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Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 2nd Global IoT Summit: IoT Technologies and Applications for the Benefit of Society"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Internet of Things".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Antonio Fernando Skarmeta Gómez

Department of Information and Communication Engineering, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +34 868 88 4607
Interests: IoT; security; privacy; smart cities; smart agriculture
Guest Editor
Dr. Mirko Presser

Associate Professor, Department of Business Development and Technology, Aarhus University, Birk Centerpark 15, 7400 Herning, Denmark
Website | E-Mail
Interests: IoT; Industry 4.0; business model innovation; smart cities; urban manufacturing
Guest Editor
Dr. Sébastien Ziegler

Mandat International, International Cooperation Foundation and IoT Lab, 3 ch. du Champ-Baron, 1209 Geneva, Switzerland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: IoT; security; privacy; smart cities; testbed; interoperability
Guest Editor
Dr. Srdjan Krčo

DunavNET d.o.o., A. Čehova 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: IoT; smart agriculture/cities/manufacturing; digital transformations; business models
Guest Editor
Mr. Latif Ladid

University of Luxembourg, Maison du Nombre, 6, avenue de la Fonte, L-4364 Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg
Website | E-Mail
Interests: IPv6; IoT; 5G

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Internet of Things (IoT) is leading to a new dimension of the Internet. IoT is driven by the integration and unification of all communication systems located around us. Thereby, the systems can provide ubiquitous communication and computing with the purpose of defining a new generation of services. The Internet of Things is a key enabler for the realization of new Smart-* realm (Smart Cities, Smart Buildings, Smart Factories, Smart Agriculture, Smart Mobility, etc.) as it allows for pervasive interaction with/between smart things, leading to an effective integration of information into the digital world. The aim of this Special Issue is to include selected papers from the 2018 Global IoT Summit (GIoTS) http://www.globaliotsummit.org/, held 4–7 June, 2018, in Bilbao, Spain, describing research from both academia and industry and technical presentations on the recent advances in theory, application and implementation of Internet of Things concepts and IoT technologies and applications for the benefit of society.

Prof. Dr. Antonio Fernando Skarmeta Gómez
Prof. Dr. Mirko Presser
Dr. Sébastien Ziegler
Dr. Srdjan Krco
Mr. Latif Ladid
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • IoT Enabling Technologies
  • IoT Applications, Services and Real Implementations
  • IoT Multimedia, Societal Impacts and Sustainable Development
  • Security and Privacy for Internet of Things
  • IoT Experimental Results and Deployment Scenarios

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Context Definition and Query Language: Conceptual Specification, Implementation, and Evaluation
Sensors 2019, 19(6), 1478; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19061478
Received: 16 December 2018 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
As IoT grows at a staggering pace, the need for contextual intelligence is a fundamental and critical factor for IoT intelligence, efficiency, effectiveness, performance, and sustainability. As the standardisation efforts for IoT are fast progressing, efforts in standardising context management platforms led by [...] Read more.
As IoT grows at a staggering pace, the need for contextual intelligence is a fundamental and critical factor for IoT intelligence, efficiency, effectiveness, performance, and sustainability. As the standardisation efforts for IoT are fast progressing, efforts in standardising context management platforms led by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) are gaining more attention from both academic and industrial research organizations. These standardisation endeavours will enable intelligent interactions between ‘things’, where things could be devices, software components, web-services, or sensing/actuating systems. Therefore, having a generic platform to describe and query context is crucial for the future of IoT applications. In this paper, we propose Context Definition and Query Language (CDQL), an advanced approach that enables things to exchange, reuse and share context between each other. CDQL consists of two main parts, namely: context definition model, which is designed to describe situations and high-level context; and Context Query Language (CQL), which is a powerful and flexible query language to express contextual information requirements without considering details of the underlying data structures. An important feature of the proposed query language is its ability to query entities in IoT environments based on their situation in a fully dynamic manner where users can define situations and context entities as part of the query. We exemplify the usage of CDQL on three different smart city use cases to highlight how CDQL can be utilised to deliver contextual information to IoT applications. Performance evaluation has demonstrated scalability and efficiency of CDQL in handling a fairly large number of concurrent context queries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle White Box Implementations Using Non-Commutative Cryptography
Sensors 2019, 19(5), 1122; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19051122
Received: 26 November 2018 / Revised: 23 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, we present a method to create a safe arithmetic that can be used to obfuscate implementations that require operations over commutative groups. The method is based on the structure of the endomorphisms of certain extensions of the original commutative group. [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a method to create a safe arithmetic that can be used to obfuscate implementations that require operations over commutative groups. The method is based on the structure of the endomorphisms of certain extensions of the original commutative group. The endomorphisms of a commutative group are non-commutative (in general), thus we can use a non-commutative group to emulate the arithmetic of a commutative one. The techniques presented in this paper are very flexible and the programmer has a wide variety of options to obfuscate the algorithms. The system can be parameterized using conjugations, thus it is possible to generate a different arithmetic for each instance of the program with a change in the security parameters, even in cases in which this number is huge (for example, in IoT applications). The security of this method is based not only on the difficulty of the conjugacy search problem (in a harder version because only partial information about the groups is known by the attacker), but also in a number of extra options that can be chosen by the programmer. The paper explains the general method, analyzes its algebraic properties and provides detailed examples based on the vector spaces over F 2 and XOR operators. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An IoT-Based Solution for Intelligent Farming
Sensors 2019, 19(3), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19030603
Received: 15 December 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 27 January 2019 / Published: 31 January 2019
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Abstract
Intelligent farming is one of the vast range of applications covered by the Internet of Things concept. Notwithstanding, such applications present specific requirements and constraints that are dependent on their purpose. A practical case on which that is particularly relevant is the SheepIT [...] Read more.
Intelligent farming is one of the vast range of applications covered by the Internet of Things concept. Notwithstanding, such applications present specific requirements and constraints that are dependent on their purpose. A practical case on which that is particularly relevant is the SheepIT project, where an automated IoT-based system controls grazing sheep within vineyards, guaranteeing that they do not threaten cultures. Due to its rigid requirements, particularly regarding the deployment of the Wireless Sensor Network, Machine-2-Machine communications and necessary interactions with a computational platform available through the Internet, Internet Protocol-based solutions are not suitable. Consequently, a customized communication stack has been developed, that intends to meet the project requirements, from the physical to the Application Layers. Although it has been developed considering the SheepIT requirements, its use may be extended to more generic intelligent farming applications, since most of the requirements are directly related with the farming environment. This paper reviews the proposed stack and details the recent developments. Particularly, we focused on Internet of Things/Machine-2-Machine interaction, describing the design and deployment of a gateway that addresses the SheepIT service requirements. Additionally, and complementary to previously published results, we evaluate the gateway performance and show its feasibility and scalability in a real scenario. Full article
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Open AccessArticle SmartTags: IoT Product Passport for Circular Economy Based on Printed Sensors and Unique Item-Level Identifiers
Sensors 2019, 19(3), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19030586
Received: 15 December 2018 / Revised: 19 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, we present a method that facilitates Internet of Things (IoT) for building a product passport and data exchange enabling the next stage of the circular economy. SmartTags based on printed sensors (i.e., using functional ink) and a modified GS1 barcode [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a method that facilitates Internet of Things (IoT) for building a product passport and data exchange enabling the next stage of the circular economy. SmartTags based on printed sensors (i.e., using functional ink) and a modified GS1 barcode standard enable unique identification of objects on a per item-level (including Fast-Moving Consumer Goods—FMCG), collecting, sensing, and reading of parameters from environment as well as tracking a products’ lifecycle. The developed ontology is the first effort to define a semantic model for dynamic sensors, including datamatrix and QR codes. The evaluation of decoding and readability of identifiers (QR codes) showed good performance for detection of sensor state printed over and outside the QR code data matrix, i.e., the recognition ability with image vision algorithm was possible. The evaluation of the decoding performance of the QR code data matrix printed with sensors was also efficient, i.e., the QR code ability to be decoded with the reader after reversible and irreversible process of ink (dis)appearing was preserved, with slight drop in performance if ink density is low. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Semantic Interoperability for IoT Platforms in Support of Decision Making: An Experiment on Early Wildfire Detection
Sensors 2019, 19(3), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19030528
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 19 January 2019 / Published: 27 January 2019
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Abstract
One of the main obstacles towards the promotion of IoT adoption and innovation is data interoperability. Facilitating cross-domain interoperability is expected to be the core element for the realisation of the next generation of the IoT computing paradigm that is already taking shape [...] Read more.
One of the main obstacles towards the promotion of IoT adoption and innovation is data interoperability. Facilitating cross-domain interoperability is expected to be the core element for the realisation of the next generation of the IoT computing paradigm that is already taking shape under the name of Internet of Everything (IoE). In this article, an analysis of the current status on IoT semantic interoperability is presented that leads to the identification of a set of generic requirements that act as fundamental design principles for the specification of interoperability enabling solutions. In addition, an extension of NGSIv2 data model and API (de-facto) standards is proposed aiming to bridge the gap among IoT and social media and hence to integrate user communities with cyber-physical systems. These specifications have been utilised for the implementation of the IoT2Edge interoperability enabling mechanism which is evaluated within the context of a catastrophic wildfire incident that took place in Greece on July 2018. Weather data, social media activity, video recordings from the fire, sensor measurements and satellite data, linked to the location and the time of this fire incident have been collected, modeled in a uniform manner and fed to an early fire detection decision support system. The findings of the experiment certify that achieving minimum data interoperability with light-weight, plug-n-play mechanisms can be realised with significant benefits for our society. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Experimentation Management in the Co-Created Smart-City: Incentivization and Citizen Engagement
Sensors 2019, 19(2), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19020411
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 20 January 2019
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Abstract
Under the smart city paradigm, cities are changing at a rapid pace. In this context, it is necessary to develop tools that allow service providers to perform rapid deployments of novel solutions that can be validated by citizens. In this sense, the OrganiCity [...] Read more.
Under the smart city paradigm, cities are changing at a rapid pace. In this context, it is necessary to develop tools that allow service providers to perform rapid deployments of novel solutions that can be validated by citizens. In this sense, the OrganiCity experimentation-as-a-service platform brings about a unique solution to experiment with new urban services in a co-creative way, among all the involved stakeholders. On top of this, it is also necessary to ensure that users are engaged in the experimentation process, so as to guarantee that the resulting services actually fulfill their needs. In this work, we present the engagement monitoring framework that has been developed within the OrganiCity platform. This framework permits the tailored definition of metrics according to the experiment characteristics and provides valuable information about how citizens react to service modifications and incentivization campaigns. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Smart Meeting Room Usage Information and Prediction by Modelling Occupancy Profiles
Sensors 2019, 19(2), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19020353
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
The monitoring of small houses and rooms has become possible due to the advances in IoT sensors, actuators and low power communication protocols in the last few years. As buildings are one of the biggest energy consuming entities, monitoring them has great interest [...] Read more.
The monitoring of small houses and rooms has become possible due to the advances in IoT sensors, actuators and low power communication protocols in the last few years. As buildings are one of the biggest energy consuming entities, monitoring them has great interest for trying to avoid non-necessary energy waste. Moreover, human behaviour has been reported as being the main discrepancy source between energy usage simulations and real usage, so the ability to monitor and predict actions as opening windows, using rooms, etc. is gaining attention to develop stronger models which may lead to reduce the overall energy consumption of buildings, considering buildings thermal inertia and additional capabilities. In this paper, a case study is described in which four meeting rooms have been monitored to obtain information about the usage of the rooms and later use it to predict their future usage. The results show the possibility to deploy a simple and non-intrusive sensing system whose output could be used to develop advanced control strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Embracing the Future Internet of Things
Sensors 2019, 19(2), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19020351
Received: 15 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
All of the objects in the real world are envisioned to be connected and/or represented, through an infrastructure layer, in the virtual world of the Internet, becoming Things with status information. Services are then using the available data from this Internet-of-Things (IoT) for [...] Read more.
All of the objects in the real world are envisioned to be connected and/or represented, through an infrastructure layer, in the virtual world of the Internet, becoming Things with status information. Services are then using the available data from this Internet-of-Things (IoT) for various social and economical benefits which explain its extreme broad usage in very heterogeneous fields. Domain administrations of diverse areas of application developed and deployed their own IoT systems and services following disparate standards and architecture approaches that created a fragmentation of things, infrastructures and services in vertical IoT silos. Coordination and cooperation among IoT systems are the keys to build “smarter” IoT services boosting the benefits magnitude. This article analyses the technical trends of the future IoT world based on the current limitations of the IoT systems and the capability requirements. We propose a hyper-connected IoT framework in which “things” are connected to multiple interdependent services and describe how this framework enables the development of future applications. Moreover, we discuss the major limitations in today’s IoT and highlight the required capabilities in the future. We illustrate this global vision with the help of two concrete instances of the hyper-connected IoT in smart cities and autonomous driving scenarios. Finally, we analyse the trends in the number of connected “things” and point out open issues and future challenges. The proposed hyper-connected IoT framework is meant to scale the benefits of IoT from local to global. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Secure Smart Cameras by Aggregate-Signcryption with Decryption Fairness for Multi-Receiver IoT Applications
Sensors 2019, 19(2), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19020327
Received: 15 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Smart cameras are key sensors in Internet of Things (IoT) applications and often capture highly sensitive information. Therefore, security and privacy protection is a key concern. This paper introduces a lightweight security approach for smart camera IoT applications based on elliptic-curve (EC) signcryption [...] Read more.
Smart cameras are key sensors in Internet of Things (IoT) applications and often capture highly sensitive information. Therefore, security and privacy protection is a key concern. This paper introduces a lightweight security approach for smart camera IoT applications based on elliptic-curve (EC) signcryption that performs data signing and encryption in a single step. We deploy signcryption to efficiently protect sensitive data onboard the cameras and secure the data transfer from multiple cameras to multiple monitoring devices. Our multi-sender/multi-receiver approach provides integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of data with decryption fairness for multiple receivers throughout the entire lifetime of the data. It further provides public verifiability and forward secrecy of data. Our certificateless multi-receiver aggregate-signcryption protection has been implemented for a smart camera IoT scenario, and the runtime and communication effort has been compared with single-sender/single-receiver and multi-sender/single-receiver setups. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Enabling Virtual AAA Management in SDN-Based IoT Networks
Sensors 2019, 19(2), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19020295
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 12 January 2019
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Abstract
The increase of Software Defined Networks (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV) technologies is bringing many security management benefits that can be exploited at the edge of Internet of Things (IoT) networks to deal with cyber-threats. In this sense, this paper presents and [...] Read more.
The increase of Software Defined Networks (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV) technologies is bringing many security management benefits that can be exploited at the edge of Internet of Things (IoT) networks to deal with cyber-threats. In this sense, this paper presents and evaluates a novel policy-based and cyber-situational awareness security framework for continuous and dynamic management of Authentication, Authorization, Accounting (AAA) as well as Channel Protection virtual security functions in IoT networks enabled with SDN/NFV. The virtual AAA, including network authenticators, are deployed as VNF (Virtual Network Function) dynamically at the edge, in order to enable scalable device’s bootstrapping and managing the access control of IoT devices to the network. In addition, our solution allows distributing dynamically the necessary crypto-keys for IoT Machine to Machine (M2M) communications and deploy virtual Channel-protection proxys as VNFs, with the aim of establishing secure tunnels among IoT devices and services, according to the contextual decisions inferred by the cognitive framework. The solution has been implemented and evaluated, demonstrating its feasibility to manage dynamically AAA and channel protection in SDN/NFV-enabled IoT scenarios. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Smart Water Management Platform: IoT-Based Precision Irrigation for Agriculture
Sensors 2019, 19(2), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19020276
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 6 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
The smart management of freshwater for precision irrigation in agriculture is essential for increasing crop yield and decreasing costs, while contributing to environmental sustainability. The intense use of technologies offers a means for providing the exact amount of water needed by plants. The [...] Read more.
The smart management of freshwater for precision irrigation in agriculture is essential for increasing crop yield and decreasing costs, while contributing to environmental sustainability. The intense use of technologies offers a means for providing the exact amount of water needed by plants. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the natural choice for smart water management applications, even though the integration of different technologies required for making it work seamlessly in practice is still not fully accomplished. The SWAMP project develops an IoT-based smart water management platform for precision irrigation in agriculture with a hands-on approach based on four pilots in Brazil and Europe. This paper presents the SWAMP architecture, platform, and system deployments that highlight the replicability of the platform, and, as scalability is a major concern for IoT applications, it includes a performance analysis of FIWARE components used in the Platform. Results show that it is able to provide adequate performance for the SWAMP pilots, but requires specially designed configurations and the re-engineering of some components to provide higher scalability using less computational resources. Full article
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Open AccessArticle LPWAN-Based Vehicular Monitoring Platform with a Generic IP Network Interface
Sensors 2019, 19(2), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19020264
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 23 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
Remote vehicle monitoring is a field that has recently attracted the attention of both academia and industry. With the dawn of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm, the possibilities for performing this task have multiplied, due to the emergence of low-cost and multi-purpose [...] Read more.
Remote vehicle monitoring is a field that has recently attracted the attention of both academia and industry. With the dawn of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm, the possibilities for performing this task have multiplied, due to the emergence of low-cost and multi-purpose monitoring devices and the evolution of wireless transmission technologies. Low Power-Wide Area Network (LPWAN) encompasses a set of IoT communication technologies that are gaining momentum, due to their highly valued features regarding transmission distance and end-device energy consumption. For that reason, in this work we present a vehicular monitoring platform enabled by LPWAN-based technology, namely Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN). Concretely, we explore the end-to-end architecture considering vehicle data retrieving by using an On-Board Diagnostics II (OBD-II) interface, their compression with a novel IETF compression scheme in order to transmit them over the constrained LoRaWAN link, and information visualization through a data server hosted in the cloud, by means of a web-based dashboard. A key advance of the proposal is the design and development of a UNIX-based network interface for LPWAN communications. The whole system has been tested in a university campus environment, showing its capabilities to remotely track vehicle status in real-time. The conducted performance evaluation also shows high levels of reliability in the transmission link, with packet delivery ratios over 95%. The platform boosts the process of monitoring vehicles, enabling a variety of services such as mechanical failure prediction and detection, fleet management, and traffic monitoring, and is extensible to light vehicles with severe power constraints. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Breaking Vendors and City Locks through a Semantic-enabled Global Interoperable Internet-of-Things System: A Smart Parking Case
Sensors 2019, 19(2), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19020229
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
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Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) is unanimously identified as one of the main technology enablers for the development of future intelligent environments. However, the current IoT landscape is suffering from large fragmentation with many platforms and vendors competing with their own solution. This [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is unanimously identified as one of the main technology enablers for the development of future intelligent environments. However, the current IoT landscape is suffering from large fragmentation with many platforms and vendors competing with their own solution. This fragmented scenario is now jeopardizing the uptake of the IoT, as investments are not carried out partly because of the fear of being captured in lock-in situations. To overcome these fears, interoperability solutions are being put forward in order to guarantee that the deployed IoT infrastructure, independently of its manufacturer and/or platform, can exchange information, data and knowledge in a meaningful way. This paper presents a Global IoT Services (GIoTS) use case demonstrating how semantic interoperability among five different smart city IoT deployments can be leveraged to develop a smart urban mobility service. The application that has been developed seamlessly consumes data from them for providing parking guidance and mobility suggestions at the five locations (Santander and Barcelona in Spain and Busan, Seoul and Seongnam in South Korea) where the abovementioned IoT deployments are installed. The paper is also presenting the key aspects of the system enabling the interoperability among the three underlying heterogeneous IoT platforms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle City Scale Particulate Matter Monitoring Using LoRaWAN Based Air Quality IoT Devices
Sensors 2019, 19(1), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19010209
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract
Air Quality (AQ) is a very topical issue for many cities and has a direct impact on citizen health. The AQ of a large UK city is being investigated using low-cost Particulate Matter (PM) sensors, and the results obtained by these sensors have [...] Read more.
Air Quality (AQ) is a very topical issue for many cities and has a direct impact on citizen health. The AQ of a large UK city is being investigated using low-cost Particulate Matter (PM) sensors, and the results obtained by these sensors have been compared with government operated AQ stations. In the first pilot deployment, six AQ Internet of Things (IoT) devices have been designed and built, each with four different low-cost PM sensors, and they have been deployed at two locations within the city. These devices are equipped with LoRaWAN wireless network transceivers to test city scale Low-Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) coverage. The study concludes that (i) the physical device developed can operate at a city scale; (ii) some low-cost PM sensors are viable for monitoring AQ and for detecting PM trends; (iii) LoRaWAN is suitable for city scale sensor coverage where connectivity is an issue. Based on the findings from this first pilot project, a larger LoRaWAN enabled AQ sensor network is being deployed across the city of Southampton in the UK. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Defining a Cyber Resilience Investment Strategy in an Industrial Internet of Things Context
Sensors 2019, 19(1), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19010138
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 26 December 2018 / Published: 3 January 2019
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Abstract
The fourth industrial revolution has brought several risks to factories along with its plethora of benefits. The convergence of new technologies, legacy technologies, information technologies and operational technologies in the same network generates a wide attack surface. At the same time, factories need [...] Read more.
The fourth industrial revolution has brought several risks to factories along with its plethora of benefits. The convergence of new technologies, legacy technologies, information technologies and operational technologies in the same network generates a wide attack surface. At the same time, factories need continuous production to meet their customers’ demand, so any stopped production can have harsh effects on a factory’s economy. This makes cyber resilience a key requirement in factories nowadays. However, it is difficult for managers to define effective cyber resilience strategies, especially considering the difficulty of estimating adequate investment in cyber resilience policies before the company has suffered cyber incidents. In this sense, the purpose of this article is to define and model an effective cyber resilience strategy. To achieve this, the system dynamics methodology was followed in order to get five experts’ opinions on the best strategy to invest in cyber resilience. Interviews were conducted with these experts; their reasoning was put into behavior over time graphs and a system dynamics model was built from these findings. The main conclusion is that a cyber resilience investment strategy should be dynamic, investing in both technical security and personnel training, but at first with an emphasis on technical security and later shifting to have an emphasis on training. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Integrated Performance Evaluation of the Smart Body Area Networks Physical Layer for Future Medical and Healthcare IoT
Sensors 2019, 19(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19010030
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 16 December 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
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Abstract
This paper performs integrated performance evaluation, including preamble detection in the Smart Body Area Networks (SmartBAN) physical layer (PHY). The system specifications for a PHY and media access control layer (MAC) in SmartBAN, which is a standard for medical and health care advanced [...] Read more.
This paper performs integrated performance evaluation, including preamble detection in the Smart Body Area Networks (SmartBAN) physical layer (PHY). The system specifications for a PHY and media access control layer (MAC) in SmartBAN, which is a standard for medical and health care advanced by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), were issued in April 2015. In the PHY, the packet structure has a two-octet preamble, which is used, e.g., for timing synchronization. However, it is considered that the current preamble structure is not appropriate for handling medical and healthcare data that are required to have high reliability because of the too simple structure. Therefore, we propose adding a start frame delimiter (SFD) to correctly detect the header position. Computer simulations indicate that preambles with an SFD consisting of an orthogonal maximal length sequence (M-sequence) perform better than SmartBAN and similar approaches, particularly when transmitting over the IEEE model CM3. In addition, the packet error ratio (PER) and energy efficiency are evaluated in an integrated manner while taking preamble detection into consideration. The numerical results from computer simulations indicated the best performance with respect to PER was achieved using a preamble with orthogonal M-sequences of 4 octets. However, for energy efficiency, better results were obtained using a preamble with orthogonal M-sequences of 2 octets. Additionally, the theoretical analysis found the optimum length of the PHY packet to achieve the maximum energy efficiency with PER less than 10−2. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Smart Airport Cybersecurity: Threat Mitigation and Cyber Resilience Controls
Sensors 2019, 19(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19010019
Received: 11 November 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
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Abstract
Airports are at the forefront of technological innovation, mainly due to the fact that the number of air travel passengers is exponentially increasing every year. As a result, airports enhance their infrastructure intelligence and evolve as smart facilities to support growth, by offering [...] Read more.
Airports are at the forefront of technological innovation, mainly due to the fact that the number of air travel passengers is exponentially increasing every year. As a result, airports enhance their infrastructure intelligence and evolve as smart facilities to support growth, by offering an enjoyable travel experience. New challenges are coming up, which aviation has to deal with and adapt to, such as the integration of Industrial IoT (Internet of Things) in airport facilities and the increased use of smart devices from travelers and employees. Cybersecurity is becoming a key enabler for safety, which is paramount in the aviation context. Smart airports strive to provide optimal services in a reliable and sustainable manner, by working around the domains of growth, efficiency, safety and security. This article researches: (a) the implementation rate of cybersecurity measures in commercial airports; (b) malicious threats that evolve due to IoT and smart devices installed; (c) risk scenario analysis for IoT malicious attacks with threat mitigation actions. With the aim to enhance operational practices and develop robust cybersecurity governance in smart airports, we present a systematic and comprehensive analysis of malicious attacks in smart airports, to facilitate airport community comprehend risks and proactively act, by implementing cybersecurity best practices and resilience measures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of CoAP and MQTT on NB-IoT System Performance
Sensors 2019, 19(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19010007
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (853 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The IoT protocols used for data transfer in the application layer, namely the Constraint Application Protocol (CoAP) and Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT) have dependencies to the transport layer. The choice of transport, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), [...] Read more.
The IoT protocols used for data transfer in the application layer, namely the Constraint Application Protocol (CoAP) and Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT) have dependencies to the transport layer. The choice of transport, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), on the other hand, has an impact on the Internet of Things (IoT) application level performance, especially over a wireless medium. Furthermore, we touch upon the impact of different security solutions. The motivation of this work is to look at the impact of the protocol stack on performance over a narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) link. The use case studied is infrequent small reports sent from the sensor device to a central cloud storage over a last mile radio access link. We find that while CoAP/UDP based transport performs consistently better both in terms of latency, coverage, and system capacity, MQTT/TCP also works when the system is less loaded. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Clock Frequency Impact on the Performance of High-Security Cryptographic Cipher Suites for Energy-Efficient Resource-Constrained IoT Devices
Sensors 2019, 19(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19010015
Received: 26 November 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 15 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2118 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Modern Internet of Things (IoT) systems have to be able to provide high-security levels, but it is difficult to accommodate computationally-intensive cryptographic algorithms on the resource-constrained hardware used to deploy IoT end nodes. Although this scenario brings the opportunity for using advanced security [...] Read more.
Modern Internet of Things (IoT) systems have to be able to provide high-security levels, but it is difficult to accommodate computationally-intensive cryptographic algorithms on the resource-constrained hardware used to deploy IoT end nodes. Although this scenario brings the opportunity for using advanced security mechanisms such as Transport Layer Security (TLS), several configuration factors impact both the performance and the energy consumption of IoT systems. In this study, two of the most used TLS authentication algorithms (ECDSA and RSA) were compared when executed on a resource-constrained IoT node based on the ESP32 System-on-Chip (SoC), which was tested at different clock frequencies (80, 160 and 240 MHz) when providing different security levels (from 80 to 192 bits). With every tested configuration, energy consumption and average time per transaction were measured. The results show that ECDSA outperforms RSA in all performed tests and that certain software implementations may lead to scenarios where higher security-level alternatives outperform cryptosystems that are theoretically simpler and lighter in terms of energy consumption and data throughput. Moreover, the performed experiments allow for concluding that higher clock frequencies provide better performance in terms of throughput and, in contrast to what may be expected, less energy consumption. Full article
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