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Satellite Remote Sensing in Environmental Monitoring

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Remote Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2020) | Viewed by 60799

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Engineering Department, University of Almería, Carretera de Sacramento s/n, La Cañada de San Urbano, 04120 Almería, Spain
Interests: forest monitoring; OBIA; LiDAR; UAV; machine learning; optical satellite imagery; data fusion
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Cartographic, Geodetic and Photogrammetric Engineering, University of Jaén, 23071 Jaén, Spain
Interests: geomatics; photogrammetry; remote sensing; geostatistics; LiDAR; RPAS; 3D modelling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the past few decades, recent developments in both active and passive satellite remote sensing sensors has brought new types of spatial information and enhanced capacities to gain insight into emerging applications and methods that are especially suitable to be applied in large-scale environmental monitoring. In fact, new satellite-based geospatial information, such as the recent medium-resolution open satellite data, hyperspectral and very high-resolution optical imagery, thermal infrared data, laser altimetry data (e.g. ICESat-2), and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and interferometric SAR Earth observation methods, has been widely recognized as a major data source to aid large-scale environmental monitoring. Since humankind faces a number of unprecedented Earth-scale challenges, e.g., climate change, clean energy production and sustainable development, and considering that making the right decisions largely depends on the quality and timeliness of the available information, the purpose of this Special Issue is to highlight new advances in the field of “Satellite Remote Sensing in Environmental Monitoring” by means of several key related topics, most of them based on mapping and monitoring dynamic land cover changes over time. Among the target topics for this Special Issue, we would like to highlight the following:

  • Land cover change and thematic information extraction (vegetation disturbances, forest cover change, habitat mapping, invasive species mapping, desertification, and so on)
  • Hydrological modeling
  • Monitoring icebergs, ice sheet elevation and ice sea thickness
  • Ocean and coastal areas monitoring
  • Large scale forest inventory
  • Ecosystem service values
  • Multi-temporal satellite image processing
  • Surface reconstruction from satellite remote sensing data
  • Satellite remote sensing data fusion and assimilation in environmental monitoring
  • Monitoring plant and soil water status
  • Renewable energy potential estimation from satellite image processing

Note that the list of suggested topics is not limited to those mentioned above, but is open to related topics involving overview articles and progress reports on recent high-quality research and emerging applications concerning satellite remote sensing focused on environmental monitoring.

Papers must be original contributions, not previously published or submitted to other journals. Submissions based on previously published or submitted conference papers may be considered provided they are considerably improved and extended.

We look forward to and welcome your participation in this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Fernando J. Aguilar
Dr. Jorge Delgado
Dr. Antonio Novelli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Satellite remote sensing
  • Environmental monitoring
  • Multi-temporal data processing
  • Land cover change
  • Climate change
  • Data fusion and assimilation
  • Hydrological modeling
  • Large-scale forest inventory
  • Surface reconstruction
  • Ocean and coastal area monitoring

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

31 pages, 13676 KiB  
Article
Unsupervised Monitoring Vegetation after the Closure of an Ore Processing Site with Multi-Temporal Optical Remote Sensing
by Sophie Fabre, Rollin Gimenez, Arnaud Elger and Thomas Rivière
Sensors 2020, 20(17), 4800; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20174800 - 25 Aug 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2889
Abstract
Ore processing is a source of soil heavy metal pollution. Vegetation traits (structural characteristics such as spatial cover and repartition; biochemical parameters—pigment and water contents, growth rate, phenological cycle…) and plant species identity are indirect and powerful indicators of residual contamination detection in [...] Read more.
Ore processing is a source of soil heavy metal pollution. Vegetation traits (structural characteristics such as spatial cover and repartition; biochemical parameters—pigment and water contents, growth rate, phenological cycle…) and plant species identity are indirect and powerful indicators of residual contamination detection in soil. Multi-temporal multispectral satellite imagery, such as the Sentinel-2 time series, is an operational environment monitoring system widely used to access vegetation traits and ensure vegetation surveillance across large areas. For this purpose, methodology based on a multi-temporal fusion method at the feature level is applied to vegetation monitoring for several years from the closure and revegetation of an ore processing site. Features are defined by 26 spectral indices from the literature and seasonal and annual change detection maps are inferred. Three indices—CIred-edge (CIREDEDGE), IRECI (Inverted Red-Edge Chlorophyll Index) and PSRI (Plant Senescence Reflectance Index)—are particularly suitable for detecting changes spatially and temporally across the study area. The analysis is conducted separately for phyto-stabilized vegetation zones and natural vegetation zones. Global and specific changes are emphasized and explained by information provided by the site operator or meteorological conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Remote Sensing in Environmental Monitoring)
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23 pages, 9015 KiB  
Article
A Data Fusion Modeling Framework for Retrieval of Land Surface Temperature from Landsat-8 and MODIS Data
by Guohui Zhao, Yaonan Zhang, Junlei Tan, Cong Li and Yanrun Ren
Sensors 2020, 20(15), 4337; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154337 - 4 Aug 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3754
Abstract
Land surface temperature (LST) is a critical state variable of land surface energy equilibrium and a key indicator of environmental change such as climate change, urban heat island, and freezing-thawing hazard. The high spatial and temporal resolution datasets are urgently needed for a [...] Read more.
Land surface temperature (LST) is a critical state variable of land surface energy equilibrium and a key indicator of environmental change such as climate change, urban heat island, and freezing-thawing hazard. The high spatial and temporal resolution datasets are urgently needed for a variety of environmental change studies, especially in remote areas with few LST observation stations. MODIS and Landsat satellites have complementary characteristics in terms of spatial and temporal resolution for LST retrieval. To make full use of their respective advantages, this paper developed a pixel-based multi-spatial resolution adaptive fusion modeling framework (called pMSRAFM). As an instance of this framework, the data fusion model for joint retrieval of LST from Landsat-8 and MODIS data was implemented to generate the synthetic LST with Landsat-like spatial resolution and MODIS temporal information. The performance of pMSRAFM was tested and validated in the Heihe River Basin located in China. The results of six experiments showed that the fused LST was high similarity to the direct Landsat-derived LST with structural similarity index (SSIM) of 0.83 and the index of agreement (d) of 0.84. The range of SSIM was 0.65–0.88, the root mean square error (RMSE) yielded a range of 1.6–3.4 °C, and the averaged bias was 0.6 °C. Furthermore, the temporal information of MODIS LST was retained and optimized in the synthetic LST. The RMSE ranged from 0.7 °C to 1.5 °C with an average value of 1.1 °C. When compared with in situ LST observations, the mean absolute error and bias were reduced after fusion with the mean absolute bias of 1.3 °C. The validation results that fused LST possesses the spatial pattern of Landsat-derived LSTs and inherits most of the temporal properties of MODIS LSTs at the same time, so it can provide more accurate and credible information. Consequently, pMSRAFM can be served as a promising and practical fusion framework to prepare a high-quality LST spatiotemporal dataset for various applications in environment studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Remote Sensing in Environmental Monitoring)
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20 pages, 4786 KiB  
Article
Driving Factors and Future Prediction of Land Use and Cover Change Based on Satellite Remote Sensing Data by the LCM Model: A Case Study from Gansu Province, China
by Kongming Li, Mingming Feng, Asim Biswas, Haohai Su, Yalin Niu and Jianjun Cao
Sensors 2020, 20(10), 2757; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20102757 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 58 | Viewed by 5172
Abstract
Land use and cover change (LUCC) is an important issue affecting the global environment, climate change, and sustainable development. Detecting and predicting LUCC, a dynamic process, and its driving factors will help in formulating effective land use and planning policy suitable for local [...] Read more.
Land use and cover change (LUCC) is an important issue affecting the global environment, climate change, and sustainable development. Detecting and predicting LUCC, a dynamic process, and its driving factors will help in formulating effective land use and planning policy suitable for local conditions, thus supporting local socioeconomic development and global environmental protection. In this study, taking Gansu Province as a case study example, we explored the LUCC pattern and its driving mechanism from 1980 to 2018, and predicted land use and cover in 2030 using the integrated LCM (Logistic-Cellular Automata-Markov chain) model and data from satellite remote sensing. The results suggest that the LUCC pattern was more reasonable in the second stage (2005 to 2018) compared with that in the first stage (1980 to 2005). This was because a large area of green lands was protected by ecological engineering in the second stage. From 1980 to 2018, in general, natural factors were the main force influencing changes in land use and cover in Gansu, while the effects of socioeconomic factors were not significant because of the slow development of economy. Landscape indices analysis indicated that predicted land use and cover in 2030 under the ecological protection scenario would be more favorable than under the historical trend scenario. Besides, results from the present study suggested that LUCC in arid and semiarid area could be well detected by the LCM model. This study would hopefully provide theoretical instructions for future land use planning and management, as well as a new methodology reference for LUCC analysis in arid and semiarid regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Remote Sensing in Environmental Monitoring)
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21 pages, 8672 KiB  
Article
A Novel Change Detection Method Based on Statistical Distribution Characteristics Using Multi-Temporal PolSAR Data
by Jinqi Zhao, Yonglei Chang, Jie Yang, Yufen Niu, Zhong Lu and Pingxiang Li
Sensors 2020, 20(5), 1508; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20051508 - 9 Mar 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2934
Abstract
Unsupervised change detection approaches, which are relatively straightforward and easy to implement and interpret, and which require no human intervention, are widely used in change detection. Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR), which has an all-weather response capability with increased polarimetric information, is a [...] Read more.
Unsupervised change detection approaches, which are relatively straightforward and easy to implement and interpret, and which require no human intervention, are widely used in change detection. Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR), which has an all-weather response capability with increased polarimetric information, is a key tool for change detection. However, for PolSAR data, inadequate evaluation of the difference image (DI) map makes the threshold-based algorithms incompatible with the true distribution model, which causes the change detection results to be ineffective and inaccurate. In this paper, to solve these problems, we focus on the generation of the DI map and the selection of the optimal threshold. An omnibus test statistic is used to generate the DI map from multi-temporal PolSAR images, and an improved Kittler and Illingworth algorithm based on either Weibull or gamma distribution is used to obtain the optimal threshold for generating the change detection map. Multi-temporal PolSAR data obtained by the Radarsat-2 sensor over Wuhan in China are used to verify the efficiency of the proposed method. The experimental results using our approach obtained the best performance in East Lake and Yanxi Lake regions with false alarm rates of 1.59% and 1.80%, total errors of 2.73% and 4.33%, overall accuracy of 97.27% and 95.67%, and Kappa coefficients of 0.6486 and 0.6275, respectively. Our results demonstrated that the proposed method is more suitable than the other compared methods for multi-temporal PolSAR data, and it can obtain both effective and accurate results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Remote Sensing in Environmental Monitoring)
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14 pages, 4699 KiB  
Article
An End-to-End Oil-Spill Monitoring Method for Multisensory Satellite Images Based on Deep Semantic Segmentation
by Yantong Chen, Yuyang Li and Junsheng Wang
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20030725 - 28 Jan 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3051
Abstract
In remote-sensing images, a detected oil-spill area is usually affected by spot noise and uneven intensity, which leads to poor segmentation of the oil-spill area. This paper introduced a deep semantic segmentation method that combined a deep-convolution neural network with the fully connected [...] Read more.
In remote-sensing images, a detected oil-spill area is usually affected by spot noise and uneven intensity, which leads to poor segmentation of the oil-spill area. This paper introduced a deep semantic segmentation method that combined a deep-convolution neural network with the fully connected conditional random field to form an end-to-end connection. On the basis of Resnet, it first roughly segmented a multisource remote-sensing image as input by the deep convolutional neural network. Then, we used the Gaussian pairwise method and mean-field approximation. The conditional random field was established as the output of the recurrent neural network. The oil-spill area on the sea surface was monitored by the multisource remote-sensing image and was estimated by optical image. We experimentally compared the proposed method with other models on the dataset established by the multisensory satellite image. Results showed that the method improved classification accuracy and captured fine details of the oil-spill area. The mean intersection over the union was 82.1%, and the monitoring effect was obviously improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Remote Sensing in Environmental Monitoring)
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14 pages, 8177 KiB  
Article
GNSS-R with Low-Cost Receivers for Retrieval of Antenna Height from Snow Surfaces Using Single-Frequency Observations
by Simone Rover and Alfonso Vitti
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5536; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245536 - 14 Dec 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3878
Abstract
Snowpack is an important fresh water storage; the retrieval of snow water equivalents from satellite data permits to estimate potentially available water amounts which is an essential parameter in water management plans running in several application fields (e.g., basic needs, hydroelectric, agriculture, hazard [...] Read more.
Snowpack is an important fresh water storage; the retrieval of snow water equivalents from satellite data permits to estimate potentially available water amounts which is an essential parameter in water management plans running in several application fields (e.g., basic needs, hydroelectric, agriculture, hazard and risk monitoring, climate change studies). The possibility to assess snowpack height from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) observations by means of the GNSS reflectometry technique (GNSS-R) has been shown by several studies. However, in general, studies are being conducted using observations collected by continuously operating reference stations (CORS) built for geodetic purposes and equipped with geodetic-grade instruments. Moreover, CORS are located on sites selected according to criteria different from those more suitable for snowpack studies. In this work, beside an overview of key elements of GNSS reflectometry, single-frequency GNSS observations collected by u-blox M8T GNSS receivers and patch antennas from u-blox and Tallysman have been considered for the determination of antenna height from the snowpack surface on a selected test site. Results demonstrate the feasibility of GNSS-R even with non-geodetic-grade instruments, opening the way towards diffuse GNSS-R targeted applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Remote Sensing in Environmental Monitoring)
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16 pages, 11377 KiB  
Article
Mapping and Tracking Forest Burnt Areas in the Indio Maiz Biological Reserve Using Sentinel-3 SLSTR and VIIRS-DNB Imagery
by Shou-Hao Chiang and Noel Ivan Ulloa
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5423; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245423 - 9 Dec 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4099
Abstract
Wildfires are considered one of the most major hazards and environmental issues worldwide. Recently, Earth observation satellite (EOS) sensors have proven to be effective for wildfire detection, although the quality and usefulness of the data are often hindered by cloud presence. One practical [...] Read more.
Wildfires are considered one of the most major hazards and environmental issues worldwide. Recently, Earth observation satellite (EOS) sensors have proven to be effective for wildfire detection, although the quality and usefulness of the data are often hindered by cloud presence. One practical workaround is to combine datasets from multiple sensors. This research presents a methodology that utilizes data of the recently-launched Sentinel-3 sea and land surface temperature radiometer (S3-SLSTR) to reflect its applicability for detecting wildfires. In addition, visible infrared imaging radiometer suite day night band (VIIRS-DNB) imagery was introduced to assure day-night tracking capabilities. The wildfire event in the Indio Maiz Biological Reserve, Nicaragua, during 3–13 April 2018, was the study case. Six S3-SLSTR images were processed to compute spectral indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the normalized difference water index (NDWI), and the normalized burn ratio (NBR), to perform image segmentation for estimating the burnt area. The results indicate that 5870.7 ha of forest was affected during the wildfire, close to the 5945 ha reported by local authorities. In this study, the fire expansion was delineated and tracked in the Indio Maiz Biological Reserve using a modified fast marching method on nighttime-sensed temporal VIIRS-DNB. This study shows the importance of S3-SLSRT for wildfire monitoring and how it can be complemented with VIIRS-DNB to track burning biomass at daytime and nighttime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Remote Sensing in Environmental Monitoring)
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21 pages, 6594 KiB  
Article
Inter-Sensor Calibration between HY-2B and AMSR2 Passive Microwave Data in Land Surface and First Result for Snow Water Equivalent Retrieval
by Shuo Gao, Zhen Li, Quan Chen, Wu Zhou, Mingsen Lin and Xiaobin Yin
Sensors 2019, 19(22), 5023; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19225023 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2564
Abstract
The self-designed HaiYang-2B (HY-2B) satellite was launched on 24 October 2018 in China at 22:57 UT in a 99.34° inclination sun-synchronous orbit. The Scanning Microwave Radiometer (SMR) on the core observatory has the capability to provide near-real-time multi-channel brightness temperature (Tb) observations, which [...] Read more.
The self-designed HaiYang-2B (HY-2B) satellite was launched on 24 October 2018 in China at 22:57 UT in a 99.34° inclination sun-synchronous orbit. The Scanning Microwave Radiometer (SMR) on the core observatory has the capability to provide near-real-time multi-channel brightness temperature (Tb) observations, which are designed mainly for improving the level of marine forecasting and monitoring, serving the development and utilization of marine resources. After internal calibration and ocean calibration, the first effort to retrieve land surface snow parameters was performed in this study, which obtained extremely low accuracy both in snow extent and snow mass. Accordingly, land inter-sensor calibration was carried out between SMR and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) in order to broaden the research and application of SMR data on the Earth’s land surface. Finally, we evaluated the consistency of the snow extent and snow mass derived from the initial and land-calibrated SMR data. The results indicated that a systematic SMR cold deviation whose magnitude depends on the channel is present for all the compared channels. After intercalibration, the conformity of the snow extent and snow mass were substantially improved compared to before; the relative bias of the snow extent and snow mass decreased from −49.97% to 2.97% and from −51.71% to 3.01%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Remote Sensing in Environmental Monitoring)
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21 pages, 4703 KiB  
Article
Development of Land-Use/Land-Cover Maps Using Landsat-8 and MODIS Data, and Their Integration for Hydro-Ecological Applications
by Sadia Afrin, Anil Gupta, Babak Farjad, M. Razu Ahmed, Gopal Achari and Quazi K. Hassan
Sensors 2019, 19(22), 4891; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19224891 - 9 Nov 2019
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 5843
Abstract
The Athabasca River watershed plays a dominant role in both the economy and the environment in Alberta, Canada. Natural and anthropogenic factors rapidly changed the landscape of the watershed in recent decades. The dynamic of such changes in the landscape characteristics of the [...] Read more.
The Athabasca River watershed plays a dominant role in both the economy and the environment in Alberta, Canada. Natural and anthropogenic factors rapidly changed the landscape of the watershed in recent decades. The dynamic of such changes in the landscape characteristics of the watershed calls for a comprehensive and up-to-date land-use and land-cover (LULC) map, which could serve different user-groups and purposes. The aim of the study herein was to delineate a 2016 LULC map of the Athabasca River watershed using Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived enhanced vegetation index (EVI) images, and other ancillary data. In order to achieve this, firstly, a preliminary LULC map was developed through applying the iterative self-organizing data analysis (ISODATA) clustering technique on 24 scenes of Landsat-8 OLI. Secondly, a Terra MODIS-derived 250-m 16-day composite of 30 EVI images over the growing season was employed to enhance the vegetation classes. Thirdly, several geospatial ancillary datasets were used in the post-classification improvement processes to generate a final 2016 LULC map of the study area, exhibiting 14 LULC classes. Fourthly, an accuracy assessment was carried out to ensure the reliability of the generated final LULC classes. The results, with an overall accuracy and Cohen’s kappa of 74.95% and 68.34%, respectively, showed that coniferous forest (47.30%), deciduous forest (16.76%), mixed forest (6.65%), agriculture (6.37%), water (6.10%), and developed land (3.78%) were the major LULC classes of the watershed. Fifthly, to support the data needs of scientists across various disciplines, data fusion techniques into the LULC map were performed using the Alberta merged wetland inventory 2017 data. The results generated two useful maps applicable for hydro-ecological applications. Such maps depicted two specific categories including different types of burned (approximately 6%) and wetland (approximately 30%) classes. In fact, these maps could serve as important decision support tools for policy-makers and local regulatory authorities in the sustainable management of the Athabasca River watershed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Remote Sensing in Environmental Monitoring)
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23 pages, 4427 KiB  
Article
Snow Albedo Seasonality and Trend from MODIS Sensor and Ground Data at Johnsons Glacier, Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctica
by Javier F. Calleja, Alejandro Corbea-Pérez, Susana Fernández, Carmen Recondo, Juanjo Peón and Miguel Ángel de Pablo
Sensors 2019, 19(16), 3569; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19163569 - 15 Aug 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4937
Abstract
The aim of this work is to investigate whether snow albedo seasonality and trend under all sky conditions at Johnsons Glacier (Livingston Island, Antarctica) can be tracked using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow albedo daily product MOD10A1. The time span is [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to investigate whether snow albedo seasonality and trend under all sky conditions at Johnsons Glacier (Livingston Island, Antarctica) can be tracked using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow albedo daily product MOD10A1. The time span is from December 2006 to February 2015. As the MOD10A1 snow albedo product has never been used in Antarctica before, we also assess the performance for the MOD10A1 cloud mask. The motivation for this work is the need for a description of snow albedo under all sky conditions (including overcast days) using satellite data with mid-spatial resolution. In-situ albedo was filtered with a 5-day windowed moving average, while the MOD10A1 data were filtered using a maximum filter. Both in-situ and MOD10A1 data follow an exponential decay during the melting season, with a maximum decay of 0.049/0.094 day−1 (in-situ/MOD10A1) for the 2006–2007 season and a minimum of 0.016/0.016 day−1 for the 2009–2010 season. The duration of the decay varies from 85 days (2007–2008) to 167 days (2013–2014). Regarding the albedo trend, both data sets exhibit a slight increase of albedo, which may be explained by an increase of snowfall along with a decrease of snowmelt in the study area. Annual albedo increases of 0.2% and 0.7% are obtained for in-situ and MOD10A1 data, respectively, which amount to respective increases of 2% and 6% in the period 2006–2015. We conclude that MOD10A1 can be used to characterize snow albedo seasonality and trend on Livingston Island when filtered with a maximum filter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Remote Sensing in Environmental Monitoring)
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14 pages, 6278 KiB  
Article
Validation of Sentinel-3A/3B Satellite Altimetry Wave Heights with Buoy and Jason-3 Data
by Jungang Yang and Jie Zhang
Sensors 2019, 19(13), 2914; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19132914 - 1 Jul 2019
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 4480
Abstract
The validation of significant wave height (SWH) data measured by the Sentinel-3A/3B SAR Altimeter (SRAL) is essential for the application of the data in ocean wave monitoring, forecasting and wave climate studies. Sentinel-3A/3B SWH data are validated by comparisons with U. S. National [...] Read more.
The validation of significant wave height (SWH) data measured by the Sentinel-3A/3B SAR Altimeter (SRAL) is essential for the application of the data in ocean wave monitoring, forecasting and wave climate studies. Sentinel-3A/3B SWH data are validated by comparisons with U. S. National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoys, using a spatial scale of 25 km and a temporal scale of 30 min, and with Jason-3 data at their crossovers, using a time difference of less than 30 min. The comparisons with NDBC buoy data show that the root-mean-square error (RMSE) of Sentinel-3A SWH is 0.30 m, and that of Sentinel-3B is no more than 0.31 m. The pseudo-Low-Resolution Mode (PLRM) SWH is slightly better than that of the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode. The statistical analysis of Sentinel-3A/3B SWH in the bin of 0.5 m wave height shows that the accuracy of Sentinel-3A/3B SWH data decreases with increasing wave height. The analysis of the monthly biases and RMSEs of Sentinel-3A SWH shows that Sentinel-3A SWH are stable and have a slight upward trend with time. The comparisons with Jason-3 data show that SWH of Sentinel-3A and Jason-3 are consistent in the global ocean. Finally, the piecewise calibration functions are given for the calibration of Sentinel-3A/3B SWH. The results of the study show that Sentinel-3A/3B SWH data have high accuracy and remain stable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Remote Sensing in Environmental Monitoring)
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13 pages, 4438 KiB  
Article
On the Prediction of Upwelling Events at the Colombian Caribbean Coasts from Modis-SST Imagery
by José J. Alonso del Rosario, Juan M. Vidal Pérez and Elizabeth Blázquez Gómez
Sensors 2019, 19(13), 2861; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19132861 - 27 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2821
Abstract
The upwelling cores on the Caribbean Colombian coasts are mainly located at the Peninsula de la Guajira and Cabo de la Aguja. We used monthly averaged Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sea surface temperature as the only information to build up a prediction [...] Read more.
The upwelling cores on the Caribbean Colombian coasts are mainly located at the Peninsula de la Guajira and Cabo de la Aguja. We used monthly averaged Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sea surface temperature as the only information to build up a prediction model for the upwelling events. This comprised two steps: (i) the reduction of the complexity by means of the Karhunen–Loève transform and (ii) a prediction model of time series. Two prediction models were considered: (a) a parametric autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) time series from the Box–Jenkins methodology and (b) a harmonic synthesis model. The harmonic synthesis also comprised of two steps: the maximum entropy spectral analysis and a least-squares harmonic analysis on the set of frequencies. The parametric ARMA time series model failed at the time of prediction with a very narrow range, and it was quite difficult to apply. The harmonic synthesis allowed prediction with a horizon of six months with a correlation of about 0.80. The results can be summarized using the time series of the weights of the different oscillation modes, their spatial structures with the nodal lines, and a high confidence model with a horizon of prediction of about four months. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Remote Sensing in Environmental Monitoring)
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24 pages, 27274 KiB  
Article
Land Use Change and Climate Variation in the Three Gorges Reservoir Catchment from 2000 to 2015 Based on the Google Earth Engine
by Binfei Hao, Mingguo Ma, Shiwei Li, Qiuping Li, Dalei Hao, Jing Huang, Zhongxi Ge, Hong Yang and Xujun Han
Sensors 2019, 19(9), 2118; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19092118 - 7 May 2019
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 6856
Abstract
Possible environmental change and ecosystem degradation have received increasing attention since the construction of Three Gorges Reservoir Catchment (TGRC) in China. The advanced Google Earth Engine (GEE) cloud-based platform and the large number of Geosciences and Remote Sensing datasets archived in GEE were [...] Read more.
Possible environmental change and ecosystem degradation have received increasing attention since the construction of Three Gorges Reservoir Catchment (TGRC) in China. The advanced Google Earth Engine (GEE) cloud-based platform and the large number of Geosciences and Remote Sensing datasets archived in GEE were used to analyze the land use and land cover change (LULCC) and climate variation in TGRC. GlobeLand30 data were used to evaluate the spatial land dynamics from 2000 to 2010 and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images were applied for land use in 2015. The interannual variations in the Land Surface Temperature (LST) and seasonally integrated normalized difference vegetation index (SINDVI) were estimated using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products. The climate factors including air temperature, precipitation and evapotranspiration were investigated based on the data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). The results indicated that from 2000 to 2015, the cultivated land and grassland decreased by 2.05% and 6.02%, while the forest, wetland, artificial surface, shrub land and waterbody increased by 3.64%, 0.94%, 0.87%, 1.17% and 1.45%, respectively. The SINDVI increased by 3.209 in the period of 2000-2015, while the LST decreased by 0.253 °C from 2001 to 2015. The LST showed an increasing trend primarily in urbanized area, with a decreasing trend mainly in forest area. In particular, Chongqing City had the highest LST during the research period. A marked decrease in SINDVI occurred primarily in urbanized areas. Good vegetation areas were primarily located in the eastern part of the TGRC, such as Wuxi County, Wushan County, and Xingshan County. During the 2000–2015 period, the air temperature, precipitation and evapotranspiration rose by 0.0678 °C/a, 1.0844 mm/a, and 0.4105 mm/a, respectively. The climate change in the TGRC was influenced by LULCC, but the effect was limited. What is more, the climate change was affected by regional climate change in Southwest China. Marked changes in land use have occurred in the TGRC, and they have resulted in changes in the LST and SINDVI. There was a significantly negative relationship between LST and SINDVI in most parts of the TGRC, especially in expanding urban areas and growing forest areas. Our study highlighted the importance of environmental protection, particularly proper management of land use, for sustainable development in the catchment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Remote Sensing in Environmental Monitoring)
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16 pages, 3893 KiB  
Article
Monitoring Spatio-Temporal Changes of Terrestrial Ecosystem Soil Water Use Efficiency in Northeast China Using Time Series Remote Sensing Data
by Hang Qi, Fang Huang and Huan Zhai
Sensors 2019, 19(6), 1481; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19061481 - 26 Mar 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4268
Abstract
Soil water use efficiency (SWUE) was proposed as an effective proxy of ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE), which reflects the coupling of the carbon–water cycle and function of terrestrial ecosystems. The changes of ecosystem SWUE at the regional scale and their relationships with [...] Read more.
Soil water use efficiency (SWUE) was proposed as an effective proxy of ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE), which reflects the coupling of the carbon–water cycle and function of terrestrial ecosystems. The changes of ecosystem SWUE at the regional scale and their relationships with the environmental and biotic factors are yet to be adequately understood. Here, we aim to estimate SWUE over northeast China using time-series Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) gross primary productivity data and European Space Agency climate change initiative (ESA CCI) soil moisture product during 2007–2015. The spatio-temporal variations in SWUE and their linkages to multiple factors, especially the phenological metrics, were investigated using trend and correlation analysis. The results showed that the spatial heterogeneity of ecosystem SWUE in northeast China was obvious. SWUE distribution varied among vegetation types, soil types, and elevation. Forests might produce higher photosynthetic productivity by utilizing unit soil moisture. The seasonal variations of SWUE were consistent with the vegetation growth cycle. Changes in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), land surface temperature, and precipitation exerted positive effects on SWUE variations. The earlier start (SOS) and later end (EOS) of the growing season would contribute to the increase in SWUE. Our results help complement the knowledge of SWUE variations and their driving forces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Remote Sensing in Environmental Monitoring)
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