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Special Issue "Microwave and RF Biosensors"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 April 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Nam-Young Kim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
RFIC Lab, Department of Electronic Engineering, Kwangwoon University, 01897 Seoul, Korea
Interests: microwave and RF biosensors; microwave biosensing platform; RF integrated circuits (RFICs); RF nano device; RF gas sensor; RF humidity sensor; microwave passive and active biosensing devices
Dr. Daniel Eun-Seong Kim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
RFIC Lab, Department of Electronic Engineering, Kwangwoon University, 01897 Seoul, Korea
Interests: microwave biosensor and humidity sensor; integrated passive devices (IPDs); LED and RFIC packaging; microwave gas sensor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will focus on noble results in microwave and RF biosensors, biosensing device application, biosensing platforms, etc. Microwave and RF biosensors and bio devices of biological solutions, which have been investigated for several decades though different biosensing applications, are crucial to future biosensor research. Scopes are related to experimental and theortical research in microwave and RF biosensors, microwave and RF biosensor devices, microwave passive and active biosensor devices, microwave and RF biosensor platforms, microwave and RF biosensing applications, hybrid RFIC applications for biosensors, and MMIC applications for biosensor.

Prof. Nam-Young Kim
Dr. Daniel Eun-Seong Kim
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Microwave and RF biosensors
  • Microwave passive and active biosensors
  • Microwave and RF biosensor platforms
  • Microwave and RF biosensor applications
  • Microwave and RF biosensor simulations
  • Microwave and RF biosensor measurements
  • Hybrid RFIC applications for biosensors
  • MMIC applications for biosensors

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
High-Sensitivity, Quantified, Linear and Mediator-Free Resonator-Based Microwave Biosensor for Glucose Detection
Sensors 2020, 20(14), 4024; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20144024 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 793
Abstract
This article presents a high-sensitivity, quantified, linear, and mediator-free resonator-based microwave biosensor for glucose sensing application. The proposed biosensor comprises an air-bridge-type asymmetrical differential inductor (L) and a center-loaded circular finger-based inter-digital capacitor (C) fabricated on Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) [...] Read more.
This article presents a high-sensitivity, quantified, linear, and mediator-free resonator-based microwave biosensor for glucose sensing application. The proposed biosensor comprises an air-bridge-type asymmetrical differential inductor (L) and a center-loaded circular finger-based inter-digital capacitor (C) fabricated on Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) substrate using advanced micro-fabrication technology. The intertwined asymmetrical differential inductor is used to achieve a high inductance value with a suitable Q-factor, and the centralized inter-digital capacitor is introduced to generate an intensified electric field. The designed microwave sensor is optimized to operate at a low resonating frequency that increases the electric field penetration depth and interaction area in the glucose sample. The microwave biosensor is tested with different glucose concentrations (0.3–5 mg/ml), under different ambient temperatures (10–50 °C). The involvement of advanced micro-fabrication technology effectively miniaturized the microwave biosensor (0.006λ0 × 0.005λ0) and enhanced its filling factor. The proposed microwave biosensor demonstrates a high sensitivity of 117.5 MHz/mgmL-1 with a linear response (r2 = 0.9987), good amplitude variation of 0.49 dB/mgmL-1 with a linear response (r2 = 0.9954), and maximum reproducibility of 0.78% at 2 mg/mL. Additionally, mathematical modelling was performed to estimate the dielectric value of the frequency-dependent glucose sample. The measured and analyzed results indicate that the proposed biosensor is suitable for real-time blood glucose detection measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave and RF Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
A Microwave Platform for Reliable and Instant Interconnecting Combined with Microwave-Microfluidic Interdigital Capacitor Chips for Sensing Applications
Sensors 2020, 20(6), 1687; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20061687 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 761
Abstract
This work presents a novel platform conceived as an interconnect box (ICB) that brings high-frequency signals from microwave instruments to consumable lab-on-a-chip devices. The ICB can be connected to instruments with a standard coaxial connector and to consumable chips by introducing a spring-levered [...] Read more.
This work presents a novel platform conceived as an interconnect box (ICB) that brings high-frequency signals from microwave instruments to consumable lab-on-a-chip devices. The ICB can be connected to instruments with a standard coaxial connector and to consumable chips by introducing a spring-levered interface with elastomer conductive pins. With the spring-system, microwave-microfluidic chips can be mounted reliably on the setup in a couple of seconds. The high-frequency interface within the ICB is protected from the environment by an enclosure having a single slit for mounting the chip. The stability and repeatability of the contact between the ICB and inserted consumable chips are investigated to prove the reliability of the proposed ICB. Given the rapid interconnecting of chips using the proposed ICB, five different interdigital capacitor (IDC) designs having the same sensing area were investigated for dielectric permittivity extraction of liquids. The designed IDCs, embedded in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel, were fabricated with a lift-off gold patterning technology on a quartz substrate. Water–Isopropanol (IPA) mixtures with different volume fractions were flushed through the channel over IDCs and sensed based on the measured reflection coefficients. Dielectric permittivity was extracted using permittivity extraction techniques, and fitted permittivity data shows good agreement with literature from 100 to 25 GHz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave and RF Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Reusable, Non-Invasive, and Ultrafast Radio Frequency Biosensor Based on Optimized Integrated Passive Device Fabrication Process for Quantitative Detection of Glucose Levels
Sensors 2020, 20(6), 1565; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20061565 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1273
Abstract
The increase in the number of people suffering diabetes has been the driving force behind the development of glucose sensors to overcome the current testing shortcomings. In this work, a reusable, non-invasive and ultrafast radio frequency biosensor based on optimized integrated passive device [...] Read more.
The increase in the number of people suffering diabetes has been the driving force behind the development of glucose sensors to overcome the current testing shortcomings. In this work, a reusable, non-invasive and ultrafast radio frequency biosensor based on optimized integrated passive device fabrication process for quantitative detection of glucose level was developed. With the aid of the novel biosensor design with hammer-shaped capacitors for carrying out detection, both the resonance frequency and magnitude of reflection coefficient can be applied to map the different glucose levels. Meanwhile, the corresponding fabrication process was developed, providing an approach for achieving quantitative detection and a structure without metal-insulator-metal type capacitor that realizes low cost and high reliability. To enhance the sensitivity of biosensor, a 3-min dry etching treatment based on chlorine/argon-based plasma was implemented for realizing hydrophilicity of capacitor surface to ensure that the biosensor can be touched rapidly with glucose. Based on above implementation, a non-invasive biosensor having an ultrafast response time of superior to 0.85 s, ultralow LOD of 8.01 mg/dL and excellent reusability verified through five sets of measurements are realized. The proposed approaches are not limited the development of a stable and accurate platform for the detection of glucose levels but also presents a scheme toward the detection of glucose levels in human serum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave and RF Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging for Burn Wounds Diagnostics
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20030847 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1293
Abstract
The need for technologies to monitor the wound healing under dressing materials has led us to investigate the feasibility of using microwave and millimetre wave radiations due to their sensitivity to water, non- ionising nature, and transparency to dressing materials and clothing. This [...] Read more.
The need for technologies to monitor the wound healing under dressing materials has led us to investigate the feasibility of using microwave and millimetre wave radiations due to their sensitivity to water, non- ionising nature, and transparency to dressing materials and clothing. This paper presents synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images obtained from an active microwave and millimetre wave scanner operating over the band 15–40 GHz. Experimental images obtained from porcine skin samples with the presence of dressing materials and after the application of localised heat treatments reveal that SAR images can be used for diagnosing burns and for potentially monitoring the healing under dressing materials. The experimental images were extracted separately from the amplitude and phase measurements of the input reflection coefficient (S11). The acquired images indicate that skin and burns can be detected and observed through dressing materials as well as features of the skin such as edges, irregularities, bends, burns, and variation in the reflectance of the skin. These unique findings enable a microwave and millimetre-wave scanner to be used for evaluating the wound healing progress under dressing materials without their often-painful removal: a capability that will reduce the cost of healthcare, distress caused by long waiting hours, and the healthcare interventional time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave and RF Biosensors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Enhancement of Multimodal Microwave-Ultrasound Breast Imaging Using a Deep-Learning Technique
Sensors 2019, 19(18), 4050; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19184050 - 19 Sep 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1387
Abstract
We present a deep learning method used in conjunction with dual-modal microwave-ultrasound imaging to produce tomographic reconstructions of the complex-valued permittivity of numerical breast phantoms. We also assess tumor segmentation performance using the reconstructed permittivity as a feature. The contrast source inversion (CSI) [...] Read more.
We present a deep learning method used in conjunction with dual-modal microwave-ultrasound imaging to produce tomographic reconstructions of the complex-valued permittivity of numerical breast phantoms. We also assess tumor segmentation performance using the reconstructed permittivity as a feature. The contrast source inversion (CSI) technique is used to create the complex-permittivity images of the breast with ultrasound-derived tissue regions utilized as prior information. However, imaging artifacts make the detection of tumors difficult. To overcome this issue we train a convolutional neural network (CNN) that takes in, as input, the dual-modal CSI reconstruction and attempts to produce the true image of the complex tissue permittivity. The neural network consists of successive convolutional and downsampling layers, followed by successive deconvolutional and upsampling layers based on the U-Net architecture. To train the neural network, the input-output pairs consist of CSI’s dual-modal reconstructions, along with the true numerical phantom images from which the microwave scattered field was synthetically generated. The reconstructed permittivity images produced by the CNN show that the network is not only able to remove the artifacts that are typical of CSI reconstructions, but can also improve the detectability of tumors. The performance of the CNN is assessed using a four-fold cross-validation on our dataset that shows improvement over CSI both in terms of reconstruction error and tumor segmentation performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave and RF Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Glucose Concentration Measurement in Human Blood Plasma Solutions with Microwave Sensors
Sensors 2019, 19(17), 3779; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19173779 - 31 Aug 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1971
Abstract
Three microwave sensors are used to track the glucose level of different human blood plasma solutions. In this paper, the sensors are evaluated as glucose trackers in a context close to real human blood. Different plasma solutions sets were prepared from a human [...] Read more.
Three microwave sensors are used to track the glucose level of different human blood plasma solutions. In this paper, the sensors are evaluated as glucose trackers in a context close to real human blood. Different plasma solutions sets were prepared from a human blood sample at several added glucose concentrations up to 10 wt%, adding also ascorbic acid and lactic acid at different concentrations. The experimental results for the different sensors/solutions combinations are presented in this work. The sensors show good performance and linearity as glucose level retrievers, although the sensitivities change as the rest of components vary. Different sensor behaviors depending upon the concentrations of glucose and other components are identified and characterized. The results obtained in terms of sensitivity are coherent with previous works, highlighting the contribution of glucose to the dielectric losses of the solution. The results are also consistent with the frequency evolution of the electromagnetic signature of glucose found in the literature, and are helpful for selecting frequency bands for sensing purposes and envisioning future approaches to the challenging measurement in real biological contexts. Discussion of the implications of the results and guidelines for further research and development of more accurate sensors is offered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave and RF Biosensors)
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