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Potentiometric Bio/Chemical Sensing

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019) | Viewed by 50378

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Materials Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Interests: semiconductor device; biosensing; bioelectronics; biochip

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recently, field-effect transistor (FET) biosensors have attracted global attention in the field of biosensor technology. An ion-sensitive FET (ISFET) has been commonly used as the basic structure of ion sensors and potentiometric biosensors, with various semiconducting materials being used as the channel, including both inorganic and organic materials (i.e., Si, GaAs, nanotube, and 2D materials). A platform based on the FET biosensors is suitable for a simple, miniaturized, and cost-effective system in the field of clinical diagnostics and pharmaceutical discovery.

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide the latest developments in the potentiometric bio/chemical sensor devices, such as FET biosensors, for personalized medicine and healthcare applications. In particular, various materials are being used as the channel of FET for biosensing, and a solution/gate interface is functionalized for the enhancement of the biosensing performance. Therefore, we welcome scientific work in the development of novel materials for sensors and biointerfaces for potentiometric bio/chemical sensing.

Potential topics and keywords are as follows:

  • - Ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (FET)
  • - Ion-selective electrode (ISE)
  • - Electrochemical sensor
  • - Potentiometric bio/chemical sensing
  • - Flexible and stretchable devices for bio/chemical sensing
  • - Application of nanowire, nanotube, and 2D materials for bio/chemical sensing
  • - Biointerface for electrical bio/chemical sensing
  • - Surface modification method for bio/chemical sensing
  • - Simulation of ionic behaviors at bio/electrode interface
  • - New devices for electrobiology

Prof. Toshiya Sakata
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 3440 KiB  
Article
A New Calibration Circuit Design to Reduce Drift Effect of RuO2 Urea Biosensors
by Po-Yu Kuo and Zhe-Xin Dong
Sensors 2019, 19(20), 4558; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204558 - 20 Oct 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3482
Abstract
The goal of this study was to reduce the drift effect of RuO2 urea biosensors. A new calibration circuit (NCC) based on the voltage regulation technique with the advantage of having a simple structure was presented. To keep its simplicity, the proposed [...] Read more.
The goal of this study was to reduce the drift effect of RuO2 urea biosensors. A new calibration circuit (NCC) based on the voltage regulation technique with the advantage of having a simple structure was presented. To keep its simplicity, the proposed NCC was composed of a non-inverting amplifier and a voltage calibrating circuit. A ruthenium oxide (RuO2) urea biosensor was fabricated to test the calibrating characteristics of the drift rate of the proposed NCC. The experiment performed in this study was divided into two main stages. For the first stage, a sound RuO2 urea biosensor testing environment was set-up. The RuO2 urea sensing film was immersed in the urea solution for 12 h and the response voltage was measured using the voltage-time (V–T) measurement system and the proposed NCC. The results of the first stage showed that the RuO2 urea biosensor has an average sensitivity of 1.860 mV/(mg/dL) and has a linearity of 0.999 which means that the RuO2 urea biosensor had been well fabricated. The second stage of the experiment verified the proposed NCC’s functions, and the results indicated that the proposed NCC reduced the drift rate of RuO2 urea biosensor to 0.02 mV/hr (98.77% reduction). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potentiometric Bio/Chemical Sensing)
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10 pages, 2641 KiB  
Article
Solvent Treatment of Wet-Spun PEDOT: PSS Fibers for Fiber-Based Wearable pH Sensing
by Daniel O. Reid, Rachel E. Smith, Jose Garcia-Torres, John F. Watts and Carol Crean
Sensors 2019, 19(19), 4213; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19194213 - 28 Sep 2019
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3908
Abstract
There is a growing desire for wearable sensors in health applications. Fibers are inherently flexible and as such can be used as the electrodes of flexible sensors. Fiber-based electrodes are an ideal format to allow incorporation into fabrics and clothing and for use [...] Read more.
There is a growing desire for wearable sensors in health applications. Fibers are inherently flexible and as such can be used as the electrodes of flexible sensors. Fiber-based electrodes are an ideal format to allow incorporation into fabrics and clothing and for use in wearable devices. Electrically conducting fibers were produced from a dispersion of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS). Fibers were wet spun from two PEDOT: PSS sources, in three fiber diameters. The effect of three different chemical treatments on the fibers were investigated and compared. Short 5 min treatment times with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on 20 μm fibers produced from Clevios PH1000 were found to produce the best overall treatment. Up to a six-fold increase in electrical conductivity was achieved, reaching 800 S cm−1, with no loss of mechanical strength (150 MPa). With a pH-sensitive polyaniline coating, these fibers displayed a Nernstian response across a pH range of 3.0 to 7.0, which covers the physiologically critical pH range for skin. These results provide opportunities for future wearable, fiber-based sensors including real-time, on-body pH sensing to monitor skin disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potentiometric Bio/Chemical Sensing)
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10 pages, 1556 KiB  
Article
Detection of Cu2+ Ions with GGH Peptide Realized with Si-Nanoribbon ISFET
by Olena Synhaivska, Yves Mermoud, Masoud Baghernejad, Israel Alshanski, Mattan Hurevich, Shlomo Yitzchaik, Mathias Wipf and Michel Calame
Sensors 2019, 19(18), 4022; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19184022 - 18 Sep 2019
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 5086
Abstract
The presence of heavy metal ions such as copper in the human body at certain concentrations and specific conditions can lead to the development of different diseases. The currently available analytical detection methods remain expensive, time-consuming, and often require sample pre-treatment. The development [...] Read more.
The presence of heavy metal ions such as copper in the human body at certain concentrations and specific conditions can lead to the development of different diseases. The currently available analytical detection methods remain expensive, time-consuming, and often require sample pre-treatment. The development of specific and quantitative, easy-in-operation, and cost-effective devices, capable of monitoring the level of Cu2+ ions in environmental and physiological media, is necessary. We use silicon nanoribbon (SiNR) ion-sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) devices modified with a Gly–Gly–His peptide for the detection of copper ions in a large concentration range. The specific binding of copper ions causes a conformational change of the ligand, and a deprotonation of secondary amine groups. By performing differential measurements, we gain a deeper insight into the details of the ion–ligand interaction. We highlight in particular the importance of considering non-specific interactions to explain the sensors’ response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potentiometric Bio/Chemical Sensing)
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9 pages, 1720 KiB  
Article
Molecular-Charge-Contact-Based Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor Sensor in Microfluidic System for Protein Sensing
by Haoyue Yang and Toshiya Sakata
Sensors 2019, 19(15), 3393; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19153393 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3745
Abstract
In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility of direct protein sensing beyond the Debye length limit using a molecular-charge-contact (MCC)-based ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) sensor combined with a microfluidic device. Different from the MCC method previously reported, biotin-coated magnetic beads are set on [...] Read more.
In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility of direct protein sensing beyond the Debye length limit using a molecular-charge-contact (MCC)-based ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) sensor combined with a microfluidic device. Different from the MCC method previously reported, biotin-coated magnetic beads are set on the gate insulator of an ISFET using a button magnet before the injection of target molecules such as streptavidin. Then, the streptavidin—a biotin interaction, used as a model of antigen—antibody reaction is expected at the magnetic beads/gate insulator nanogap interface, changing the pH at the solution/dielectric interface owing to the weak acidity of streptavidin. In addition, the effect of the pH or ionic strength of the measurement solutions on the electrical signals of the MCC-based ISFET sensor is investigated. Furthermore, bound/free (B/F) molecule separation with a microfluidic device is very important to obtain an actual electrical signal based on the streptavidin–biotin interaction. Platforms based on the MCC method are suitable for exploiting the advantages of ISFETs as pH sensors, that is, direct monitoring systems for antigen–antibody reactions in the field of in vitro diagnostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potentiometric Bio/Chemical Sensing)
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11 pages, 2553 KiB  
Article
The Analysis of the Urea Biosensors Using Different Sensing Matrices via Wireless Measurement System & Microfluidic Measurement System
by Jung-Chuan Chou, Cian-Yi Wu, Si-Hong Lin, Po-Yu Kuo, Chih-Hsien Lai, Yu-Hsun Nien, You-Xiang Wu and Tsu-Yang Lai
Sensors 2019, 19(13), 3004; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19133004 - 08 Jul 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5149
Abstract
Two types of urea biosensors were integrated with a wireless measurement system and microfluidic measurement system. The two biosensors used were (i) a magnetic beads (MBs)-urease/graphene oxide (GO)/titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based biosensor and (ii) an MBs-urease/GO/ nickel oxide (NiO)-based biosensor, respectively. The [...] Read more.
Two types of urea biosensors were integrated with a wireless measurement system and microfluidic measurement system. The two biosensors used were (i) a magnetic beads (MBs)-urease/graphene oxide (GO)/titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based biosensor and (ii) an MBs-urease/GO/ nickel oxide (NiO)-based biosensor, respectively. The wireless measurement system work exhibited the feasibility for the remote detection of urea, but it will require refinement and modification to improve stability and precision. The microchannel fluidic system showed the measurement reliability. The sensing properties of urea biosensors at different flow rates were investigated. From the measurement results, the decay of average sensitivity may be attributed to the induced vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) at the high flow rate. In the aspect of wireless monitoring, the average sensitivity of the urea biosensor based on MBs-urease/GO/NiO was 4.780 mV/(mg/dl) and with the linearity of 0.938. In the aspect of measurement under dynamic conditions, the average sensitivity of the urea biosensor based on MBs-urease/GO/NiO were 5.582 mV/(mg/dl) and with the linearity of 0.959. Both measurements performed NiO was better than TiO2 according to the comparisons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potentiometric Bio/Chemical Sensing)
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12 pages, 6060 KiB  
Article
Fast Procedures for the Electrodeposition of Platinum Nanostructures on Miniaturized Electrodes for Improved Ion Sensing
by Francesca Criscuolo, Irene Taurino, Van Anh Dam, Francky Catthoor, Marcel Zevenbergen, Sandro Carrara and Giovanni De Micheli
Sensors 2019, 19(10), 2260; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19102260 - 16 May 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3828
Abstract
Nanostructured materials have attracted considerable interest over the last few decades to enhance sensing capabilities thanks to their unique properties and large surface area. In particular, noble metal nanostructures offer several advantages including high stability, non-toxicity and excellent electrochemical behaviour. However, in recent [...] Read more.
Nanostructured materials have attracted considerable interest over the last few decades to enhance sensing capabilities thanks to their unique properties and large surface area. In particular, noble metal nanostructures offer several advantages including high stability, non-toxicity and excellent electrochemical behaviour. However, in recent years the great expansion of point-of-care (POC) and wearable systems and the attempt to perform measurements in tiny spaces have also risen the need of increasing sensors miniaturization. Fast constant potential electrodeposition techniques have been proven to be an efficient way to obtain conformal platinum and gold nanostructured layers on macro-electrodes. However, this technique is not effective on micro-electrodes. In this paper, we investigate an alternative one-step deposition technique of platinum nanoflowers on micro-electrodes by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The effective deposition of platinum nanoflowers with similar properties to the ones deposited on macro-electrodes is confirmed by morphological analysis and by the similar roughness factor (~200) and capacitance (~18 μ F/mm 2 ). The electrochemical behaviour of the nanostructured layer is then tested in an solid-contact (SC) L i + -selective micro-electrode and compared to the case of macro-electrodes. The sensor offers Nernstian calibration with same response time (~15 s) and a one-order of magnitude smaller limit of detection (LOD) ( 2.6 × 10 6 ) with respect to the macro-ion-selective sensors (ISE). Finally, sensor reversibility and stability in both wet and dry conditions is proven. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potentiometric Bio/Chemical Sensing)
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15 pages, 2039 KiB  
Article
Instant Mercury Ion Detection in Industrial Waste Water with a Microchip Using Extended Gate Field-Effect Transistors and a Portable Device
by Revathi Sukesan, Yi-Ting Chen, Suman Shahim, Shin-Li Wang, Indu Sarangadharan and Yu-Lin Wang
Sensors 2019, 19(9), 2209; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19092209 - 13 May 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5500
Abstract
Mercury ion selective membrane (Hg-ISM) coated extended gate Field Effect transistors (ISM-FET) were used to manifest a novel methodology for ion-selective sensors based on FET’s, creating ultra-high sensitivity (−36 mV/log [Hg2+]) and outweighing ideal Nernst sensitivity limit (−29.58 mV/log [Hg2+ [...] Read more.
Mercury ion selective membrane (Hg-ISM) coated extended gate Field Effect transistors (ISM-FET) were used to manifest a novel methodology for ion-selective sensors based on FET’s, creating ultra-high sensitivity (−36 mV/log [Hg2+]) and outweighing ideal Nernst sensitivity limit (−29.58 mV/log [Hg2+]) for mercury ion. This highly enhanced sensitivity compared with the ion-selective electrode (ISE) (10−7 M) has reduced the limit of detection (10−13 M) of Hg2+ concentration’s magnitude to considerable orders irrespective of the pH of the test solution. Systematical investigation was carried out by modulating sensor design and bias voltage, revealing that higher sensitivity and a lower detection limit can be attained in an adequately stronger electric field. Our sensor has a limit of detection of 10−13 M which is two orders lower than Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), having a limit of detection of 10−11 M. The sensitivity and detection limit do not have axiomatic changes under the presence of high concentrations of interfering ions. The technology offers economic and consumer friendly water quality monitoring options intended for homes, offices and industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potentiometric Bio/Chemical Sensing)
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9 pages, 2611 KiB  
Article
Sperm-Cultured Gate Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor for Non-Optical and Live Monitoring of Sperm Capacitation
by Akiko Saito and Toshiya Sakata
Sensors 2019, 19(8), 1784; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19081784 - 14 Apr 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3528
Abstract
We have successfully monitored the effect of progesterone and Ca2+ on artificially induced sperm capacitation in a real-time, noninvasive and label-free manner using an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) sensor. The sperm activity can be electrically detected as a change in pH generated [...] Read more.
We have successfully monitored the effect of progesterone and Ca2+ on artificially induced sperm capacitation in a real-time, noninvasive and label-free manner using an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) sensor. The sperm activity can be electrically detected as a change in pH generated by sperm respiration based on the principle of the ISFET sensor. Upon adding mouse sperm to the gate of the ISFET sensor in the culture medium with progesterone, the pH decreases with an increasing concentration of progesterone from 1 to 40 μM. This is because progesterone induces Ca2+ influx into spermatozoa and triggers multiple Ca2+-dependent physiological responses, which subsequently activates sperm respiration. Moreover, this pH response of the ISFET sensor is not observed for a Ca2+-free medium even when progesterone is introduced, which means that Ca2+ influx is necessary for sperm activation that results in sperm capacitation. Thus, a platform based on the ISFET sensor system can provide a simple method of evaluating artificially induced sperm capacitation in the field of male infertility treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potentiometric Bio/Chemical Sensing)
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Review

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32 pages, 5591 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Electric-Double-Layer Transistors for Bio-Chemical Sensing Applications
by Ning Liu, Ru Chen and Qing Wan
Sensors 2019, 19(15), 3425; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19153425 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 15407
Abstract
As promising biochemical sensors, ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) are used widely in the growing field of biochemical sensing applications. Recently, a new type of field-effect transistor gated by ionic electrolytes has attracted intense attention due to the extremely strong electric-double-layer (EDL) gating effect. [...] Read more.
As promising biochemical sensors, ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) are used widely in the growing field of biochemical sensing applications. Recently, a new type of field-effect transistor gated by ionic electrolytes has attracted intense attention due to the extremely strong electric-double-layer (EDL) gating effect. In such devices, the carrier density of the semiconductor channel can be effectively modulated by an ion-induced EDL capacitance at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface. With advantages of large specific capacitance, low operating voltage and sensitive interfacial properties, various EDL-based transistor (EDLT) devices have been developed for ultrasensitive portable sensing applications. In this article, we will review the recent progress of EDLT-based biochemical sensors. Starting with a brief introduction of the concepts of EDL capacitance and EDLT, we describe the material compositions and the working principle of EDLT devices. Moreover, the biochemical sensing performances of several important EDLTs are discussed in detail, including organic-based EDLTs, oxide-based EDLTs, nanomaterial-based EDLTs and neuromorphic EDLTs. Finally, the main challenges and development prospects of EDLT-based biochemical sensors are listed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potentiometric Bio/Chemical Sensing)
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