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Article

On the Wireless Microwave Sensing of Bacterial Membrane Potential in Microfluidic-Actuated Platforms

1
Department of Research and Innovation, Fundació Privada Hospital Asil de Granollers, 08402 Granollers, Spain
2
Department of Signal Theory and Communications, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya—BarcelonaTech, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
3
Department of Fluid Mechanics, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya—BarcelonaTech, 08019 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nam-Young Kim and Daniel Eun-Seong Kim
Sensors 2021, 21(10), 3420; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21103420
Received: 11 April 2021 / Revised: 8 May 2021 / Accepted: 12 May 2021 / Published: 14 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave and RF Biosensors)
The investigation of the electromagnetic properties of biological particles in microfluidic platforms may enable microwave wireless monitoring and interaction with the functional activity of microorganisms. Of high relevance are the action and membrane potentials as they are some of the most important parameters of living cells. In particular, the complex mechanisms of a cell’s action potential are comparable to the dynamics of bacterial membranes, and consequently focusing on the latter provides a simplified framework for advancing the current techniques and knowledge of general bacterial dynamics. In this work, we provide a theoretical analysis and experimental results on the microwave detection of microorganisms within a microfluidic-based platform for sensing the membrane potential of bacteria. The results further advance the state of microwave bacteria sensing and microfluidic control and their implications for measuring and interacting with cells and their membrane potentials, which is of great importance for developing new biotechnologically engineered systems and solutions. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacteria; elasto-inertial focusing; microfluidics; microwaves; membrane potential; sensing; shear stress; single cell detection; system-on-a-chip bacteria; elasto-inertial focusing; microfluidics; microwaves; membrane potential; sensing; shear stress; single cell detection; system-on-a-chip
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jofre, M.; Jofre, L.; Jofre-Roca, L. On the Wireless Microwave Sensing of Bacterial Membrane Potential in Microfluidic-Actuated Platforms. Sensors 2021, 21, 3420. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21103420

AMA Style

Jofre M, Jofre L, Jofre-Roca L. On the Wireless Microwave Sensing of Bacterial Membrane Potential in Microfluidic-Actuated Platforms. Sensors. 2021; 21(10):3420. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21103420

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jofre, Marc, Lluís Jofre, and Luis Jofre-Roca. 2021. "On the Wireless Microwave Sensing of Bacterial Membrane Potential in Microfluidic-Actuated Platforms" Sensors 21, no. 10: 3420. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21103420

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