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Special Issue "Millimeter-Wave Antenna Arrays: Design, Challenges, and Applications"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Giulia Buttazzoni

Guest Editor
Department of Engineering and Architecture (DIA), University of Trieste, Via A. Valerio 10, 34127 Trieste, Italy
Interests: antenna array synthesis; sparse arrays; electromagnetic theory and numerical methods; small satellites
Dr. Massimiliano Comisso
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering and Architecture (DIA), University of Trieste, Via A. Valerio 10, 34127 Trieste, Italy
Interests: antenna array synthesis; millimeter-wave communications; small antennas; distributed wireless networks
Prof. Dr. Fulvio Babich
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering and Architecture (DIA), University of Trieste, Via A. Valerio 10, 34127 Trieste, Italy
Interests: millimeter-wave communications; wireless networks; multiple access techniques; channel modeling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The growing interest in the exploitation of the millimeter-wave (mmWave) domain for satisfying the increasing capacity demands of forthcoming spatial and terrestrial wireless systems has raised novel significant challenges to antenna array designers. On the one hand, the possibility to package many elements in a limited space, the need to manage specific propagation and interference conditions, and the expected implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Internet of Everything (IoE) paradigms, require novel processing and synthesis techniques for addressing different practical issues, including massive interference management, ultra-high-gain beam steering, joint polarization, and dynamic range ratio control, as well as feeding networks designed at extremely high frequencies (EHF), and small-antenna prototyping. On the other hand, the significant attenuations that characterize the mmWave propagation environment proposes to extend or rethink well-established channel access strategies, such as Aloha, carrier sensing multiple access (CSMA), and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA), with the purpose of exploiting the directionality of the links for enabling operations in dense network scenarios.

This Special Issue will present a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art multi-antenna solutions for 5G cellular systems, satellite/nanosatellite constellations, drone swarms, and gigabit wireless personal/local area networks (WPANs/WLANs), with the aim of providing novel insights on the design, simulation, implementation, testing, and application of antenna arrays in EHF-based next-generation networks.

Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to the following:

  • MmWave antenna array synthesis
  • Conformal arrays for 5G devices
  • Sparse arrays for mmWave communication
  • K, Ka-band arrays for satellites/nanosatellites
  • EHF antenna arrays for drones
  • MmWave arrays for IoT/IoE wireless sensors
  • Arrays for 60-GHz WPANs/WLANs
  • DoA estimation in 5G systems
  • 2D/3D mmWave beam scanning algorithms
  • Polarization control
  • Reconfigurable EHF arrays
  • Dynamic range ratio reduction
  • MmWave phased arrays
  • Mutual coupling modeling and suppression
  • High-gain mmWave antenna arrays
  • EHF patch array design
  • MmWave slot array antennas
  • K, Ka-band reflectarray antennas
  • EHF active arrays
  • MmWave beamforming networks
  • Massive MIMO systems
  • Interference mitigation/suppression in mmWave networks
  • Cooperative/distributed mmWave beamforming
  • Directional mmWave communications
  • Initial access in 5G networks
  • Spatial processing for interfered mmWave links
  • Multi-beam mmWave NOMA
  • MmWave directional CSMA/Aloha schemes
  • Simulation tools for mmWave radiating systems
  • MmWave array prototypes
  • Testing/measurement setups for mmWave antenna arrays

Dr. Giulia Buttazzoni
Dr. Massimiliano Comisso
Prof. Dr. Fulvio Babich
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • MmWave antenna arrays
  • Beamforming
  • Directional communication
  • 5G
  • NOMA

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Integrated LTE and Millimeter-Wave 5G MIMO Antenna System for 4G/5G Wireless Terminals
Sensors 2020, 20(14), 3926; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20143926 - 15 Jul 2020
Abstract
This work demonstrates an integrated multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna solution for Long Term Evolution (LTE) and Millimeter-Wave (mm-wave) 5G wireless communication services. The proposed structure is comprised of a two-element LTE MIMO antenna, and a four-element 5G MIMO configuration with rectangular and circular [...] Read more.
This work demonstrates an integrated multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna solution for Long Term Evolution (LTE) and Millimeter-Wave (mm-wave) 5G wireless communication services. The proposed structure is comprised of a two-element LTE MIMO antenna, and a four-element 5G MIMO configuration with rectangular and circular defects in the ground plane. For experimental validation, the proposed structure is fabricated on a Rogers RO4350B substrate with 0.76 mm thickness. The overall substrate dimensions are 75 mm × 110 mm. The proposed structure is capable of operating at 5.29–6.12 GHz (LTE 46 and 47 bands) and 26–29.5 GHz (5G mm-wave) frequency bands. Additionally, the measured peak gain of 5.13 and 9.53 dB is attained respectively for the microwave and mm-wave antennas. Furthermore, the analysis of the MIMO performance metrics demonstrates good characteristics, and excellent field correlation performance across the operating bands. Furthermore, the analysis of the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and Power Density (PD) at the lower frequency band (5.9 GHz) and PD only at mm-Wave frequency band (28 GHz) verifies that the proposed antenna system satisfies the international human safety standards. Therefore, the proposed integrated MIMO antenna configuration ascertains to be a potential contender for the forthcoming communication applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Millimeter-Wave Antenna Arrays: Design, Challenges, and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
FDD Channel Estimation Via Covariance Estimation in Wideband Massive MIMO Systems
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 930; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20030930 - 10 Feb 2020
Abstract
A method for channel estimation in wideband massive Multiple-Input Multiple-Output systems using hybrid digital analog architectures is developed. The proposed method is useful for Frequency-Division Duplex at either sub-6 GHz or millimeter wave frequency bands and takes into account the beam squint effect [...] Read more.
A method for channel estimation in wideband massive Multiple-Input Multiple-Output systems using hybrid digital analog architectures is developed. The proposed method is useful for Frequency-Division Duplex at either sub-6 GHz or millimeter wave frequency bands and takes into account the beam squint effect caused by the large bandwidth of the signals. To circumvent the estimation of large channel vectors, the posed algorithm relies on the slow time variation of the channel spatial covariance matrix, thus allowing for the utilization of very short training sequences. This is possibledue to the exploitation of the channel structure. After identifying the channel covariance matrix, the channel is estimated on the basis of the recovered information. To that end, we propose a novel method that relies on estimating the tap delays and the gains as sociated with each path. As a consequence, the proposed channel estimator achieves low computational complexity and significantly reduces the training overhead. Moreover, our numerical simulations show better performance results compared to the minimum mean-squared error solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Millimeter-Wave Antenna Arrays: Design, Challenges, and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Iterative Analog–Digital Multi-User Equalizer for Wideband Millimeter Wave Massive MIMO Systems
Sensors 2020, 20(2), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20020575 - 20 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Most of the previous work on hybrid transmit and receive beamforming focused on narrowband channels. Because the millimeter wave channels are expected to be wideband, it is crucial to propose efficient solutions for frequency-selective channels. In this regard, this paper proposes an iterative [...] Read more.
Most of the previous work on hybrid transmit and receive beamforming focused on narrowband channels. Because the millimeter wave channels are expected to be wideband, it is crucial to propose efficient solutions for frequency-selective channels. In this regard, this paper proposes an iterative analog–digital multi-user equalizer scheme for the uplink of wideband millimeter-wave massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems. By iterative equalizer we mean that both analog and digital parts are updated using as input the estimates obtained at the previous iteration. The proposed iterative analog–digital multi-user equalizer is designed by minimizing the sum of the mean square error of the data estimates over the subcarriers. We assume that the analog part is fixed for all subcarriers while the digital part is computed on a per subcarrier basis. Due to the complexity of the resulting optimization problem, a sequential approach is proposed to compute the analog phase shifters values for each radio frequency (RF) chain. We also derive an accurate, semi-analytical approach for obtaining the bit error rate (BER) of the proposed hybrid system. The proposed solution is compared with other hybrid equalizer schemes, recently designed for wideband millimeter-wave (mmWave) massive MIMO systems. The simulation results show that the performance of the developed analog–digital multi-user equalizer is close to full-digital counterpart and outperforms the previous hybrid approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Millimeter-Wave Antenna Arrays: Design, Challenges, and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Geometrical Synthesis of Sparse Antenna Arrays Using Compressive Sensing for 5G IoT Applications
Sensors 2020, 20(2), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20020350 - 08 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
One of the main targets of the forthcoming fifth-generation (5G) cellular network will be the support of the communications for billions of sensors and actuators, so as to finally realize the Internet of things (IoT) paradigm. This pervasive scenario unavoidably requires the design [...] Read more.
One of the main targets of the forthcoming fifth-generation (5G) cellular network will be the support of the communications for billions of sensors and actuators, so as to finally realize the Internet of things (IoT) paradigm. This pervasive scenario unavoidably requires the design of cheap antenna systems with beamforming capabilities for compensating the strong attenuations that characterize the millimeter-wave (mmWave) channel. To address this issue, this paper proposes an iterative algorithm for sparse antenna arrays that enables to derive the number of elements, their amplitudes, phases, and positions in the presence of constraints on the far-field pattern. The algorithm, which relies on the compressive sensing approach, is formulated by transforming the original nonconvex optimization problem into a convex one. To prove the suitability of the conceived solution for 5G IoT mmWave applications, numerical examples and comparisons with other existing methods are provided, considering synthesis problems with different pattern and aperture specifications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Millimeter-Wave Antenna Arrays: Design, Challenges, and Applications)
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Open AccessLetter
Design and Optimization for 77 GHz Series-Fed Patch Array Antenna Based on Genetic Algorithm
Sensors 2020, 20(11), 3066; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20113066 - 28 May 2020
Abstract
This paper proposes a method for designing a 77 GHz series-fed patch array antenna. Based on the traditional genetic algorithm, the study explores different array topologies consisting of the same microstrip patches to optimize the design. The main optimization goal is to reduce [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a method for designing a 77 GHz series-fed patch array antenna. Based on the traditional genetic algorithm, the study explores different array topologies consisting of the same microstrip patches to optimize the design. The main optimization goal is to reduce the maximum sidelobe level (SLL). A 77 GHz series-fed patch array antenna for automotive radar was simulated, fabricated, and measured by employing this method. The antenna length was limited to no longer than 3 cm, and the array only had a single compact series with the radiation patch about 1.54 mm wide. In the genetic algorithm used for optimization, the maximum sidelobe level was set equal to or less than −14 dB. The measurement results show that the gain of the proposed antenna was about 15.6 dBi, E-plane half-power beamwidth was about ±3.8°, maximum sidelobe level was about −14.8 dB, and H-plane half-power beamwidth was about ±30° at 77 GHz. The electromagnetic simulation and the measurement results show that the 77 GHz antenna designed with the proposed method has a better sidelobe suppression by over 4 dB than the traditional one of the same length in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Millimeter-Wave Antenna Arrays: Design, Challenges, and Applications)
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