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Special Issue "Smart Sensors for Damage Detection"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Electronic Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 5 November 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Jochen Moll
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physics, Goethe University of Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Interests: structural health monitoring; damage detection; sensor systems; signal processing techniques

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is aimed at the submission of both review and original research articles related to smart sensors in the framework of a structural health monitoring (SHM) system. This includes sensor technologies that automatically detect damage based on its direct sensing principle. On the other hand, a smart sensor or smart sensor array may consist of one or multiple identical sensors providing indirect information about damage by suitable signal processing techniques. The Special Issue “Smart Sensors for Damage Detection” welcomes contributions in this field including, for example, acoustic transducers, electromagnetic sensors, and optical sensors.

It is expected that the sensor and its underlying sensing principle has been properly described and its damage detection performance has been tested in a relevant environment. Numerical investigations may also help to provide additional insights. In any case, it is required to show experimental results from a dedicated laboratory experiment possibly combined with a demonstration in the field.

Potential applications include aviation and maritime industry, but also pipeworks, bridges, and other technical structures.

Dr. Jochen Moll
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Smart sensors and smart sensor systems
  • Multifunctional sensors
  • Damage detection
  • Composites
  • Self-powered and low-power sensors
  • Embedded sensors, sensor/structure integration
  • Signal processing techniques.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Lamb Wave Scattering Analysis for Interface Damage Detection between a Surface-Mounted Block and Elastic Plate
Sensors 2021, 21(3), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030860 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 347
Abstract
Since stringers are often applied in engineering constructions to improve thin-walled structures’ strength, methods for damage detection at the joints between the stringer and the thin-walled structure are necessary. A 2D mathematical model was employed to simulate Lamb wave excitation and sensing via [...] Read more.
Since stringers are often applied in engineering constructions to improve thin-walled structures’ strength, methods for damage detection at the joints between the stringer and the thin-walled structure are necessary. A 2D mathematical model was employed to simulate Lamb wave excitation and sensing via rectangular piezoelectric-wafer active transducers mounted on the surface of an elastic plate with rectangular surface-bonded obstacles (stiffeners) with interface defects. The results of a 2D simulation using the finite element method and the semi-analytical hybrid approach were validated experimentally using laser Doppler vibrometry for fully bonded and semi-debonded rectangular obstacles. A numerical analysis of fundamental Lamb wave scattering via rectangular stiffeners in different bonding states is presented. Two kinds of interfacial defects between the stiffener and the plate are considered: the partial degradation of the adhesive at the interface and an open crack. Damage indices calculated using the data obtained from a sensor are analyzed numerically. The choice of an input impulse function applied at the piezoelectric actuator is discussed from the perspective of the development of guided-wave-based structural health monitoring techniques for damage detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Sensors for Damage Detection)
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Open AccessArticle
Detecting of the Crack and Leakage in the Joint of Precast Concrete Segmental Bridge Using Piezoceramic Based Smart Aggregate
Sensors 2020, 20(18), 5398; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185398 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 562
Abstract
Precast concrete segmental bridges (PCSBs) have been widely used in bridge engineering due to their numerous competitive advantages. The structural behavior and health status of PCSBs largely depend on the performance of the joint between the assembled segments. However, due to construction errors [...] Read more.
Precast concrete segmental bridges (PCSBs) have been widely used in bridge engineering due to their numerous competitive advantages. The structural behavior and health status of PCSBs largely depend on the performance of the joint between the assembled segments. However, due to construction errors and dynamic loading conditions, some cracks and leakages have been found at the epoxy joints of PCSBs during the construction or operation stage. These defects will affect the joint quality, negatively impacting the safety and durability of the bridge. A structural health monitoring (SHM) method using active sensing with a piezoceramic-based smart aggregate (SA) to detect the crack and leakage in the epoxy joint of PCSBs was proposed and the feasibility was studied by experiment in the present work. Two concrete prisms were prefabricated with installed SAs and assembled with epoxy joint. An initial defect was simulated by leaving a 3-cm crack at the center of the joint without epoxy. With a total of 13 test cases and the different lengths of cracks without water and filled with water were simulated and tested. Time-domain analysis, frequency-domain analysis and wavelet-packet-based energy index (WPEI) analysis were conducted to evaluate the health condition of the structure. By comparing the collected voltage signals, Power Spectrum Density (PSD) energy and WPEIs under different healthy states, it is shown that the test results are closely related to the length of the crack and the leakage in the epoxy joint. It is demonstrated that the devised approach has certain application value in detecting the crack and leakage in the joint of PCSBs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Sensors for Damage Detection)
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Open AccessArticle
A Variable Data Fusion Approach for Electromechanical Impedance-Based Damage Detection
Sensors 2020, 20(15), 4204; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154204 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 723
Abstract
There is continuing research in the area of structural health monitoring (SHM) as it may allow a reduction in maintenance costs as well as lifetime extension. The search for a low-cost health monitoring system that is able to detect small levels of damage [...] Read more.
There is continuing research in the area of structural health monitoring (SHM) as it may allow a reduction in maintenance costs as well as lifetime extension. The search for a low-cost health monitoring system that is able to detect small levels of damage is still on-going. The present study is one more step in this direction. This paper describes a data fusion technique by combining the information for robust damage detection using the electromechanical impedance (EMI) method. The EMI method is commonly used for damage detection due to its sensitivity to low levels of damage. In this paper, the information of resistance (R) and conductance (G) is studied in a selected frequency band and a novel data fusion approach is proposed. A novel fused parameter (F) is developed by combining the information from G and R. The difference in the new metric under different damage conditions is then quantified using established indices such as the root mean square deviation (RMSD) index, mean absolute percentage deviation (MAPD), and root mean square deviation using k-th state as the reference (RMSDk). The paper presents an application of the new metric for detection of damage in three structures, namely, a thin aluminum (Al) plate with increasing damage severity (simulated with a drilled hole of increasing size), a glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite beam with increasing delamination and another GFRP plate with impact-induced damage scenarios. Based on the experimental results, it is apparent that the variable F increases the robustness of the damage detection as compared to the quantities R and G. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Sensors for Damage Detection)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
A Review on Low-Cost Microwave Doppler Radar Systems for Structural Health Monitoring
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2612; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082612 - 08 Apr 2021
Viewed by 324
Abstract
Portable, low-cost, microwave radars have attracted researchers’ attention for being an alternative noncontact solution for structural condition monitoring. In addition, by leveraging their capability of providing the target velocity information, the radar-based remote monitoring of complex rotating structures can also be accomplished. Modern [...] Read more.
Portable, low-cost, microwave radars have attracted researchers’ attention for being an alternative noncontact solution for structural condition monitoring. In addition, by leveraging their capability of providing the target velocity information, the radar-based remote monitoring of complex rotating structures can also be accomplished. Modern radar systems are compact, able to be easily integrated in sensor networks, and can deliver high accuracy measurements. This paper reviews the recent technical advances in low-cost Doppler radar systems for phase-demodulated displacement measurements and time-Doppler analysis for structural health information, including digital signal processing and emerging applications related to radar sensor networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Sensors for Damage Detection)
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Other

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Open AccessLetter
Detection of Pin Failure in Carbon Fiber Composites Using the Electro-Mechanical Impedance Method
Sensors 2020, 20(13), 3732; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20133732 - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 656
Abstract
This paper presents a proof of concept for simultaneous load and structural health monitoring of a hybrid carbon fiber rudder stock sample consisting of carbon fiber composite and metallic parts in order to demonstrate smart sensors in the context of maritime systems. Therefore, [...] Read more.
This paper presents a proof of concept for simultaneous load and structural health monitoring of a hybrid carbon fiber rudder stock sample consisting of carbon fiber composite and metallic parts in order to demonstrate smart sensors in the context of maritime systems. Therefore, a strain gauge is used to assess bending loads during quasi-static laboratory testing. In addition, six piezoelectric transducers are placed around the circumference of the tubular structure for damage detection based on the electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) method. A damage indicator has been defined that exploits the real and imaginary parts of the admittance for the detection of pin failure in the rudder stock. In particular, higher frequencies in the EMI spectrum contain valuable information about damage. Finally, the information about damage and load are merged in a cluster analysis enabling damage detection under load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Sensors for Damage Detection)
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