Embracing the Future Internet of Things †
2. Future Hyper-Connected IoT Framework
2.1. Future IoT Framework
2.2. IoT Framework for Autonomous Driving on a Large Scale
3. IoT Platform Capabilities
3.1. Service-Defined Data Analytics
3.2. Information Transparency
3.3. Resource and Context Management
4. Realization of Hyper-Connected IoT realm
4.1. Smart-City Magnifier: Smart Cities Enabled by Future Hyper-Connected IoT
4.2. Smart Mobility: IoT-Enhanced Autonomous Driving
6. Challenges and Open Issues
- Data ownership management: For a future IoT where data is globally accessible and discoverable, special attention should be paid in order to assure that the producer of the data (or the owner of the observed things) keeps ownership of the data, especially for privacy-sensitive data. A study of the International Data Space Association (IDSA) [36,37], where more than 200 companies have been interviewed regarding data exchanged with other companies, states that one of the major concerns that blocks a company from sharing data with another peer is the uncertainty of losing control over the data once the data has been released, and thus losing the “sovereignty” of the data. A first issue is to state “who is the owner of the data”—for instance, we are keen to think that the owner of the IoT deployment is the owner of the data; for example, a public transportation company deploying sensors on its buses is the owner of such data. However, in other situations, the owner of the data is the observed thing; this is the case of health sensors deployed by the health care system at home of a patient where the patient is the “thing” observed and the owner of the data. In addition, another open issue is “how to control the data migration to other users and services”. Often, users are requested to sign agreements on processing their data, as specified on common data regulations (e.g., General Data Protection Regulation-GDPR , but, afterwards, there is not an easy way to control if those agreements are respected. In addition, the data owners should be capable to visualize where, how, by whom and why their data are accessed. Moreover, usage terms might dynamically change over time due to new regulations, changing of the mind of the data owner, or other factors (e.g., expiration of a time period). An automatic system of managing these data access rights’ dynamism is a clear challenge.
- Privacy and security: With the realization of the presented capabilities, the future IoT will encounter new security and privacy threats. Every IoT layer, from application to devices, has peculiarities on the security risks and possible attacks. Considering the vertical elements in the bottom-up architecture, each level (i.e., devices, edge, cloud and applications) has its own security requirements. Each level is exposed to various types of security threats and possible attacks. Currently, there is a lack of and a certain need for a dynamic IoT security model for enabling mission-critical applications (e.g., autonomous vehicle control) and expected advancements in the IoT systems. Furthermore, for building trust and secure relationships between the IoT components, proper identification and authentication capabilities, and cooperation among these techniques in the IoT platform are currently missing. On the other hand, preserving privacy of data in IoT is an open challenge. The existing privacy protection policies for today’s IoT include encryption, anonymization and obfuscation techniques, which are mainly for single services. However, new privacy preservation techniques in these interdependent services (e.g., searchable encryption, usage control, end-to-end encryption  with homomorphic encryption) by design principle for objects, devices, users, subsystems, and services are required.
- Critical real-time operation: The IoT of the future should be flexible and adaptable to sudden changes of the status and conditions of the infrastructures. This is due in order to have fast response to critical situations such as the increasing frequency of natural disasters due to the global climate change . Infrastructureless alternatives for communication in networks  or easy-to-deploy infrastructures [42,43] can help solve these problems.
- Trustworthiness evaluation: A dual problem of the data access control is the control over data generation. Since the data is associated with real-world things reporting the status of them, only legit data sources should be allowed to report observations to a thing and, at the same time, the future IoT should be resistant to tampering attack. For that reason, it is a challenge to make a trustworthiness evaluation assessing which entity might be trusted and how trustful is the data generated .
- Standardization: Different layers of IoT have been studied within many standardization activities. However, there is little consensus regarding which layers and relevant techniques should be standardized and which layers should remain open to be designed. In addition, governments showed their interest in standardization and their involvement implies innovation restrictions due to ever stricter regulations. New requirements for IoT are defined by IoT organizations such as OpenFog, the Industry 4.0, Made-in-China 2025 , and the Industrial Internet Consortium. New activities are expected to come from ETSI, IEEE, IEC, ISO, FIWARE and oneM2M, to name a few. The advancements in standards should cover every ICT field such as connectivity (e.g., 5G and satellite connections), data format and models (e.g., semantic interoperability and data contextualization), sensing, actuations and security at all levels.
7. Related Work
8. Conclusions and Future Work
Conflicts of Interest
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Cirillo, F.; Wu, F.-J.; Solmaz, G.; Kovacs, E. Embracing the Future Internet of Things. Sensors 2019, 19, 351. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19020351
Cirillo F, Wu F-J, Solmaz G, Kovacs E. Embracing the Future Internet of Things. Sensors. 2019; 19(2):351. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19020351Chicago/Turabian Style
Cirillo, Flavio, Fang-Jing Wu, Gürkan Solmaz, and Ernö Kovacs. 2019. "Embracing the Future Internet of Things" Sensors 19, no. 2: 351. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19020351