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Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 2018 IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for the Sea"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2019).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Attilio Di Nisio
Website
Guest Editor
Dept. of Electrical and Information Engineering, Polytechnic University of Bari, Italy
Interests: monitoring systems; wireless sensor networks; image processing; estimation theory; DSP-based systems for power quality analysis; A/D and D/A converters modeling and testing
Dr. Francesco Picariello

Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 2018 IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for the Sea (http://www.metrosea.org/) will be held in Bari, Italy, 8–10 October, 2018

MetroSea aims to gather people who work in the development of instrumentation and measurement methods for the sea. Attention is paid, but not limited to, new technology for sea environment monitoring, metrology-assisted production in the sea industry, ship component measurement, sensors and associated signal conditioning for the sea, and calibration methods for electronic tests and measurements for marine applications.

Topics:

  • Electronic instrumentation for the sea
  • Automatic test equipment for the sea
  • Sensors and sensor sensing systems for sea applications
  • Wireless sensor networks for marine applications
  • Monitoring systems for the sea
  • Metrology for navigation and precise positioning
  • Measurements for submarine obstacle detection
  • Underwater vehicle for exploration
  • Pollution detection for reclamation
  • Submarine infrastructure maintenance and reliability
  • Signal and image processing
  • Metrology and quality assurance for submarine soldering
  • Weather forecasting and nowcasting for maritime navigation
  • Measures for Marine Biology
  • Measures for Marine Geology

Important Dates:

  • June 30, 2018 - Special Session Proposal
  • July 10, 2018 - Extended Abstract Submission Deadline
  • August 20, 2018 - Notification of Acceptance
  • September 15, 2018 - Final Paper Submission Deadline

Authors of papers related to sensors presented at the workshop are invited to submit extended versions of their work to this Special Issue for publication.

Dr. Attilio Di Nisio


Dr. Francesco Picariello
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The AMERIGO Lander and the Automatic Benthic Chamber (CBA): Two New Instruments to Measure Benthic Fluxes of Dissolved Chemical Species
Sensors 2019, 19(11), 2632; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19112632 - 10 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Marine environments are currently subject to strong ecological pressure due to local and global anthropic stressors, such as pollutants and atmospheric inputs, which also cause ocean acidification and warming. These strains can result in biogeochemical cycle variations, environmental pollution, and changes in benthic-pelagic [...] Read more.
Marine environments are currently subject to strong ecological pressure due to local and global anthropic stressors, such as pollutants and atmospheric inputs, which also cause ocean acidification and warming. These strains can result in biogeochemical cycle variations, environmental pollution, and changes in benthic-pelagic coupling processes. Two new devices, the Amerigo Lander and the Automatic Benthic Chamber (CBA), have been developed to measure the fluxes of dissolved chemical species between sediment and the water column, to assess the biogeochemical cycle and benthic-pelagic coupling alterations due to human activities. The Amerigo Lander can operate in shallow as well as deep water (up to 6000 m), whereas the CBA has been developed for the continental shelf (up to 200 m). The lander can also be used to deploy a range of instruments on the seafloor, to study the benthic ecosystems. The two devices have successfully been tested in a variety of research tasks and environmental impact assessments in shallow and deep waters. Their measured flux data show good agreement and are also consistent with previous data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Estimation of Wave Characteristics Based on Global Navigation Satellite System Data Installed on Board Sailboats
Sensors 2019, 19(10), 2295; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19102295 - 17 May 2019
Abstract
This paper illustrates a methodology to get a reliable estimation of the local wave properties, based on the reconstruction of the motion of a moving sailboat by means of GNSS receivers installed on board and an original kinematic positioning approach. The wave parameters [...] Read more.
This paper illustrates a methodology to get a reliable estimation of the local wave properties, based on the reconstruction of the motion of a moving sailboat by means of GNSS receivers installed on board and an original kinematic positioning approach. The wave parameters reconstruction may be used for many useful practical purposes, e.g., to improve of autopilots, for real-time control systems of ships, to analyze and improve the performance of race sailboats, and to estimate the local properties of the waves. A Class 40 oceanic vessel (ECO40) left from the port of “Riva di Traiano” located close to Rome (Italy) on 19 October 2014 to perform a non-stop sailing alone around the world in energy and food self-sufficiency. The proposed system was installed on ECO40 and the proposed method was applied to estimate the wave properties during a storm in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The results compared against two sets of hindcast data and wave buoy records demonstrated the reliability of the method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Hyperspectral Imaging to Underwater Habitat Mapping, Southern Adriatic Sea
Sensors 2019, 19(10), 2261; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19102261 - 16 May 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Hyperspectral imagers enable the collection of high-resolution spectral images exploitable for the supervised classification of habitats and objects of interest (OOI). Although this is a well-established technology for the study of subaerial environments, Ecotone AS has developed an underwater hyperspectral imager (UHI) system [...] Read more.
Hyperspectral imagers enable the collection of high-resolution spectral images exploitable for the supervised classification of habitats and objects of interest (OOI). Although this is a well-established technology for the study of subaerial environments, Ecotone AS has developed an underwater hyperspectral imager (UHI) system to explore the properties of the seafloor. The aim of the project is to evaluate the potential of this instrument for mapping and monitoring benthic habitats in shallow and deep-water environments. For the first time, we tested this system at two sites in the Southern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea): the cold-water coral (CWC) habitat in the Bari Canyon and the Coralligenous habitat off Brindisi. We created a spectral library for each site, considering the different substrates and the main OOI reaching, where possible, the lower taxonomic rank. We applied the spectral angle mapper (SAM) supervised classification to map the areal extent of the Coralligenous and to recognize the major CWC habitat-formers. Despite some technical problems, the first results demonstrate the suitability of the UHI camera for habitat mapping and seabed monitoring, through the achievement of quantifiable and repeatable classifications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Towards Non-Invasive Methods to Assess Population Structure and Biomass in Vulnerable Sea Pen Fields
Sensors 2019, 19(10), 2255; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19102255 - 15 May 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Colonies of the endangered red sea pen Pennatula rubra (Cnidaria: Pennatulacea) sampled by trawling in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea were analyzed. Biometric parameters, such as total length, peduncle length, number of polyp leaves, fresh weight, and dry weight, were measured and related to [...] Read more.
Colonies of the endangered red sea pen Pennatula rubra (Cnidaria: Pennatulacea) sampled by trawling in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea were analyzed. Biometric parameters, such as total length, peduncle length, number of polyp leaves, fresh weight, and dry weight, were measured and related to each other by means of regression analysis. Ad hoc models for future inferencing of colonies size and biomass through visual techniques were individuated in order to allow a non-invasive study of the population structure and dynamics of P. rubra. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring for Coastal Resilience: Preliminary Data from Five Italian Sandy Beaches
Sensors 2019, 19(8), 1854; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19081854 - 18 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Video-monitoring can be exploited as a valuable tool to acquire continuous, high-quality information on the evolution of beach morphology at a low cost and, on such basis, perform beach resilience analyses. This manuscript presents preliminary results of an ongoing, long-term monitoring programme of [...] Read more.
Video-monitoring can be exploited as a valuable tool to acquire continuous, high-quality information on the evolution of beach morphology at a low cost and, on such basis, perform beach resilience analyses. This manuscript presents preliminary results of an ongoing, long-term monitoring programme of five sandy Italian beaches along the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian sea. The project aims at analyzing nearshore morphologic variabilities on a time period of several years, to link them to resilience indicators. The observations indicate that most of the beach width variations can be linked to discrete variations of sandbar systems, and most of all to an offshore migration and decay of the outermost bars. Further, the largest net shoreline displacements across the observation period are experienced by beaches with a clear NOM (Net Offshore Migration)-type evolution of the seabed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High Accuracy Buoyancy for Underwater Gliders: The Uncertainty in the Depth Control
Sensors 2019, 19(8), 1831; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19081831 - 17 Apr 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
This paper is a section of several preliminary studies of the Underwater Drones Group of the Università degli Studi “Roma Tre” Science Department: We describe the study philosophy, the theoretical technological considerations for sizing and the development of a technological demonstrator of a [...] Read more.
This paper is a section of several preliminary studies of the Underwater Drones Group of the Università degli Studi “Roma Tre” Science Department: We describe the study philosophy, the theoretical technological considerations for sizing and the development of a technological demonstrator of a high accuracy buoyancy and depth control. We develop the main requirements and the boundary conditions that design the buoyancy system and develop the mathematical conditions that define the main parameters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Setup and Measuring System to Study Solitary Wave Interaction with Rigid Emergent Vegetation
Sensors 2019, 19(8), 1787; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19081787 - 14 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The aim of this study is to present a peculiar experimental setup, designed to investigate the interaction between solitary waves and rigid emergent vegetation. Flow rate changes due to the opening and closing of a software-controlled electro-valve generate a solitary wave. The complexity [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to present a peculiar experimental setup, designed to investigate the interaction between solitary waves and rigid emergent vegetation. Flow rate changes due to the opening and closing of a software-controlled electro-valve generate a solitary wave. The complexity of the problem required the combined use of different measurement systems of water level and velocity. Preliminary results of the experimental investigation, which allow us to point out the effect of the vegetation on the propagation of a solitary wave and the effectiveness of the measuring system, are also presented. In particular, water level and velocity field changes due to the interaction of the wave with rigid vegetation are investigated in detail. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Signal in Space Error and Ephemeris Validity Time Evaluation of Milena and Doresa Galileo Satellites
Sensors 2019, 19(8), 1786; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19081786 - 14 Apr 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
In August 2016, Milena (E14) and Doresa (E18) satellites started to broadcast ephemeris in navigation message for testing purposes. If these satellites could be used, an improvement in the position accuracy would be achieved. A small error in the ephemeris would impact the [...] Read more.
In August 2016, Milena (E14) and Doresa (E18) satellites started to broadcast ephemeris in navigation message for testing purposes. If these satellites could be used, an improvement in the position accuracy would be achieved. A small error in the ephemeris would impact the accuracy of positioning up to ±2.5 m, thus orbit error must be assessed. The ephemeris quality was evaluated by calculating the SISEorbit (in orbit Signal In Space Error) using six different ephemeris validity time thresholds (14,400 s, 10,800 s, 7200 s, 3600 s, 1800 s, and 900 s). Two different periods of 2018 were analyzed by using IGS products: DOYs 52–71 and DOYs 172–191. For the first period, two different types of ephemeris were used: those received in IGS YEL2 station and the BRDM ones. Milena (E14) and Doresa (E18) satellites show a higher SISEorbit than the others. If validity time is reduced, the SISEorbit RMS of Milena (E14) and Doresa (E18) greatly decreases differently from the other satellites, for which the improvement, although present, is small. Milena (E14) and Doresa (E18) reach a SISEorbit RMS of about 1 m (comparable to that of the other Galileo satellites reach with the nominal validity time) when validity time of 1800 s is used. Therefore, using this threshold, the two satellites could be used to improve single point positioning accuracy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
New Approach to Analysis of Selected Measurement and Monitoring Systems Solutions in Ship Technology
Sensors 2019, 19(8), 1775; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19081775 - 13 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
This paper is dedicated to certain types of measurement in ship systems, analyzed based on selected case studies. In the introductory part, a simplified structure of a modern cargo ship as an object of measurement and control is presented. Next, the role of [...] Read more.
This paper is dedicated to certain types of measurement in ship systems, analyzed based on selected case studies. In the introductory part, a simplified structure of a modern cargo ship as an object of measurement and control is presented. Next, the role of measurement in the ship’s operation process is described and commented on, with focus on specifics of local and remote control, both manual and automatic. The key part of the paper is dedicated to a short overview of selected examples of measuring and monitoring systems. The basic criteria for the aforementioned selection are the vital role of the considered systems for safe and effective ship operation as well as documented innovative contribution of Gdynia Maritime University (GMU) in development of the state-of-the-art in the analysed area of measurement. Based on these criteria, the monitoring of operational parameters of main engine and temperature measurement in the ships hazardous areas have been chosen. The aforementioned measurement and monitoring systems are analysed, taking into account both innovation of technical solutions together with their ship technology environment conditions and related legal requirements. Finally, some concluding remarks are formulated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring Systems and Numerical Models to Study Coastal Sites
Sensors 2019, 19(7), 1552; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19071552 - 30 Mar 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The present work aims at illustrating how the joint use of monitoring data and numerical models can be beneficial in understanding coastal processes. In the first part, we show and discuss an annual dataset provided by a monitoring system installed in a vulnerable [...] Read more.
The present work aims at illustrating how the joint use of monitoring data and numerical models can be beneficial in understanding coastal processes. In the first part, we show and discuss an annual dataset provided by a monitoring system installed in a vulnerable coastal basin located in Southern Italy, subjected to human and industrial pressures. The collected data have been processed and analysed to detect the temporal evolution of the most representative parameters of the inspected site and have been compared with recordings from previous years to investigate recursive trends. In the second part, to demonstrate to what extent such type of monitoring actions is necessary and useful, the same data have been used to calibrate and run a 3D hydrodynamic model. After this, a reliable circulation pattern in the basin has been reproduced. Successively, an oil pollution transport model has been added to the hydrodynamic model, with the aim to present the response of the basin to some hypothetical cases of oil spills, caused by a ship failure. It is evident that the profitable prediction of the hydrodynamic processes and the transport and dispersion of contaminants strictly depends on the quality and reliability of the input data as well as on the calibration made. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Combined Approach of Field Data and Earth Observation for Coastal Risk Assessment
Sensors 2019, 19(6), 1399; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19061399 - 21 Mar 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
The traditional approach for coastal monitoring consists in ground investigations that are burdensome both in terms of logistics and costs, on a national or even regional scale. Earth Observation (EO) techniques can represent a cost-effective alternative for a wide scale coastal monitoring. Thanks [...] Read more.
The traditional approach for coastal monitoring consists in ground investigations that are burdensome both in terms of logistics and costs, on a national or even regional scale. Earth Observation (EO) techniques can represent a cost-effective alternative for a wide scale coastal monitoring. Thanks to the all-weather day/night radar imaging capability and to the nationwide acquisition plan named MapItaly, devised by the Italian Space Agency and active since 2010, COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) constellation is able to provide X-band images covering the Italian territory. However, any remote sensing approach must be accurately calibrated and corrected taking into account the marine conditions. Therefore, in situ data are essential for proper EO data selection, geocoding, tidal corrections and validation of EO products. A combined semi-automatic technique for coastal risk assessment and monitoring, named COSMO-Beach, is presented here, integrating ground truths with EO data, as well as its application on two different test sites in Apulia Region (South Italy). The research has shown that CSK data for coastal monitoring ensure a shoreline detection accuracy lower than image pixel resolution, and also providing several advantages: low-cost data, a short revisit period, operational continuity and a low computational time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of the Maritime Signaling System in the Lagoon of Venice
Sensors 2019, 19(5), 1216; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19051216 - 10 Mar 2019
Abstract
Aids to Navigation (AtoN) are auxiliary devices intended to support maritime navigation. They include both traditional signals (e.g., buoys and lights) and electronic aids, as for example those transmitted to ships through automatic tracking systems. In both cases, international organizations together with local [...] Read more.
Aids to Navigation (AtoN) are auxiliary devices intended to support maritime navigation. They include both traditional signals (e.g., buoys and lights) and electronic aids, as for example those transmitted to ships through automatic tracking systems. In both cases, international organizations together with local authorities define technical specifications and standards on their use. Work still being finalized in the Venetian Lagoon made it necessary an assessment of the existing signaling system to guarantee the maximum level of safety in the waterways. Considering the severe atmospheric conditions to which the Lagoon is frequently subjected and the bathymetry restrictions affecting the navigation, an alternative aid system has been formalized for the first time in Italy. It is based on electronic and identification devices employed to virtualize the AtoN that will not be located at sea but only remotely identified by their coded messages, thus guaranteeing the continuity of port operations in any visibility conditions. This paper presents the procedures followed to reach a solution in line with the safety and efficiency standards given for the AtoN systems, considering position and luminous characteristics of physical signals in the first case, theoretical and statistical studies on Virtual AIS AtoN placement in the second case. Full article
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