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State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in Russia 2021-2022

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Optical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 32037

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Image Processing Systems Institute of the RAS—Branch of the FSRC “Crystallography and Photonics” RAS, Molodogvardeiskaya St. 151, Samara 443001, Russia
2. Technical Cybernetics Department, Samara National Research University, Moskovskoye Shosse 34, Samara 443086, Russia
Interests: computer optics; diffractive nanophotonics; computer vision; plasmonic sensors; optical sensors
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
*
Website
Guest Editor
Professor, Laser and Optoelectronic Systems Department, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2nd Baumanskaya st. 5/1, 105005 Moscow, Russia
Interests: holography; augmented reality displays; diffractive nanophotonics; optical sensors
* We dedicate the memory of the editor, Prof. Dr. Sergey Odinokov, who passed away during this special issue period.
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
1. Federal Research Center "Computer Science and Control" of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 119333 Moscow, Russia
2. Smart Engines, 117312 Moscow, Russia
Interests: computer vision; image processing; pattern recognition; machine/deep learning and artificial intelligence
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last few decades, optical sensor technology has gained considerable attention for eye-catching applications in several areas, especially the measurement of physical properties such as temperature, pressure, strain, and displacement. This technology has also been widely used in point-of-care diagnostics. Researchers all over the world have proposed and demonstrated different sensing techniques for the detection of deadly diseases. The main purpose of intensive research on optical sensor technology development is to find a way which can produce miniaturized, reliable, cost-effective, and easily producible devices. In this Special Issue, we are focusing on the optical sensor technology development offered by Russian scientists and foreign scientists working in Russia. Original papers and review articles concerning the experimental, theoretical, and numerical analysis addressing novel ideas are most welcome.

Prof. Dr. Nikolay Kazanskiy
Prof. Dr. Sergey Odinokov
Prof. Dr. Vladimir V. Arlazarov
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Plasmonic sensors
  • SPR-optical fiber-based biosensors 
  • Metamaterial sensors
  • Fiber optic sensing 
  • Remote sensors 
  • Optical metrology 
  • Laser-assistant technology and fabrication 
  • Optoelectronic and photonic sensors 
  • Holographic technology for sensors 
  • Lab-on-optical-chip 
  • Integrated optic sensors 
  • Advanced materials for optical sensing 
  • Magneto-optical visualization of micromagnetic objects 
  • Far-infrared and THz sensors: apparatus and new materials 
  • X-ray 2D-4D sensors 
  • Single photon detectors 
  • Laser complexes for measuring subnanometer vibrations and displacements of micro-and nanoobjects, ultra-small mechanical deformations and fields of micro- and nanostructures, and the mass of micro-and nanoparticles 
  • Sensor networks 
  • Sensing and imaging 
  • Image sensors 
  • Imaging optical systems 
  • Adaptive exposure sensors 
  • Vision/camera-based sensors 
  • Signal processing, data fusion and deep learning in sensor systems 
  • Object detection and tracking 
  • Action recognition 
  • Multimedia security and forensics 
  • Multimedia compression 
  • Machine/deep learning and artificial intelligence in sensing and imaging 
  • Internet of Things

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 6177 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Refractive-Diffractive Lens with Reduced Chromatic and Geometric Aberrations and Learned Image Reconstruction
by Viktoria V. Evdokimova, Vladimir V. Podlipnov, Nikolay A. Ivliev, Maxim V. Petrov, Sofia V. Ganchevskaya, Vladimir A. Fursov, Yuriy Yuzifovich, Sergey O. Stepanenko, Nikolay L. Kazanskiy, Artem V. Nikonorov and Roman V. Skidanov
Sensors 2023, 23(1), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23010415 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2186
Abstract
In this paper, we present a hybrid refractive-diffractive lens that, when paired with a deep neural network-based image reconstruction, produces high-quality, real-world images with minimal artifacts, reaching a PSNR of 28 dB on the test set. Our diffractive element compensates for the off-axis [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a hybrid refractive-diffractive lens that, when paired with a deep neural network-based image reconstruction, produces high-quality, real-world images with minimal artifacts, reaching a PSNR of 28 dB on the test set. Our diffractive element compensates for the off-axis aberrations of a single refractive element and has reduced chromatic aberrations across the visible light spectrum. We also describe our training set augmentation and novel quality criteria called “false edge level” (FEL), which validates that the neural network produces visually appealing images without artifacts under a wide range of ISO and exposure settings. Our quality criteria (FEL) enabled us to include real scene images without a corresponding ground truth in the training process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in Russia 2021-2022)
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10 pages, 4152 KiB  
Article
Optical Polarization Sensor Based on a Metalens
by Victor Kotlyar, Anton Nalimov, Alexey Kovalev and Sergey Stafeev
Sensors 2022, 22(20), 7870; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22207870 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1536
Abstract
We investigated an optical microsensor of the polarization state of a laser light based on a metalens. In contrast to known polarization sensors based on metasurfaces that deflect different polarization types using various angles to the optical axis, the studied polarization sensor generated [...] Read more.
We investigated an optical microsensor of the polarization state of a laser light based on a metalens. In contrast to known polarization sensors based on metasurfaces that deflect different polarization types using various angles to the optical axis, the studied polarization sensor generated different patterns in the metalens focus to realize varied polarization states: left circular polarization generated a light ring in the focus, right circular polarization generated a circular focal spot, and linear polarization generated an elliptic spot with two sidelobes. Moreover, the tilt angle of the linear polarization matched the tilt angle of the elliptic focal spot. The simulation results were consistent with the theoretical predictions. A metalens with a diameter of several tens of microns was designed and fabricated in a thin amorphous silicon film with a thickness of 120 μm and a low aspect ratio, high numerical aperture, and short focal distance equal to a wavelength of 633 nm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in Russia 2021-2022)
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18 pages, 85401 KiB  
Article
Simplifying the Experimental Detection of the Vortex Topological Charge Based on the Simultaneous Astigmatic Transformation of Several Types and Levels in the Same Focal Plane
by Pavel A. Khorin, Svetlana N. Khonina, Alexey P. Porfirev and Nikolay L. Kazanskiy
Sensors 2022, 22(19), 7365; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22197365 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1843
Abstract
It is known that the astigmatic transformation can be used to analyze the topological charge of a vortex beam, which can be implemented by using various optical methods. In this case, in order to form an astigmatic beam pattern suitable for the clear [...] Read more.
It is known that the astigmatic transformation can be used to analyze the topological charge of a vortex beam, which can be implemented by using various optical methods. In this case, in order to form an astigmatic beam pattern suitable for the clear detection of a topological charge, an optical adjustment is often required (changing the lens tilt and/or the detection distance). In this article, we propose to use multi-channel diffractive optical elements (DOEs) for the simultaneous implementation of the astigmatic transformations of various types and levels. Such multi-channel DOEs make it possible to insert several types of astigmatic aberrations of different levels into the analyzed vortex beam simultaneously, and to form a set of aberration-transformed beam patterns in different diffraction orders in one detection plane. The proposed approach greatly simplifies the analysis of the characteristics of a vortex beam based on measurements in the single plane without additional adjustments. In this article, a detailed study of the effect of various types of astigmatic aberrations based on a numerical simulation and experiments was carried out, which confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in Russia 2021-2022)
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13 pages, 3409 KiB  
Article
Thermo-Optical Sensitivity of Whispering Gallery Modes in As2S3 Chalcogenide Glass Microresonators
by Alexey V. Andrianov, Maria P. Marisova and Elena A. Anashkina
Sensors 2022, 22(12), 4636; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22124636 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1921
Abstract
Glass microresonators with whispering gallery modes (WGMs) have a lot of diversified applications, including applications for sensing based on thermo-optical effects. Chalcogenide glass microresonators have a noticeably higher temperature sensitivity compared to silica ones, but only a few works have been devoted to [...] Read more.
Glass microresonators with whispering gallery modes (WGMs) have a lot of diversified applications, including applications for sensing based on thermo-optical effects. Chalcogenide glass microresonators have a noticeably higher temperature sensitivity compared to silica ones, but only a few works have been devoted to the study of their thermo-optical properties. We present experimental and theoretical studies of thermo-optical effects in microspheres made of an As2S3 chalcogenide glass fiber. We investigated the steady-state and transient temperature distributions caused by heating due to the partial thermalization of the pump power and found the corresponding wavelength shifts of the WGMs. The experimental measurements of the thermal response time, thermo-optical shifts of the WGMs, and heat power sensitivity in microspheres with diameters of 80–380 µm are in a good agreement with the theoretically predicted dependences. The calculated temperature sensitivity of 42 pm/K does not depend on diameter for microspheres made of commercially available chalcogenide fiber, which may play an important role in the development of temperature sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in Russia 2021-2022)
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12 pages, 3136 KiB  
Article
Silicon Oxynitride Thin Film Coating to Lossy Mode Resonance Fiber-Optic Refractometer
by Dmitriy P. Sudas, Leonid Yu. Zakharov, Viktor A. Jitov and Konstantin M. Golant
Sensors 2022, 22(10), 3665; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22103665 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1966
Abstract
A fiber-optic refractometer for various liquids with refractive indices in the range from 1.33 to 1.43 has been manufactured and tested. The sensor is based on a thin silicon oxynitride (Si3N4-xOx) film coated thinned optic fiber section [...] Read more.
A fiber-optic refractometer for various liquids with refractive indices in the range from 1.33 to 1.43 has been manufactured and tested. The sensor is based on a thin silicon oxynitride (Si3N4-xOx) film coated thinned optic fiber section (taper) obtained in a multimode all-silica optical fiber by chemical etching of the reflective cladding. The film was deposited on the cylindrical surface of the thinned fiber by the surface plasma chemical vapor deposition method (SPCVD). Lossy mode resonance (LMR) was observed in the transmission spectrum of the coated taper at a wavelength dependent on the refractive index of the liquid in which the taper was immersed. We tested the obtained sensors in distilled water, isopropyl alcohol, dimethylformamide, and their aqueous solutions. It was found that with the help of the SPCVD, one can obtain a set of sensors in a single deposition run with the dispersion of sensitivity and spectral position of LMR no more than 5%. Maximum sensitivity of the manufactured sensors to surrounding media refractive index (SMRI) variation exceeds 1090 nm/RIU, which is the highest value recorded to date for a sensor with a non-oxide coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in Russia 2021-2022)
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14 pages, 3078 KiB  
Article
Deep Neural Network Recognition of Rivet Joint Defects in Aircraft Products
by Oleg Semenovich Amosov, Svetlana Gennadievna Amosova and Ilya Olegovich Iochkov
Sensors 2022, 22(9), 3417; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22093417 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2899
Abstract
The mathematical statement of the problem of recognizing rivet joint defects in aircraft products is given. A computational method for the recognition of rivet joint defects in aircraft equipment based on video images of aircraft joints has been proposed with the use of [...] Read more.
The mathematical statement of the problem of recognizing rivet joint defects in aircraft products is given. A computational method for the recognition of rivet joint defects in aircraft equipment based on video images of aircraft joints has been proposed with the use of neural networks YOLO-V5 for detecting and MobileNet V3 Large for classifying rivet joint states. A novel dataset based on a real physical model of rivet joints has been created for machine learning. The accuracy of the result obtained during modeling was 100% in both binary and multiclass classification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in Russia 2021-2022)
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13 pages, 4236 KiB  
Article
Spectral Diffractive Lenses for Measuring a Modified Red Edge Simple Ratio Index and a Water Band Index
by Veronika Blank, Roman Skidanov, Leonid Doskolovich and Nikolay Kazanskiy
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7694; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227694 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2484
Abstract
We propose a novel type of spectral diffractive lenses that operate in the ±1-st diffraction orders. Such spectral lenses generate a sharp image of the wavelengths of interest in the +1-st and –1-st diffraction orders. The spectral lenses are convenient to use for [...] Read more.
We propose a novel type of spectral diffractive lenses that operate in the ±1-st diffraction orders. Such spectral lenses generate a sharp image of the wavelengths of interest in the +1-st and –1-st diffraction orders. The spectral lenses are convenient to use for obtaining remotely sensed vegetation index images instead of full-fledged hyperspectral images. We discuss the design and fabrication of spectral diffractive lenses for measuring vegetation indices, which include a Modified Red Edge Simple Ratio Index and a Water Band Index. We report synthesizing diffractive lenses with a microrelief thickness of 4 µm using the direct laser writing in a photoresist. The use of the fabricated spectral lenses in a prototype scheme of an imaging sensor for index measurements is discussed. Distributions of the aforesaid spectral indices are obtained by the linear scanning of vegetation specimens. Using a linear scanning of vegetation samples, distributions of the above-said water band index were experimentally measured. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in Russia 2021-2022)
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10 pages, 1356 KiB  
Communication
Wideband MOEMS for the Calibration of Optical Readout Systems
by Petr Volkov, Andrey Lukyanov, Alexander Goryunov, Daniil Semikov, Evgeniy Vopilkin, Stanislav Kraev, Andrey Okhapkin, Anatoly Tertyshnik and Ekaterina Arkhipova
Sensors 2021, 21(21), 7343; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21217343 - 04 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1711
Abstract
The paper proposes a technology based on UV-LIGA process for microoptoelectromechanical systems (MOEMS) manufacturing. We used the original combination of materials and technological steps, in which any of the materials does not enter chemical reactions with each other, while all of them are [...] Read more.
The paper proposes a technology based on UV-LIGA process for microoptoelectromechanical systems (MOEMS) manufacturing. We used the original combination of materials and technological steps, in which any of the materials does not enter chemical reactions with each other, while all of them are weakly sensitive to the effects of oxygen plasma. This made it suitable for long-term etching in the oxygen plasma at low discharge power with the complete preservation of the original geometry, including small parts. The micromembranes were formed by thermal evaporation of Al. This simplified the technique compared to the classic UV-LIGA and guaranteed high quality and uniformity of the resulting structure. To demonstrate the complete process, a test MOEMS with electrostatic control was manufactured. On one chip, a set of micromembranes was created with different stiffness from 10 nm/V to 100 nm/V and various working ranges from 100 to 300 nm. All membranes have a flat frequency response without resonant peaks in the frequency range 0–200 kHz. The proposed technology potentially enables the manufacture of wide low-height membranes of complex geometry to create microoptic fiber sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in Russia 2021-2022)
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12 pages, 5146 KiB  
Communication
Application of Dual-Frequency Self-Injection Locked DFB Laser for Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis
by Cesar A. Lopez-Mercado, Dmitry A. Korobko, Igor O. Zolotovskii and Andrei A. Fotiadi
Sensors 2021, 21(20), 6859; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21206859 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2169
Abstract
Self-injection locking to an external fiber cavity is an efficient technique enabling drastic linewidth narrowing of semiconductor lasers. Recently, we constructed a simple dual-frequency laser source that employs self-injection locking of a DFB laser in the external ring fiber cavity and Brillouin lasing [...] Read more.
Self-injection locking to an external fiber cavity is an efficient technique enabling drastic linewidth narrowing of semiconductor lasers. Recently, we constructed a simple dual-frequency laser source that employs self-injection locking of a DFB laser in the external ring fiber cavity and Brillouin lasing in the same cavity. The laser performance characteristics are on the level of the laser modules commonly used with BOTDA. The use of a laser source operating two frequencies strongly locked through the Brillouin resonance simplifies the BOTDA system, avoiding the use of a broadband electrooptical modulator (EOM) and high-frequency electronics. Here, in a direct comparison with the commercial BOTDA, we explore the capacity of our low-cost solution for BOTDA sensing, demonstrating distributed measurements of the Brillouin frequency shift in a 10 km sensing fiber with a 1.5 m spatial resolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in Russia 2021-2022)
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17 pages, 5579 KiB  
Article
Speckle-Based Sensing of Microscopic Dynamics in Expanding Polymer Foams: Application of the Stacked Speckle History Technique
by Dmitry Zimnyakov, Marina Alonova, Ekaterina Ushakova, Sergey Volchkov, Olga Ushakova, Daniil Klimov, Ilya Slavnetskov and Anna Kalacheva
Sensors 2021, 21(20), 6701; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21206701 - 09 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1414
Abstract
Microscopic structural rearrangements in expanding polylactide foams were probed using multiple dynamic scattering of laser radiation in the foam volume. Formation and subsequent expansion of polylactide foams was provided by a rapid or slow depressurization of the “plasticized polylactide–supercritical carbon dioxide” system. Dynamic [...] Read more.
Microscopic structural rearrangements in expanding polylactide foams were probed using multiple dynamic scattering of laser radiation in the foam volume. Formation and subsequent expansion of polylactide foams was provided by a rapid or slow depressurization of the “plasticized polylactide–supercritical carbon dioxide” system. Dynamic speckles induced by a multiple scattering of laser radiation in the expanding foam were analyzed using the stacked speckle history technique, which is based on a joint mapping of spatial–temporal dynamics of evolving speckle patterns. A significant decrease in the depressurization rate in the case of transition from a rapid to slow foaming (from 0.03 MPa/s to 0.006 MPa/s) causes dramatic changes in the texture of the synthesized stacked speckle history maps. These changes are associated with transition from the boiling dynamics of time-varying speckles to their pronounced translational motions and are manifested as significant slopes of individual speckle traces on the recovered stacked speckle history maps. This feature is interpreted in terms of the actual absence of a new cell nucleation effect in the expanding foam upon slow depressurization on the dynamic scattering of laser radiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in Russia 2021-2022)
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20 pages, 7152 KiB  
Article
Diffractive Sensor Elements for Registration of Long-Term Instability at Writing of Computer-Generated Holograms
by Ruslan V. Shimansky, Dmitrij A. Belousov, Victor P. Korolkov and Roman I. Kuts
Sensors 2021, 21(19), 6635; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21196635 - 06 Oct 2021
Viewed by 2155
Abstract
The research and development of methods using of the specialized diffractive microstructure sensors embedded in the pattern of computer-generated holograms (CGH) manufactured on circular and X-Y laser writing systems is discussed. These microstructures consist of two parts: one of which is written before [...] Read more.
The research and development of methods using of the specialized diffractive microstructure sensors embedded in the pattern of computer-generated holograms (CGH) manufactured on circular and X-Y laser writing systems is discussed. These microstructures consist of two parts: one of which is written before the CGH in the field of future hologram and the second one is written during the long-term writing of the CGH. The shift between the first and second part of the microstructure is the trace of the writing errors and allows one to determine and calculate the error of CGH fabrication along both orthogonal coordinates. The developed method is based on the principle of diffraction-based overlay with 1D and 2D built-in diffractive microstructure-sensors. Mathematical modeling and results of experimental test writings of such diffractive microstructure sensors are described. The efficiency of using these types of build-in sensors for the writing errors estimation for CGHs is demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in Russia 2021-2022)
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16 pages, 6767 KiB  
Article
Spin-Orbital Conversion of a Strongly Focused Light Wave with High-Order Cylindrical–Circular Polarization
by Victor V. Kotlyar, Sergey S. Stafeev, Elena S. Kozlova and Anton G. Nalimov
Sensors 2021, 21(19), 6424; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21196424 - 26 Sep 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1854
Abstract
We discuss interesting effects that occur when strongly focusing light with mth-order cylindrical–circular polarization. This type of hybrid polarization combines properties of the mth-order cylindrical polarization and circular polarization. Reluing on the Richards-Wolf formalism, we deduce analytical expressions that [...] Read more.
We discuss interesting effects that occur when strongly focusing light with mth-order cylindrical–circular polarization. This type of hybrid polarization combines properties of the mth-order cylindrical polarization and circular polarization. Reluing on the Richards-Wolf formalism, we deduce analytical expressions that describe E- and H-vector components, intensity patterns, and projections of the Poynting vector and spin angular momentum (SAM) vector at the strong focus. The intensity of light in the strong focus is theoretically and numerically shown to have an even number of local maxima located along a closed contour centered at an on-axis point of zero intensity. We show that light generates 4m vortices of a transverse energy flow, with their centers located between the local intensity maxima. The transverse energy flow is also shown to change its handedness an even number of times proportional to the order of the optical vortex via a full circle around the optical axis. It is interesting that the longitudinal SAM projection changes its sign at the focus 4m times. The longitudinal SAM component is found to be positive, and the polarization vector is shown to rotate anticlockwise in the focal spot regions where the transverse energy flow rotates anticlockwise, and vice versa—the longitudinal SAM component is negative and the polarization vector rotates clockwise in the focal spot regions where the transverse energy flow rotates clockwise. This spatial separation at the focus of left and right circularly polarized light is a manifestation of the optical spin Hall effect. The results obtained in terms of controlling the intensity maxima allow the transverse mode analysis of laser beams in sensorial applications. For a demonstration of the proposed application, the metalens is calculated, which can be a prototype for an optical microsensor based on sharp focusing for measuring roughness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in Russia 2021-2022)
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13 pages, 3142 KiB  
Article
Peculiarities and Applications of Stochastic Processes with Fractal Properties
by Oleg Semenovich Amosov and Svetlana Gennadievna Amosova
Sensors 2021, 21(17), 5960; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21175960 - 05 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1826
Abstract
In this paper, the fractal properties of stochastic processes and objects in different areas were specified and investigated. These included: measuring systems and sensors, navigation and motion controls, telecommunication systems and networks, and flaw detection technologies. Additional options that occur through the use [...] Read more.
In this paper, the fractal properties of stochastic processes and objects in different areas were specified and investigated. These included: measuring systems and sensors, navigation and motion controls, telecommunication systems and networks, and flaw detection technologies. Additional options that occur through the use of fractality were also indicated and exemplified for each application. Regarding the problems associated with navigation information processing, the following fractal nature processes were identified: errors of inertial sensors based on the microelectromechanical systems called MEMS, in particular gyroscopic drift and accelerometer bias, and; the trajectory movement of mobile objects. With regard to navigation problems specifically, the estimation problem statement and its solution are given by way of the Bayesian approach for processing fractal processes. The modified index of self-similarity for telecommunication series was proposed, and the self-similarity of network traffic based on the R/S method and wavelet analysis was identified. In failure detection, fractality manifested as porosity, wrinkles, surface fractures, and ultrasonic echo signals measured using non-destructive sensors used for rivet compound testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in Russia 2021-2022)
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13 pages, 3417 KiB  
Communication
Minimal Focal Spot Size Measured Based on Intensity and Power Flow
by Victor V. Kotlyar, Sergey S. Stafeev and Vladislav D. Zaitsev
Sensors 2021, 21(16), 5505; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21165505 - 16 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1682
Abstract
It is shown, theoretically and numerically, that the distributions of the longitudinal energy flow for tightly focused light with circular and linear polarization are the same, and that the spot has circular symmetry. It is also shown that the longitudinal energy flows are [...] Read more.
It is shown, theoretically and numerically, that the distributions of the longitudinal energy flow for tightly focused light with circular and linear polarization are the same, and that the spot has circular symmetry. It is also shown that the longitudinal energy flows are equal for optical vortices with unit topological charge and with radial or azimuthal polarization. The focal spot has a minimum diameter (all other characteristics being equal), which is measured based on the intensity of an optical vortex with azimuthal polarization. The diameter of the focal spot calculated from the energy flow for light with circular or linear polarization is slightly larger (by a fraction of a percentage). The magnitude of the diameter based on the intensity plays a role in the interaction of light with matter, and the magnitude of the diameter based on the energy flux affects the resolution in optical microscopy which is crucial in sensorial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in Russia 2021-2022)
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10 pages, 2084 KiB  
Communication
Reconstruction of the Image Metric of Periodic Structures in an Opto-Digital Angle Measurement System
by Alexander N. Korolev, Alexander Ya. Lukin, Yurii V. Filatov and Vladimir Yu. Venediktov
Sensors 2021, 21(13), 4411; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134411 - 27 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1721
Abstract
Measurement of the object angular position and its change is one of the important tasks in measurement technique. Our method is based on determination of the angular position of a 2D periodical optical pattern (2D mark) at the object, captured by the sensor [...] Read more.
Measurement of the object angular position and its change is one of the important tasks in measurement technique. Our method is based on determination of the angular position of a 2D periodical optical pattern (2D mark) at the object, captured by the sensor of a digital camera. System performance can be frustrated by errors in determination of the spot coordinates on the camera sensor; by the presence of lens aberrations; by deviations from the parallelism of the pattern planes and the camera sensor; and by differences between the actual spots positions and the ideal grid. In the paper we discuss the effect of these errors and the way to correct or eliminate them. We have developed the mathematical routine and the corresponding numerical codes for correction of the said errors. The code and the routine we checked in a real experiment. It has shown that the correction decreases the standard deviation in 15 times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in Russia 2021-2022)
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