Special Issue "Novel Bistatic SAR Scattering Theory, Imaging Algorithms, and Applications"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Kun-Shan Chen
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Guest Editor
The Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100094, China
Interests: microwave scattering and propagation; imaging radar; intelligent signal and image processing
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Jie Chen
Website
Guest Editor
School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China
Interests: Radar signal processing, microwave imaging system, SAR imaging algorithm
Dr. Xiaofeng Li
Website
Guest Editor
NCWCP - E/RA3, 5830 University Research Court, College Park, MD 20740, USA
Interests: AI oceanography; big data; ocean remote sensing; physical oceanography; boundary layer meteorology; synthetic aperture radar imaging mechanism; multiple-polarization radar applications; satellite image classification and segmentation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Yu Liu
Website
Guest Editor
The Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100094, China
Interests: Scattering from random media, radar imaging, remote sensing information process

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, there has been an explosive growth of interest in a highly innovative bistatic synthetic aperture radar (Bi-SAR). Compared with monostatic SAR imaging, bistatic SAR acquires the echo signal of targets from various directions, in the sense of scattering preference and technical feasibility, to gain advantages by extending limited one-dimensional backscattering to two-dimensional bistatic data, expanding the dynamic range of received signal, and decoupling complex electromagnetic wave-target interactions. However, because of the non-collocated transmitter and receiver, the SAR imaging in bistatic is much more complicated than in monostatic, in terms of bistatic range history, spatial resolution, Doppler parameter estimation, motion compensation, and so on. Technically, clock time synchronization, antenna footprint tracking, platform altitude recording, etc., are also very challenging, though they are beyond the scope of this Special Issue. Theoretically, it is expected that, compared the traditional monostatic SAR, Bi-SAR can provide greater capabilities to extract, interpret, identify, and classify a target’s features under complex environment conditions. The physical understanding of monostatic SAR is not necessary transferable to Bi-SAR, which is confronted with more complicated scattering process, flexible and variable flight formation, complex signal processing and imaging, and perhaps some invalid hypotheses in target decomposition.

Therefore, to fully benefit from Bi-SAR, critical issues need to be resolved. This Special Issue focuses on reporting new theory and novel techniques concerning the development and applications of Bi-SAR. The issue covers a broad, but comprehensive, treatment of subjects closely related to scattering information, signal processing, imaging performance, and potential applications by means of theory modeling, numerical simulation, and experimental measurement. Papers for bistate scattering and imaging, and perhaps equally imperative, on the potential use of Bi-SAR images, such as retrieving soil moisture, vegetation, and ocean surface parameters, and acquiring digital elevation models (DEMs), and, particularly, new applications are welcome. Pioneering works from internationally recognized experts are invited to this well-focused issue. Contributions are invited on the following topics (not exclusive):

  • Bistatic radar scattering modeling, simulations, and measurements
  • Bistatic radar scattering sensitivity and information content
  • Bi-SAR polarimetric scattering theory
  • Bi-SAR flight formation and configuration
  • Bi-SAR with signal of opportunity
  • New imaging theory for Bi-SAR
  • Fast Bi-SAR image focusing algorithms
  • Bi-SAR applications in observing dynamic processes of the Earth

We look forward to your contribution!

Prof. Kun-Shan Chen
Prof. Jie Chen
Dr. Xiaofeng Li
Dr. Yu Liu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bistatic scattering 
  • Sensitivity analysis
  • Bi-SAR flight formation 
  • Bi-SAR signal processing 
  • Bi-SAR image focusing 
  • Information content 
  • Bi-SAR polarimetric decomposition 
  • Signal of opportunity

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
An Efficient Imaging Algorithm for GNSS-R Bi-Static SAR
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(24), 2945; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11242945 - 09 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R) based Bi-static Synthetic Aperture Radar (BSAR) is becoming more and more important in remote sensing, given its low power, low mass, low cost, and real-time global coverage capability. Due to its complex configuration, the imaging for GNSS-R [...] Read more.
Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R) based Bi-static Synthetic Aperture Radar (BSAR) is becoming more and more important in remote sensing, given its low power, low mass, low cost, and real-time global coverage capability. Due to its complex configuration, the imaging for GNSS-R BSAR is usually based on the Back-Projection Algorithm (BPA), which is very time consuming. In this paper, an efficient and general imaging algorithm for GNSS-R BSAR is presented. A Two Step Range Cell Migration (TSRCM) correction is firstly applied. The first step roughly compensates the RCM and Doppler phase caused by the motion of the transmitter, which simplifies the SAR data into the quasi-mono-static case. The second step removes the residual RCM caused by the motion of the receiver using the modified frequency scaling algorithm. Then, a cubic phase perturbation operation is introduced to equalize the Doppler frequency modulation rate along the same range cell. Finally, azimuth phase compensation and geometric correction are completed to obtain the focused SAR image. A simulation and experiment are conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm, showing that the proposed algorithm is more efficient than the BPA, without causing significant degradation in imaging quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling and Precise Processing for Spaceborne Transmitter/Missile-Borne Receiver SAR Signals
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(3), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11030346 - 10 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The spaceborne transmitter/missile-borne receiver (ST/MR) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) could provide several unique advantages, such as wide coverage, unrestricted geography, a small detection probability of the missile, and forward-looking imaging. However, it is also accompanied by problems in imaging, including geometric model establishment [...] Read more.
The spaceborne transmitter/missile-borne receiver (ST/MR) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) could provide several unique advantages, such as wide coverage, unrestricted geography, a small detection probability of the missile, and forward-looking imaging. However, it is also accompanied by problems in imaging, including geometric model establishment and focusing algorithm design. In this paper, an ST/MR SAR model is first presented and then the flight-path constraint, characterized by geometric configurations, is derived. Considering the impacts brought about by the maneuvers of the missile, a non-‘Stop-Go’ mathematical model is devised and it can avoid the large errors introduced by the acceleration, which is neglected in the traditional model. Finally, a two-dimensional (2-D) scaling algorithm is developed to focus the ST/MR data. Without introducing any extra operations, it can greatly remove the spatial variations of the range, azimuth, and cross-coupling phases simultaneously and entirely in the 2-D hybrid domain. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed model and focusing approach. Full article
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Open AccessLetter
Bistatic Landmine and IED Detection Combining Vehicle and Drone Mounted GPR Sensors
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(19), 2299; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11192299 - 02 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
This work proposes a novel Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) system to detect landmines and Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). The system, which was numerically evaluated, is composed of a transmitter placed on a vehicle and looking forward and a receiver mounted on a drone [...] Read more.
This work proposes a novel Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) system to detect landmines and Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). The system, which was numerically evaluated, is composed of a transmitter placed on a vehicle and looking forward and a receiver mounted on a drone and looking downwards. This combination offers both a good penetration and a high resolution, enabling the detection of non-metallic targets and mitigating the clutter at the air–soil interface. First, a fast ray tracing simulator was developed to find proper configurations of the system. Then, these configurations were validated using a full wave simulator, considering a flat and a rough surface. All simulations were post-processed using a fast and accurate Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) algorithm that takes into account the constitutive parameters of the soil. The SAR images for all configurations were compared, concluding that the proposed contribution greatly improves the target detection and the surface clutter reduction over conventional forward-looking GPR systems. Full article
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