-related injuries. A promising calibration- and marker-less video sensor-based technology (i.e., Graal), recently validated for walking gait, may also offer a time- and cost-efficient alternative to the gold-standard methods for running. This study aim was to ascertain the validity of an improved version of Graal for quantitative and qualitative analysis of running. In 33 healthy recreational runners (mean age 41 years), treadmill running at self-selected submaximal speed was simultaneously evaluated by a validated photosensor system (i.e., Optogait—the reference methodology) and by the video analysis of a posterior 30-fps video of the runner through the optimized version of Graal. Graal is video analysis software that provides a spectral analysis of the brightness over time for each pixel of the video, in order to identify its frequency contents. The two main frequencies of variation of the pixel’s brightness (i.e., F1 and F2) correspond to the two most important frequencies of gait (i.e., stride frequency and cadence). The Optogait system recorded step length, cadence, and its variability (vCAD, a traditional index of gait quality). Graal provided a direct measurement of F2 (reflecting cadence), an indirect measure of step length, and two indexes of global gait quality (harmony and synchrony index). The correspondence between quantitative indexes (Cadence vs. F2 and step length vs. Graal step length) was tested via paired t-test, correlations, and Bland–Altman plots. The relationship between qualitative indexes (vCAD vs. Harmony and Synchrony Index) was investigated by correlation analysis. Cadence and step length were, respectively, not significantly different from and highly correlated with F2 (1.41 Hz ± 0.09 Hz vs. 1.42 Hz ± 0.08 Hz, p = 0.25, r2 = 0.81) and Graal step length (104.70 cm ± 013.27 cm vs. 107.56 cm ± 13.67 cm, p = 0.55, r2 = 0.98). Bland–Altman tests confirmed a non-significant bias and small imprecision between methods for both parameters. The vCAD was 1.84% ± 0.66%, and it was significantly correlated with neither the Harmony nor the Synchrony Index (0.21 ± 0.03, p = 0.92, r2 = 0.00038; 0.21 ± 0.96, p = 0.87, r2 = 0.00122). These findings confirm the validity of the optimized version of Graal for the measurement of quantitative indexes of gait. Hence, Graal constitutes an extremely time- and cost-efficient tool suitable for quantitative analysis of running. However, its validity for qualitative running gait analysis remains inconclusive and will require further evaluation in a wider range of absolute and relative running intensities in different individuals. Full article
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20 pages, 4942 KiB  
Article
Video-Based System for Automatic Measurement of Barbell Velocity in Back Squat
by Basilio Pueo, Jose J. Lopez, Jose M. Mossi, Adrian Colomer and Jose M. Jimenez-Olmedo
Sensors 2021, 21(3), 925; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030925 - 30 Jan 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3545
Abstract
Velocity-based training is a contemporary method used by sports coaches to prescribe the optimal loading based on the velocity of movement of a load lifted. The most employed and accurate instruments to monitor velocity are linear position transducers. Alternatively, smartphone apps compute mean [...] Read more.
Velocity-based training is a contemporary method used by sports coaches to prescribe the optimal loading based on the velocity of movement of a load lifted. The most employed and accurate instruments to monitor velocity are linear position transducers. Alternatively, smartphone apps compute mean velocity after each execution by manual on-screen digitizing, introducing human error. In this paper, a video-based instrument delivering unattended, real-time measures of barbell velocity with a smartphone high-speed camera has been developed. A custom image-processing algorithm allows for the detection of reference points of a multipower machine to autocalibrate and automatically track barbell markers to give real-time kinematic-derived parameters. Validity and reliability were studied by comparing the simultaneous measurement of 160 repetitions of back squat lifts executed by 20 athletes with the proposed instrument and a validated linear position transducer, used as a criterion. The video system produced practically identical range, velocity, force, and power outcomes to the criterion with low and proportional systematic bias and random errors. Our results suggest that the developed video system is a valid, reliable, and trustworthy instrument for measuring velocity and derived variables accurately with practical implications for use by coaches and practitioners. Full article
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13 pages, 2712 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Accelerometer-Derived Data in the Context of Cycling Cadence and Saddle Height Changes in Triathlon
by Stuart A. Evans, Daniel A. James, David Rowlands and James B. Lee
Sensors 2021, 21(3), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030871 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3076
Abstract
In the multisport of triathlon cycling is the longest of the three sequential disciplines. Triathlon bicycles differ from road bicycles with steeper seat tube angles with a change to saddle height altering the seat tube angle. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a [...] Read more.
In the multisport of triathlon cycling is the longest of the three sequential disciplines. Triathlon bicycles differ from road bicycles with steeper seat tube angles with a change to saddle height altering the seat tube angle. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a tri axial accelerometer to determine acceleration magnitudes of the trunk in outdoor cycling in two saddle positions. Interpretation of data was evaluated based on cadence changes whilst triathletes cycled in an aerodynamic position in two saddle positions. The evaluation of accelerometer derived data within a characteristic overground setting suggests a significant reduction in mediolateral acceleration of the trunk, yielding a 25.1% decrease when saddle height was altered alongside reduced rate of perceived exertion (3.9%). Minimal differences were observed in anteroposterior and longitudinal acceleration. Evaluation of sensor data revealed a polynomial expression of the subtle changes between both saddle positions. This study shows that a triaxial accelerometer has capability to continuously measure acceleration magnitude of trunk movements during an in-the-field, varied cadence cycle protocol. Accessible and practical sensor technology could be relevant for postural considerations when exploring saddle position in dynamic settings. Full article
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12 pages, 4340 KiB  
Article
Comfortable and Convenient Turning Skill Assessment for Alpine Skiers Using IMU and Plantar Pressure Distribution Sensors
by Seiji Matsumura, Ken Ohta, Shin-ichiroh Yamamoto, Yasuharu Koike and Toshitaka Kimura
Sensors 2021, 21(3), 834; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030834 - 27 Jan 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3088
Abstract
Improving ski-turn skills is of interest to both competitive and recreational skiers, but it is not easy to improve on one’s own. Although studies have reported various methods of ski-turn skill evaluation, a simple method that can be used by oneself has not [...] Read more.
Improving ski-turn skills is of interest to both competitive and recreational skiers, but it is not easy to improve on one’s own. Although studies have reported various methods of ski-turn skill evaluation, a simple method that can be used by oneself has not yet been established. In this study, we have proposed a comfortable method to assess ski-turn skills; this method enables skiers to easily understand the relationship between body control and ski motion. One expert skier and four intermediate skiers participated in this study. Small inertial measurement units (IMUs) and mobile plantar pressure distribution sensors were used to capture data while skiing, and three ski-turn features—ski motion, waist rotation, and how load is applied to the skis—as well as their symmetry, were assessed. The results showed that the motions of skiing and the waist in the expert skier were significantly larger than those in intermediate skiers. Additionally, we found that the expert skier only slightly used the heel to apply a load to the skis (heel load ratio: approximately 60%) and made more symmetrical turns than the intermediate skiers did. This study will provide a method for recreational skiers, in particular, to conveniently and quantitatively evaluate their ski-turn skills by themselves. Full article
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2020

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13 pages, 1655 KiB  
Article
Portable Biosensors for Psychophysiological Stress Monitoring of a Helicopter Crew
by Marta Vicente-Rodríguez, Damián Iglesias Gallego, Juan Pedro Fuentes-García and Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
Sensors 2020, 20(23), 6849; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20236849 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2248
Abstract
This study aims to analyze the psychophysiological stress response of a helicopter crew using portable biosensors, and to analyze the psychophysiological stress response differences of experienced and non-experienced crew members. We analyzed 27 participants (33.89 ± 5.93 years) divided into two different flight [...] Read more.
This study aims to analyze the psychophysiological stress response of a helicopter crew using portable biosensors, and to analyze the psychophysiological stress response differences of experienced and non-experienced crew members. We analyzed 27 participants (33.89 ± 5.93 years) divided into two different flight maneuvers: a crane rescue maneuver: 15 participants (three control and 12 military) and a low-altitude maneuver: 12 participants (five control and seven military). Anxiety, rating of perceived exertion, subjective perception of stress, heart rate, blood oxygen saturation, skin temperature, blood lactate, cortical arousal, autonomic modulation, leg and hand strength, leg flexibility, spirometry, urine, and short-term memory were analyzed before and after both helicopter flight maneuvers. The maneuvers produced a significant increase in stress and effort perception, state of anxiety, and sympathetic modulation, as well as a significant decrease in heart rate, blood oxygen saturation, leg and inspiratory muscle strength, and urine proteins. The use of biosensors showed how a crane rescue and low-altitude helicopter maneuvers produced an anticipatory anxiety response, showing an increased sympathetic autonomic modulation prior to the maneuvers, which was maintained during the maneuvers in both experienced and non-experienced participants. The crane rescue maneuver produced a higher maximal heart rate and decreased pulmonary capacity and strength than the low-altitude maneuver. The psychophysiological stress response was higher in the experienced than in non-experienced participants, but both presented an anticipatory stress response before the maneuver. Full article
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14 pages, 2234 KiB  
Article
Application of Instrumented Paddles in Measuring On-Water Kinetics of Front and Back Paddlers in K2 Sprint Kayaking Crews of Various Ability Levels
by Pui Wah Kong, Cheryl Sihui Tay and Jing Wen Pan
Sensors 2020, 20(21), 6317; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216317 - 5 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3226
Abstract
This study used instrumented paddles to obtain on-water kinetic variables of two-seater (K2) crews during sprint kayaking. A total of 74 male kayakers of various ability levels (national team: 9, recreational club: 38, school team: 27) comprising 39 K2 crews were recruited. Both [...] Read more.
This study used instrumented paddles to obtain on-water kinetic variables of two-seater (K2) crews during sprint kayaking. A total of 74 male kayakers of various ability levels (national team: 9, recreational club: 38, school team: 27) comprising 39 K2 crews were recruited. Both the front and back paddlers were provided with an instrumented paddle to perform 200-m maximal effort paddling in a reservoir. Force, power, and temporal variables were extracted from the paddle data. Difference among groups were compared using a factorial Analysis of Variance. Results showed that the force, power, and temporal characteristics of the front and back paddlers were similar during maximal effort sprint kayaking. Proficient kayakers produced greater kinetic outputs than less proficient kayakers, while the coordination strategy based on timing differences at key events between the two crew members in a K2 boat was similar across ability levels. These data can be useful for coaches, sport scientists, and athletes in planning and monitoring the training. Full article
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20 pages, 6569 KiB  
Article
New Procedure for the Kinematic and Power Analysis of Cyclists in Indoor Training
by José Antonio Calvo, Carolina Álvarez-Caldas, José Luis San Román and Ramón Gutiérrez-Moizant
Sensors 2020, 20(21), 6135; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216135 - 28 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2567
Abstract
In this research, the performance and movements of amateur and professional cyclists were analyzed. For this, reflective markers have been used on different parts of the body of the participants in conjunction with sports cameras and a mobile power meter. The trajectories of [...] Read more.
In this research, the performance and movements of amateur and professional cyclists were analyzed. For this, reflective markers have been used on different parts of the body of the participants in conjunction with sports cameras and a mobile power meter. The trajectories of the markers have been obtained with the software Kinovea and subsequently analyzed using error ellipses. It is demonstrated that the error ellipses help determine movement patterns in the knees, back, and hip. The covariance of the error ellipses can be indicative of the alignment and symmetry of the frontal movement of the knees. In addition, it allows verifying the alignment of the spine and the symmetry of the hip. Finally, it is shown that it is necessary to consider the uncertainty of the power devices since it considerably affects the evaluation of the cyclists’ performance. Devices with high uncertainty will demand a greater effort from the cyclist to meet the power required in the endurance test developed. The statistical magnitudes considered help to analyze power and evaluate the cyclists’ performance. Full article
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12 pages, 1476 KiB  
Article
Learning Three Dimensional Tennis Shots Using Graph Convolutional Networks
by Maria Skublewska-Paszkowska, Pawel Powroznik and Edyta Lukasik
Sensors 2020, 20(21), 6094; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216094 - 27 Oct 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3484
Abstract
Human movement analysis is very often applied to sport, which has seen great achievements in assessing an athlete’s progress, giving further training tips and in movement recognition. In tennis, there are two basic shots: forehand and backhand, which are performed during all matches [...] Read more.
Human movement analysis is very often applied to sport, which has seen great achievements in assessing an athlete’s progress, giving further training tips and in movement recognition. In tennis, there are two basic shots: forehand and backhand, which are performed during all matches and training sessions. Recognition of these movements is important in the quantitative analysis of a tennis game. In this paper, the authors propose using Spatial-Temporal Graph Neural Networks (ST-GCN) to challenge the above task. Recognition of the shots is performed on the basis of images obtained from 3D tennis movements (forehands and backhands) recorded by the Vicon motion capture system (Oxford Metrics Ltd, Oxford, UK), where both the player and the racket were recorded. Two methods of putting data into the ST-GCN network were compared: with and without fuzzying of data. The obtained results confirm that the use of fuzzy input graphs for ST-GCNs is a better tool for recognition of forehand and backhand tennis shots relative to graphs without fuzzy input. Full article
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16 pages, 1055 KiB  
Article
Badminton Activity Recognition Using Accelerometer Data
by Tim Steels, Ben Van Herbruggen, Jaron Fontaine, Toon De Pessemier, David Plets and Eli De Poorter
Sensors 2020, 20(17), 4685; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20174685 - 19 Aug 2020
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 19140
Abstract
A thorough analysis of sports is becoming increasingly important during the training process of badminton players at both the recreational and professional level. Nowadays, game situations are usually filmed and reviewed afterwards in order to analyze the game situation, but these video set-ups [...] Read more.
A thorough analysis of sports is becoming increasingly important during the training process of badminton players at both the recreational and professional level. Nowadays, game situations are usually filmed and reviewed afterwards in order to analyze the game situation, but these video set-ups tend to be difficult to analyze, expensive, and intrusive to set up. In contrast, we classified badminton movements using off-the-shelf accelerometer and gyroscope data. To this end, we organized a data capturing campaign and designed a novel neural network using different frame sizes as input. This paper shows that with only accelerometer data, our novel convolutional neural network is able to distinguish nine activities with 86% precision when using a sampling frequency of 50 Hz. Adding the gyroscope data causes an increase of up to 99% precision, as compared to, respectively, 79% and 88% when using a traditional convolutional neural network. In addition, our paper analyses the impact of different sensor placement options and discusses the impact of different sampling frequenciess of the sensors. As such, our approach provides a low cost solution that is easy to use and can collect useful information for the analysis of a badminton game. Full article
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12 pages, 1405 KiB  
Article
Dynamics of the Prefrontal Cortex during Chess-Based Problem-Solving Tasks in Competition-Experienced Chess Players: An fNIR Study
by Telmo Pereira, Maria António Castro, Santos Villafaina, António Carvalho Santos and Juan Pedro Fuentes-García
Sensors 2020, 20(14), 3917; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20143917 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4063
Abstract
This study aimed to compare the dynamics of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), between adult and adolescent chess players, during chess-based problem-solving tasks of increasing level of difficulty, relying on the identification of changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) and hemoglobin (HHb) through the functional [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare the dynamics of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), between adult and adolescent chess players, during chess-based problem-solving tasks of increasing level of difficulty, relying on the identification of changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) and hemoglobin (HHb) through the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) method. Thirty male federated chess players (mean age: 24.15 ± 12.84 years), divided into adults and adolescents, participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were asked to solve three chess problems with different difficulties (low, medium, and high) while changes in HbO2 and HHb were measured over the PFC in real-time with an fNIRS system. Results indicated that the left prefrontal cortex (L-PFC) increased its activation with the difficulty of the task in both adolescents and adults. Interestingly, differences in the PFC dynamics but not in the overall performance were found between adults and adolescents. Our findings contributed to a better understanding of the PFC resources mobilized during complex tasks in both adults and adolescents. Full article
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