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Laser Optical Feedback Turns 60: Results, Frontiers and Perspectives

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Optical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2022) | Viewed by 9031

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Bari, via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari, Italy
Interests: interferometry; laser physics; materials characterization

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Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino, Italy
Interests: laser cavity resonators; quantum cascade lasers; optical frequency combs; ring lasers; Fabry-Perot resonators; III-V semiconductors; Maxwell equations; elemental semiconductors; integrated optoelectronics; laser feedback; light reflection; optical Kerr effect; silicon; Fabry-Perot interferometers; Ginzburg-Landau theory; antireflection coatings; chirp modulation; gallium arsenide; indium compounds; integrated optics; laser beams; laser mirrors; laser mode locking; laser modes; laser tuning

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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Analysis and Architecture of Systems, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 2 rue Camichel, 31500 Toulouse, France
Interests: laser diodes; interferometry; laser dynamics; optoelectronics; optical sensing; biomedical optics; optics and photonics; optics; laser

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As soon as the laser shot, some of its light was scattered backward. At first, it was an annoyance. Very early on, however, D. A. Kleinman and P. P. Kisliuk suggested that controlled back reflection from an external mirror could actually help the stabilization of the fundamental cavity mode by suppressing the higher-order ones. This was in March 1962. In 1963, P. G. R. King and G. J. Steward proposed to exploit optical feedback for metrology, and self-mixing eventually became research. The idea of using coherent laser feedback to extract information (e.g., position, composition, morphology, dynamical state) from the external target(s) providing back reflection has taken up many names: Laser Self-Mixing, Laser Diode Feedback Interferometry, Optical Feedback Interferometry and Optical Feedback Interference. It has rooted itself as a major player in many branches of laser optics and photonics moving, from laboratory tables to embedded technology, and recently began to beat the hot tracks of silicon photonics, unconventional imaging and Artificial-Intelligence-aided signal processing.

Contributed papers are solicited covering past achievements, present developments and future evolution of Laser Optical Feedback modeling, sensing, imaging and metrology.

Prof. Dr. Maurizio Dabbicco
Dr. Lorenzo L. Columbo
Dr. Julien Perchoux
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • vibrometry
  • velocimetry
  • THz imaging
  • laser dynamics
  • optical sensing
  • integrated photonics
  • frequency modulation
  • nanoscale sensing
  • quantum noise limit
  • silicon photonics
  • microfluidics

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 203 KiB  
Editorial
Laser Optical Feedback Turns 60
by Maurizio Dabbicco, Lorenzo Luigi Columbo and Julien Perchoux
Sensors 2023, 23(3), 1176; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23031176 - 19 Jan 2023
Viewed by 806
Abstract
As soon as a laser is fired, some of the emitted light is scattered backward and coupled with the cavity modes, causing instability [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Optical Feedback Turns 60: Results, Frontiers and Perspectives)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

12 pages, 2663 KiB  
Article
Feedback Regimes of LFI Sensors: Experimental Investigations
by Karl Bertling, Xiaoqiong Qi, Thomas Taimre, Yah Leng Lim and Aleksandar D. Rakić
Sensors 2022, 22(22), 9001; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22229001 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1549
Abstract
In this article, we revisit the concept of optical feedback regimes in diode lasers and explore each regime experimentally from a somewhat unconventional point of view by relating the feedback regimes to the laser bias current and its optical feedback level. The results [...] Read more.
In this article, we revisit the concept of optical feedback regimes in diode lasers and explore each regime experimentally from a somewhat unconventional point of view by relating the feedback regimes to the laser bias current and its optical feedback level. The results enable setting the operating conditions of the diode laser in different applications requiring operation in different feedback regimes. We experimentally explored and theoretically supported this relationship from the standard Lang and Kobayashi rate equation model for a laser diode under optical feedback. All five regimes were explored for two major types of laser diodes: inplane lasers and vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers. For both lasers, we mapped the self-mixing strength vs. drive current and feedback level, observed the differences in the shape of the self-mixing fringes between the two laser architectures and a general simulation, and monitored other parameters of the lasers with changing optical feedback. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Optical Feedback Turns 60: Results, Frontiers and Perspectives)
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14 pages, 931 KiB  
Article
Self-Pulsations in Terahertz Quantum Cascade Lasers under Strong Optical Feedback: The Effect of Multiple Reflections in the External Cavity
by Xiaoqiong Qi, Hui Yi Loh, Thomas Taimre, Karl Bertling, Dragan Indjin and Aleksandar D. Rakić
Sensors 2022, 22(21), 8501; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22218501 - 04 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1433
Abstract
We have recently reported the self-pulsation phenomenon under strong optical feedback in terahertz (THz) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). One important issue, however, we left open: the effect of multiple round trips in the external cavity on the laser response to feedback. Our current [...] Read more.
We have recently reported the self-pulsation phenomenon under strong optical feedback in terahertz (THz) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). One important issue, however, we left open: the effect of multiple round trips in the external cavity on the laser response to feedback. Our current analysis also casts additional light on the phenomenon of self-pulsations. Using only one external cavity round trip (ECRT) in the model has been the common approach following the seminal paper by Lang–Kobayashi in 1980. However, the conditions under which the Lang–Kobayashi model, in its original single-ECRT formulation, is applicable has been rarely explored. In this work, we investigate the self-pulsation phenomenon under multiple ECRTs. We found that the self-pulsation waveform changes when considering more than one ECRT. This we attribute to the combined effect of the extended external cavity length and the frequency modulation of the pulsation frequency by the optical feedback. Our findings add to the understanding of the optical feedback dynamics under multiple ECRTs and provide a pathway for selecting the appropriate numerical model to study the optical feedback dynamics in THz QCLs and semiconductor lasers in general. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Optical Feedback Turns 60: Results, Frontiers and Perspectives)
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16 pages, 3938 KiB  
Article
Self-Mixing Laser Distance-Sensor Enhanced by Multiple Modulation Waveforms
by Federico Cavedo, Parisa Esmaili and Michele Norgia
Sensors 2022, 22(21), 8456; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22218456 - 03 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2732
Abstract
Optical rangefinders based on Self-Mixing Interferometry are widely described in literature, but not yet on the market as commercial instruments. The main reason is that it is relatively easy to propose new elaboration techniques and get results in controlled conditions, while it is [...] Read more.
Optical rangefinders based on Self-Mixing Interferometry are widely described in literature, but not yet on the market as commercial instruments. The main reason is that it is relatively easy to propose new elaboration techniques and get results in controlled conditions, while it is very difficult to develop a reliable instrument. In this paper, we propose a laser distance sensor with improved reliability, realized through a wavelength modulation at a different frequency, able to decorrelate single measurement errors and obtain improvement by averages. A dedicated software is implemented to automatically calculate the modulation pre-emphasis, needed to linearize the wavelength modulation. Finally, data selection algorithms allow to overcome signal fading problems due to the speckle effect. A prototype demonstrates the approach with about 0.1 mm accuracy up to 2 m of distance at 200 measurements per second. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Optical Feedback Turns 60: Results, Frontiers and Perspectives)
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8 pages, 3062 KiB  
Article
Effect of Linewidth on the Relative Intensity Noise in Random Distributed Feedback Raman Fiber Lasers
by Sergio Rota-Rodrigo, Daniel Leandro, Giorgio Santarelli, Manuel Lopez-Amo and Juan Diego Ania-Castañón
Sensors 2022, 22(21), 8381; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22218381 - 01 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1603
Abstract
We experimentally explore the relation between spectral linewidth and RIN transfer in half-open cavity random distributed feedback Raman lasers, demonstrating for the first time the possibility of adjusting the pump-to-signal RIN transfer intensity and cut-off frequency by using spectral filtering in the reflector [...] Read more.
We experimentally explore the relation between spectral linewidth and RIN transfer in half-open cavity random distributed feedback Raman lasers, demonstrating for the first time the possibility of adjusting the pump-to-signal RIN transfer intensity and cut-off frequency by using spectral filtering in the reflector section. We apply this approach to a 50-km laser system, operating in the C-Band, reliant on a standard single-mode fiber. We obtained a minimum bandwidth of 13 pm, which translates into a visible RIN cut-off at 800 MHz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Optical Feedback Turns 60: Results, Frontiers and Perspectives)
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