sensors-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Vehicular Network Communications"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Richard W. Pazzi
Website
Guest Editor
Associate Professor, Faculty of Business and Information Technology, Ontario Tech University, Oshawa, ON, Canada
Interests: Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks; Wireless Sensor Networks; Vehicular Communications; Protocol and Algorithm Design; Network Simulation; Performance Evaluation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) is a novel and growing paradigm that enables seamless communication among vehicles, roadside infrastructure, and wireless devices. Vehicular communication networks are gaining the attention of academic, government, and industry sectors. A vehicular network has the potential to contribute to safer and more efficient transportation systems by providing a diversity of services and timely information to drivers, passengers and authorities. Existing and envisioned applications range from arterial management, adaptive signal control, accident avoidance warnings, parking lot controls, speed limits, lane management, and traffic management, to vehicle-to-vehicle-based applications such as collision avoidance, collision notification, driver assistance, intelligent navigation, adaptive cruise control, and precision parking).

The aim of this special edition journal is to attract and publish high quality peer–reviewed papers in the area of mobile and vehicular communications. The editorial board invites researchers to contribute to the field of vehicular communications, including vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), and vehicle-to-everything (V2X) types of communication. Therefore, the scope of this journal includes, but is not limited to, the following topics related to vehicular networks:

  • Data Dissemination in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
  • Routing in Vehicular Networks
  • Data Hovering in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
  • Vehicle-to-vehicle, vehicle-to-infrastructure, and vehicle-to-everything protocols and algorithms
  • Modelling and Analysis of Vehicular Network Protocols
  • Simulation of Vehicular Networks
  • Performance evaluation of vehicular network protocols
  • Scalability issues in Large-scale Vehicular Networks
  • Vehicular Sensor Networks
  • Security issues in vehicular communications
  • Testbeds and testing
  • In-car wireless networks
  • Vehicular networks and IoT
  • Vehicular Cloud Networks
  • Vehicular Network Applications

Dr. Richard W. Pazzi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
  • Vehicular Communications
  • Protocol Design and Evaluation
  • VANETs
  • Large-Scale Vehicular Networks
  • VANET Applications

Published Papers (14 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Towards Dynamic Controller Placement in Software Defined Vehicular Networks
Sensors 2020, 20(6), 1701; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20061701 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 934
Abstract
The emerging SDVN (Software Defined Vehicular Network) paradigm promises to bring flexibility and efficient resource utilization to vehicular networks, enabling the emergence of novel Intelligent Transportation Services. However, as it was initially designed with wired network in mind, applying the SDN paradigm to [...] Read more.
The emerging SDVN (Software Defined Vehicular Network) paradigm promises to bring flexibility and efficient resource utilization to vehicular networks, enabling the emergence of novel Intelligent Transportation Services. However, as it was initially designed with wired network in mind, applying the SDN paradigm to a vehicular context faces new challenges related to the peculiar characteristics of this network (high node mobility and node density, and the presence of wireless links). In this paper, we focus on one of the critical architectural elements of SDVN, namely, the SDN Controller Placement, and promote the use of dynamic placement methods that take into account the dynamicity of vehicular networks’ topology. We also describe the different approaches towards a dynamic controller placement and also propose an ILP (Integer Linear Programming) based dynamic placement method that adaptively readjusts the number and placement of controllers according to road traffic fluctuations. The proposed method is evaluated using a realistic traffic trace from Luxembourg City. Simulation results show that our approach outperforms the static approach as proposed in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Network Communications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Distributed Cooperative Localization Strategy in Vehicular-to-Vehicular Networks
Sensors 2020, 20(5), 1413; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20051413 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1002
Abstract
This work develops a distributed message-passing approach to cooperative localization for autonomous mobile vehicles that communicate via mm-wave wireless connection in vehicle-to-vehicle networks. Vehicles in the network obtain the measurement information about the relative distance and the angle of arrival from the mm-wave [...] Read more.
This work develops a distributed message-passing approach to cooperative localization for autonomous mobile vehicles that communicate via mm-wave wireless connection in vehicle-to-vehicle networks. Vehicles in the network obtain the measurement information about the relative distance and the angle of arrival from the mm-wave connections made with each other. Some vehicles may obtain knowledge about their absolute position information of different quality, for example, via additional localization feature. The main objective is to estimate the locations of all vehicles using reciprocal exchanges of simple information called a message in a distributed and autonomous way. A simulation is developed to examine the performance of the localization and navigation of vehicles under various network configurations. The results show that it does provide better positioning results in most cases and there are also several cases where the use of the cooperative technique adapts to design parameters such as accuracies of measurement equipment, and initial position estimates, that can affect the localization performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Network Communications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Secure Enhanced Non-Cooperative Cognitive Division Multiple Access for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication
Sensors 2020, 20(4), 1000; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20041000 - 13 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 635
Abstract
The growth of the Internet has led to the increasing usage of smart infotainment applications on the vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET). Preserving privacy and security regarding the provision of smart infotainment applications while on the go is most desired. Thus, a secure authentication [...] Read more.
The growth of the Internet has led to the increasing usage of smart infotainment applications on the vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET). Preserving privacy and security regarding the provision of smart infotainment applications while on the go is most desired. Thus, a secure authentication scheme is required. Many privacy-preserving security schemes have been developed in recent times using cryptography approaches. However, these incur key management and communication overhead. The usage of third-party servers incurs the overhead of key computation, storage and distribution. Post completion of the initialization phase, the message is secured using cryptography and is shared among vehicles. The design of the proposed secure enhanced non-cooperative cognitive division multiple access ( S ENCCMA ) aims to eliminate the need for the local message available with the parties to be released for provisioning secure safety-related applications. To overcome the research challenges, this work presents a novel security scheme, namely secure non-cooperative cognitive medium access ( S ENCCMA ). The experiment is conducted to evaluate the overhead incurred in provisioning security to ENCCMA . The outcome shows that the overhead incurred by S ENCCMA over ENCCMA was negligible to provide the real-time security requirements of smart infotainment applications, which is experimentally shown in this paper in terms of throughput, collision and successful packet transmission considering varied environmental models such as cities, highways and rural areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Network Communications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Two-Way Transmission for Low-Latency and High-Reliability 5G Cellular V2X Communications
Sensors 2020, 20(2), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20020386 - 10 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1119
Abstract
As one of key technologies of future networks, vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication has recently been proposed to improve conventional vehicle systems in terms of traffic and communications. Main benefits of using V2X are efficient and safe traffic as well as low-latency communications and reliable [...] Read more.
As one of key technologies of future networks, vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication has recently been proposed to improve conventional vehicle systems in terms of traffic and communications. Main benefits of using V2X are efficient and safe traffic as well as low-latency communications and reliable massive connections. Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) scheme was introduced as a promising solution in the fifth-generation (5G) mobile communications, by which quality-of-service (QoS) requirements of many 5G-enabled applications are satisfied as a result of improved network throughput and lower accessing and transmission latency. In this paper, we study NOMA-based communications between vehicles equipped with multiple antennas over Nakagami-m fading channels in V2X networks, in which uplink and downlink transmission between two vehicles with upper controller are supported by a road side unit (RSU) to increase the capacity rather than simply be connected to the base station. In the NOMA-V2X system under study, the outage probability depends on the power allocation factor of RSU transmission and the operation of successive interference cancellation (SIC) at vehicles. Analyses and simulations verify that the outage performance of NOMA-V2X system are mainly affected by fading parameters, levels of imperfect SIC, and power allocation factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Network Communications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Real-Time Automatic Plate Recognition System Based on Optical Character Recognition and Wireless Sensor Networks for ITS
Sensors 2020, 20(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20010055 - 20 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1004
Abstract
Automatic License Plate Recognition has been a recurrent research topic due to the increasing number of cameras available in cities, where most of them, if not all, are connected to the Internet. The video traffic generated by the cameras can be analyzed to [...] Read more.
Automatic License Plate Recognition has been a recurrent research topic due to the increasing number of cameras available in cities, where most of them, if not all, are connected to the Internet. The video traffic generated by the cameras can be analyzed to provide useful insights for the transportation segment. This paper presents the development of an intelligent vehicle identification system based on optical character recognition (OCR) method to be used on intelligent transportation systems. The proposed system makes use of an intelligent parking system named Smart Parking Service (SPANS), which is used to manage public or private spaces. Using computer vision techniques, the SPANS system is used to detect if the parking slots are available or not. The proposed system makes use of SPANS framework to capture images of the parking spaces and identifies the license plate number of the vehicles that are moving around the parking as well as parked in the parking slots. The recognition of the license plate is made in real-time, and the performance of the proposed system is evaluated in real-time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Network Communications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Task Offloading Based on Lyapunov Optimization for MEC-Assisted Vehicular Platooning Networks
Sensors 2019, 19(22), 4974; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19224974 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 937
Abstract
Due to limited computation resources of a vehicle terminal, it is impossible to meet the demands of some applications and services, especially for computation-intensive types, which not only results in computation burden and delay, but also consumes more energy. Mobile edge computing (MEC) [...] Read more.
Due to limited computation resources of a vehicle terminal, it is impossible to meet the demands of some applications and services, especially for computation-intensive types, which not only results in computation burden and delay, but also consumes more energy. Mobile edge computing (MEC) is an emerging architecture in which computation and storage services are extended to the edge of a network, which is an advanced technology to support multiple applications and services that requires ultra-low latency. In this paper, a task offloading approach for an MEC-assisted vehicle platooning is proposed, where the Lyapunov optimization algorithm is employed to solve the optimization problem under the condition of stability of task queues. The proposed approach dynamically adjusts the offloading decisions for all tasks according to data parameters of current task, and judge whether it is executed locally, in other platooning member or at an MEC server. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce energy consumption of task execution and greatly improve the offloading efficiency compared with the shortest queue waiting time algorithm and the full offloading to an MEC algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Network Communications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Towards a Fog-Enabled Intelligent Transportation System to Reduce Traffic Jam
Sensors 2019, 19(18), 3916; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19183916 - 11 Sep 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1289
Abstract
Frustrations, monetary losses, lost time, high fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions are some of the problems caused by traffic jams in urban centers. In an attempt to solve this problem, this article proposes a traffic service to control congestion, named FOXS–Fast Offset [...] Read more.
Frustrations, monetary losses, lost time, high fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions are some of the problems caused by traffic jams in urban centers. In an attempt to solve this problem, this article proposes a traffic service to control congestion, named FOXS–Fast Offset Xpath Service. FOXS aims to reduce the problems generated by a traffic jam in a distributed way through roads classification and the suggestion of new routes to vehicles. Unlike the related works, FOXS is modeled using the Fog computing paradigm. Therefore, it is possible to take advantage of the inherent aspects of this paradigm, such as low latency, processing load balancing, scalability, geographical correlation and the reduction of bandwidth usage. In order to validate FOXS, our performance evaluation considers two realistic urban scenarios with different characteristics. When compared with related works, FOXS shows a reduction in stop time by up to 70%, the CO 2 emissions by up to 29% and, the planning time index by up to 49%. When considering communication evaluation metrics, FOXS reaches a better result than other solutions on the packet collisions metric (up to 11.5%) and on the application delay metric (up to 30%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Network Communications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Exploiting Vehicular Social Networks and Dynamic Clustering to Enhance Urban Mobility Management
Sensors 2019, 19(16), 3558; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19163558 - 15 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1101
Abstract
Transport authorities are employing advanced traffic management system (ATMS) to improve vehicular traffic management efficiency. ATMS currently uses intelligent traffic lights and sensors distributed along the roads to achieve its goals. Furthermore, there are other promising technologies that can be applied more efficiently [...] Read more.
Transport authorities are employing advanced traffic management system (ATMS) to improve vehicular traffic management efficiency. ATMS currently uses intelligent traffic lights and sensors distributed along the roads to achieve its goals. Furthermore, there are other promising technologies that can be applied more efficiently in place of the abovementioned ones, such as vehicular networks and 5G. In ATMS, the centralized approach to detect congestion and calculate alternative routes is one of the most adopted because of the difficulty of selecting the most appropriate vehicles in highly dynamic networks. The advantage of this approach is that it takes into consideration the scenario to its full extent at every execution. On the other hand, the distributed solution needs to previously segment the entire scenario to select the vehicles. Additionally, such solutions suggest alternative routes in a selfish fashion, which can lead to secondary congestions. These open issues have inspired the proposal of a distributed system of urban mobility management based on a collaborative approach in vehicular social networks (VSNs), named SOPHIA. The VSN paradigm has emerged from the integration of mobile communication devices and their social relationships in the vehicular environment. Therefore, social network analysis (SNA) and social network concepts (SNC) are two approaches that can be explored in VSNs. Our proposed solution adopts both SNA and SNC approaches for alternative route-planning in a collaborative way. Additionally, we used dynamic clustering to select the most appropriate vehicles in a distributed manner. Simulation results confirmed that the combined use of SNA, SNC, and dynamic clustering, in the vehicular environment, have great potential in increasing system scalability as well as improving urban mobility management efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Network Communications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Performance Enriching Channel Allocation Algorithm for Vehicle-to-Vehicle City, Highway and Rural Network
Sensors 2019, 19(15), 3283; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19153283 - 25 Jul 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1047
Abstract
Future safety applications require the timely delivery of messages between vehicles. The 802.11p has been standardized as the standard Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for vehicular communication. The 802.11p uses Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) as MAC. CSMA/CA induces unbounded [...] Read more.
Future safety applications require the timely delivery of messages between vehicles. The 802.11p has been standardized as the standard Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for vehicular communication. The 802.11p uses Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) as MAC. CSMA/CA induces unbounded channel access delay. As a result, it induces high collision. To reduce collision, distributed MAC is required for channel allocation. Many existing approaches have adopted Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) based MAC design for channel allocation. However, these models are not efficient at utilizing bandwidth. Cognitive radio technique is been adopted by various existing approach for channel allocation in shared channel network to maximize system throughput. However, it induces MAC overhead, and channel allocation on a shared channel network is considered to be an NP-hard problem. This work addresses the above issues. Here we present distributed MAC design PECA (Performance Enriching Channel Allocation) for channel allocation in a shared channel network. The PECA model maximizes the system throughput and reduces the collision, which is experimentally proven. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance in terms of throughput, collision and successful packet transmission considering a highly congested vehicular ad-hoc network. Experiments are carried out to show the adaptiveness of proposed MAC design considering different environments such City, Highway and Rural (CHR). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Network Communications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Preamble-Based Adaptive Channel Estimation for IEEE 802.11p
Sensors 2019, 19(13), 2971; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19132971 - 05 Jul 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1145
Abstract
Recently, research into autonomous driving and traffic safety has been drawing a great deal of attention. To realize autonomous driving and solve traffic safety problems, wireless access in vehicular environments (WAVE) technology has been developed, and IEEE 802.11p defines the physical (PHY) layer [...] Read more.
Recently, research into autonomous driving and traffic safety has been drawing a great deal of attention. To realize autonomous driving and solve traffic safety problems, wireless access in vehicular environments (WAVE) technology has been developed, and IEEE 802.11p defines the physical (PHY) layer and medium access control (MAC) layer in the WAVE standard. However, the IEEE 802.11p frame structure, which has low pilot density, makes it difficult to predict the properties of wireless channels in a vehicular environment with high vehicle speeds; thus, the performance of the system is degraded in realistic vehicular environments. The motivation for this paper is to improve the channel estimation and tracking performance without changing the IEEE 802.11p frame structure. Therefore, we propose a channel estimation technique that can perform well over the entire SNR range of values by changing the method of channel estimation accordingly. The proposed scheme selectively uses two channel estimation schemes, each with outstanding performance for either high-SNR or low-SNR signals. To implement this, an adaptation algorithm based on a preamble is proposed. The preamble is a signal known to the transmitter–receiver, so that the receiver can obtain channel estimates without demapping errors, evaluating performance of the channel estimation schemes. Simulation results comparing the proposed method to other schemes demonstrate that the proposed scheme can selectively switch between the two schemes to improve overall performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Network Communications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
SAFE-MAC: Speed Aware Fairness Enabled MAC Protocol for Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks
Sensors 2019, 19(10), 2405; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19102405 - 26 May 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1181
Abstract
Highly dynamic geographical topology, two-direction mobility, and varying traffic density can lead to fairness issues in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs). The Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol plays a vital role in sharing the common wireless channel efficiently between vehicles in a VANET system. [...] Read more.
Highly dynamic geographical topology, two-direction mobility, and varying traffic density can lead to fairness issues in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs). The Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol plays a vital role in sharing the common wireless channel efficiently between vehicles in a VANET system. However, ensuring fairness between vehicles can be a challenge in designing MAC protocols for VANET systems. The existing protocol, IEEE 802.11 DCF, ensures that the packet transmission rate for a particular vehicle is directly proportional to the amount of time a vehicle spends within a service area, but it does not guarantee that faster vehicles will be able to send the minimum number of packets. Other existing MAC protocols based on IEEE 802.11 are able to provide a minimum amount of data transmission regardless of velocity, but are unable to provide an amount of data transmission that is more proportionate to the time a vehicle spends in the service area. To address the above limitations, we propose a Speed Aware Fairness Enabled MAC (SAFE-MAC) protocol that calculates the residence time of a vehicle in a service area by using mobility metrics such as position, direction, and speed to synthesize the transmission probability of each individual vehicle with respect to its residence time. This is achieved by dynamically altering the values of parameters such as minimum contention window, maximum backoff stage, and retransmission limit in the MAC protocol. We then develop an analytical model to compare the performance of our proposed protocol with contemporary MAC protocols. Numerical analysis results show that our proposed protocol significantly improves fairness among the speed-varying vehicles in VANET. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Network Communications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An Interest-Based Approach for Reducing Network Contentions in Vehicular Transportation Systems
Sensors 2019, 19(10), 2325; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19102325 - 20 May 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1236
Abstract
Traffic management systems (TMS) are the key for dealing with mobility issues. Moreover, 5G and vehicular networking are expected to play an important role in supporting TMSs for providing a smarter, safer and faster transportation. In this way, several infrastructure-based TMSs have been [...] Read more.
Traffic management systems (TMS) are the key for dealing with mobility issues. Moreover, 5G and vehicular networking are expected to play an important role in supporting TMSs for providing a smarter, safer and faster transportation. In this way, several infrastructure-based TMSs have been proposed to improve vehicular traffic mobility. However, in massively connected and multi-service smart city scenarios, infrastructure-based systems can experience low delivery ratios and high latency due to packet congestion in backhaul links on ultra-dense cells with high data traffic demand. In this sense, we propose I am not interested in it (IAN3I), an interest-based approach for reducing network contention and even avoid infrastructure dependence in TMS. IAN3I enables a fully-distributed traffic management and an opportunistic content sharing approach in which vehicles are responsible for storing and delivering traffic information only to vehicles interested in it. Simulation results under a realistic scenario have shown that, when compared to state-of-the-art approaches, IAN3I decreases the number of transmitted messages, packet collisions and latency in up to 95 % , 98 % and 55 % respectively while dealing with traffic efficiency properly, not affecting traffic management performance at all. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Network Communications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Intersection-Based Link-Adaptive Beaconless Forwarding in Urban Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks
Sensors 2019, 19(5), 1242; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19051242 - 12 Mar 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1438
Abstract
Remote monitoring applications in urban vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) enable authorities to monitor data related to various activities of a moving vehicle from a static infrastructure. However, urban environment constraints along with various characteristics of remote monitoring applications give rise to significant hurdles [...] Read more.
Remote monitoring applications in urban vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) enable authorities to monitor data related to various activities of a moving vehicle from a static infrastructure. However, urban environment constraints along with various characteristics of remote monitoring applications give rise to significant hurdles while developing routing solutions in urban VANETs. Since the urban environment comprises several road intersections, using their geographic information can greatly assist in achieving efficient and reliable routing. With an aim to leverage this information, this article presents a receiver-based data forwarding protocol, termed Intersection-based Link-adaptive Beaconless Forwarding for City scenarios (ILBFC). ILBFC uses the position information of road intersections to effectively limit the duration for which a relay vehicle can stay as a default forwarder. In addition, a winner relay management scheme is employed to consider the drastic speed decay in vehicles. Furthermore, ILBFC is simulated in realistic urban traffic conditions, and its performance is compared with other existing state-of-the-art routing protocols in terms of packet delivery ratio, average end-to-end delay and packet redundancy coefficient. In particular, the results highlight the superior performance of ILBFC, thereby offering an efficient and reliable routing solution for remote monitoring applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Network Communications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Evaluation of CAN Bus Security Challenges
Sensors 2020, 20(8), 2364; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20082364 - 21 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
The automobile industry no longer relies on pure mechanical systems; instead, it benefits from many smart features based on advanced embedded electronics. Although the rise in electronics and connectivity has improved comfort, functionality, and safe driving, it has also created new attack surfaces [...] Read more.
The automobile industry no longer relies on pure mechanical systems; instead, it benefits from many smart features based on advanced embedded electronics. Although the rise in electronics and connectivity has improved comfort, functionality, and safe driving, it has also created new attack surfaces to penetrate the in-vehicle communication network, which was initially designed as a close loop system. For such applications, the Controller Area Network (CAN) is the most-widely used communication protocol, which still suffers from various security issues because of the lack of encryption and authentication. As a result, any malicious/hijacked node can cause catastrophic accidents and financial loss. This paper analyses the CAN bus comprehensively to provide an outlook on security concerns. It also presents the security vulnerabilities of the CAN and a state-of-the-art attack surface with cases of implemented attack scenarios and goes through different solutions that assist in attack prevention, mainly based on an intrusion detection system (IDS). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Network Communications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop