Prominent Papers in Psych  2021–2023!

A special issue of Psych (ISSN 2624-8611).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 112353

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Department of Molecular, Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, CUNY School of Medicine, The City College of New York, New York, NY 10031, USA
Interests: biosensors; chemical sensors; nanosensors; bioprobes; neuromolecular imaging (NMI); neurotransmitters; neurochemicals; in vitro; in vivo; in situ; brain; behavior; neurosystem disorders and treatment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will be a collection of high-quality papers from editorial board members, guest editors, and leading researchers invited by the editorial office and the Editor-in-Chief. Both original research articles and review papers are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Broderick Patricia
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (33 papers)

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10 pages, 730 KiB  
Article
Nonverbal Intelligence Does Matter for the Perception of Second Language Sounds
by Georgios P. Georgiou
Psych 2023, 5(1), 123-132; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych5010012 - 08 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1195
Abstract
Although there has been considerable research on the interplay between intelligence and second language (L2) learning, research focusing on the intelligence and L2 speech perception link is limited. The present study aims to fill this gap. The native language of the participants was [...] Read more.
Although there has been considerable research on the interplay between intelligence and second language (L2) learning, research focusing on the intelligence and L2 speech perception link is limited. The present study aims to fill this gap. The native language of the participants was Cypriot Greek and they spoke English as an L2. The participants completed a forced-choice psychoacoustic test in which they discriminated L2 sound contrasts and a nonverbal intelligence test which measured their nonverbal intelligence capacities. They were divided into two groups according to their performance in the intelligence test, namely, a low IQ and a high IQ group. The results showed that the high IQ group discriminated the majority of the L2 contrasts better than the low IQ group. In addition, the degree of perceived difficulty for most L2 contrasts differed between the two groups. It is concluded that nonverbal intelligence is associated with the discrimination of L2 sounds. This can be explained by the possibility that either intelligence triggers the more efficient functioning of other domains, such as information processing and attention, leading to increased speech perception skills, or that it directly affects the categorization of speech sounds resulting in the development of more robust L2 categories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prominent Papers in Psych  2021–2023!)
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10 pages, 263 KiB  
Article
Measuring the Effectiveness of Career Education: A Kindergarten Intervention
by Alessandro Buffoli, Teresa Rinaldi, Roberta Morici and Diego Boerchi
Psych 2023, 5(1), 113-122; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych5010011 - 06 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1691
Abstract
Several studies have confirmed the importance of career education in promoting career development in children. This study aims to test whether specific career education interventions would develop new conceptions about career choice and career attainment in kindergarten pupils. The intervention was conducted directly [...] Read more.
Several studies have confirmed the importance of career education in promoting career development in children. This study aims to test whether specific career education interventions would develop new conceptions about career choice and career attainment in kindergarten pupils. The intervention was conducted directly by teachers who were adequately trained and supervised. The career conceptions were assessed in experimental and control groups through the Conceptions of Career Choice and Attainment protocol, before and after career education intervention. The results showed that the two groups started from the same level and increased their conceptions over time. However, the experimental groups increased them much more, and statistically significantly, than the control groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prominent Papers in Psych  2021–2023!)
11 pages, 599 KiB  
Article
Electrodermal Activity Implicating a Sympathetic Nervous System Response under the Perception of Sensing a Divine Presence—A Psychophysiological Analysis
by Yoshija Walter and Andreas Altorfer
Psych 2023, 5(1), 102-112; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych5010010 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1721
Abstract
Previous studies have suggested that religious worship experiences may recruit the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in an activating fashion. For this reason, we hypothesized that measurements of the electrodermal activity (EDA) would concur with the notion that the subjective experience of sensing the [...] Read more.
Previous studies have suggested that religious worship experiences may recruit the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in an activating fashion. For this reason, we hypothesized that measurements of the electrodermal activity (EDA) would concur with the notion that the subjective experience of sensing the presence of God recruits a sympathetic nervous system response. We analyzed the EDA of 37 evangelical participants and calculated classic galvanic skin response (GSR) measures. Our experimental design included six conditions with and without music consisting of religious and non-religious songs plus a resting-state condition, which were used to induce a variance in the religious experience suitable for statistical analyses. Results showed that both tonic and phasic signals as well as the overall electrical skin conductance (SC) were positively associated with the religious experience, defined as sensing the presence of God. This implicates that we can accept the hypothesis that such a religious experience under the influence of worship seems to recruit the sympathetic nervous system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prominent Papers in Psych  2021–2023!)
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22 pages, 721 KiB  
Article
Perceived Body Image towards Disordered Eating Behaviors and Supplement Use: A Study of Mauritian Gym-Goers
by Numrata Moty, Jhoti Somanah and Manish Putteeraj
Psych 2023, 5(1), 80-101; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych5010009 - 03 Feb 2023
Viewed by 3952
Abstract
Purpose: Individuals with body image distortions tend to develop an obsession with calorie intake and weight, leading to compounded coping strategies such as modified eating behaviors, supplement use, and excessive exercise. In the local context, little is known about the equation connecting body [...] Read more.
Purpose: Individuals with body image distortions tend to develop an obsession with calorie intake and weight, leading to compounded coping strategies such as modified eating behaviors, supplement use, and excessive exercise. In the local context, little is known about the equation connecting body image to improper eating behaviors and other potential coping mechanisms. This study primarily aims at critically identifying the nexus between features of disordered eating behavior including supplement use, and body image. Methodology: A probabilistic randomized sample of 305 gym members was assessed based on their level of body satisfaction and its influence on their eating habits and supplement use through a structured survey. Findings: Only 37% of the participants were satisfied with their body image. The results concurred with the notion of a poor body image influencing body esteem (χ2 (10) = 137.21, p < 0.05; Cramer V = 0.474). While exercise motivated the use of supplements, a significant relationship was also observed between disordered eating habits and supplement use (χ2 (4) = 48.63, p < 0.05; Cramer V = 0.399). A predictive model was successfully drawn inclusive of the disordered eating behaviors dimensions as a potent predictor of body image (χ2 (56) = 397.12, p < 0.001. Implications: This study presents an in-depth analysis of the magnitude of disordered eating behaviors with respect to individuals in the local fitness industry, and the need for professional support programs toward the re-alignment of body image in an effort to curtail the development of eating disorders in Mauritian gym-goers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prominent Papers in Psych  2021–2023!)
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10 pages, 268 KiB  
Article
The Intersection of Personality Traits and Social Media Usage: Large-Scale Representative Samples of Internet Users in Sweden
by John Magnus Roos
Psych 2023, 5(1), 70-79; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych5010008 - 02 Feb 2023
Viewed by 5783
Abstract
This paper aims to explore the relationship between the Big Five model of personality traits and social media usage in a Swedish context. The paper consists of three representative studies of the Swedish population in the age range 16 to 85. In Study [...] Read more.
This paper aims to explore the relationship between the Big Five model of personality traits and social media usage in a Swedish context. The paper consists of three representative studies of the Swedish population in the age range 16 to 85. In Study 1 (N = 6542), the Big Five personality factors were measured by HP5i. In Study 2 (N = 3322) and Study 3 (N = 3302), the Big Five personality factors were measured by BFI-10. Different personality inventories and time periods for data collection were the basis for the breakdown of the studies. In all three studies, social media usage was measured by a self-reported estimation of frequencies. For each study, correlation matrixes between the study variables were first presented, followed by hierarchical regression analyses to test if personality factors predicted internet users’ social media usage. Gender and age were control variables. Over and above the effects of gender and age, all three studies found that social media usage is positively associated with extraversion. The first two studies also found that social media usage is associated with a high degree of openness to experiences and a low degree of conscientiousness. The reliability of the findings is strengthened through different personality inventories, large-scale representative samples of the Swedish population, and replications over time. However, since personality and social media usage vary between different cultures and time periods, caution should be taken in generalizing the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prominent Papers in Psych  2021–2023!)
10 pages, 1320 KiB  
Article
Healthcare Provider Reports on Social Determinants of Health in Opioid Treatment
by Christopher Cambron, Ramkiran Gouripeddi and Julio C. Facelli
Psych 2023, 5(1), 60-69; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych5010007 - 30 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2215
Abstract
Opioid overdose and death from overdose continue to present a pressing problem in the United States. It is well-established that a range of social and economic factors, often referred to as social determinants of health (SDOH), are associated with increased opioid overdose and [...] Read more.
Opioid overdose and death from overdose continue to present a pressing problem in the United States. It is well-established that a range of social and economic factors, often referred to as social determinants of health (SDOH), are associated with increased opioid overdose and death. Few studies have examined healthcare provider reports on social and economic barriers to opioid treatment. Healthcare providers (N = 161) participating in opioid Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) programs were surveyed on the portion of their patients experiencing 15 different SDOH. Results indicated that multiple determinants were experienced by the majority of their patients, with poverty as the most commonly experienced social determinant (72%). Regression analyses indicated that physicians generally reported a lower portion of patients experiencing SDOH compared with social workers, nurse practitioners, and other healthcare providers. Results suggest that SDOH are widely experienced by patients seeking opioid treatment and that professional backgrounds may be related to reports of SDOH at the point of care. Multi-disciplinary teams involving social workers, nurse practitioners, and other healthcare providers may improve the identification of social and economic barriers to opioid treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prominent Papers in Psych  2021–2023!)
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12 pages, 1479 KiB  
Article
Mental Paper Folding Revisited: The Involvement of Visual Action Imagery
by Stephan Frederic Dahm and Clemens Draxler
Psych 2023, 5(1), 14-25; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych5010002 - 30 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2126
Abstract
Action imagery describes a mental representation of an action and its consequences. Although it is widely recognized that people differ in their ability to imagine actions, objective validated tests to measure such differences are scarce. In search of an objective testing method for [...] Read more.
Action imagery describes a mental representation of an action and its consequences. Although it is widely recognized that people differ in their ability to imagine actions, objective validated tests to measure such differences are scarce. In search of an objective testing method for action imagery ability, the present study investigated whether solving mental paper-folding tasks involves action imagery. The stimuli were two-dimensional grids of six squares. A total of 99 participants mentally folded each grid into a three-dimensional cube to judge whether two highlighted lines in the grid overlapped in the imagined cube. This was done in two sessions of 214 judgements each, where the grids differed in overlaps, the least number of imagined folds, and the least number of imagined directional changes. Error rates and reaction times increased with the number of imagined folds and with the number of directional changes. Furthermore, more errors were committed with overlapping lines than with no overlaps. This was not reflected in the reaction times. Hence, the reaction times increased when the stepwise folding process was enlarged, but not when the final selection was more difficult. We concluded that the participants predominantly used action imagery as a task-solving strategy rather than for abstract problem-solving. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prominent Papers in Psych  2021–2023!)
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16 pages, 289 KiB  
Article
Personality and Entrepreneurial Behavior: Relations among Entrepreneurship-Relevant Traits and Entrepreneurial Status, Intentions, and Prior Venture Experiences
by Justin Travis and S. Bartholomew Craig
Psych 2022, 4(4), 918-933; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4040068 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2238
Abstract
Increasing investments in incubators, accelerators, and academia coincide with current and historical perceptions of the United States as a world leader in creating new businesses, as well as an economic force dependent, in part, on entrepreneurship. Research identifies various personality characteristics related to [...] Read more.
Increasing investments in incubators, accelerators, and academia coincide with current and historical perceptions of the United States as a world leader in creating new businesses, as well as an economic force dependent, in part, on entrepreneurship. Research identifies various personality characteristics related to entrepreneurship, however, entrepreneur-specific personality measures have rarely been studied. This study investigates relationships between the 11-factor Entrepreneur Core Characteristics Profile and entrepreneurial outcomes in a sample including students, working adults, and current entrepreneurs. Results expand our understanding of how entrepreneur-specific measures may be useful for predicting entrepreneurial outcomes, with implications for practitioners who work with entrepreneurs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prominent Papers in Psych  2021–2023!)
17 pages, 324 KiB  
Article
Data-Driven Analysis Exploring the Development of Empathy in an Iranian Context
by Parvaneh Yaghoubi Jami and Hyemin Han
Psych 2022, 4(4), 901-917; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4040067 - 09 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1418
Abstract
In the present study, we explored the best regression models that explain the developmental path of dispositional empathy among Iranian participants using Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA). BMA, a data-driven analysis method, was employed to identify the most likely candidate regression models given the [...] Read more.
In the present study, we explored the best regression models that explain the developmental path of dispositional empathy among Iranian participants using Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA). BMA, a data-driven analysis method, was employed to identify the most likely candidate regression models given the collected data. We reported the best regression model for each dependent variable and different components of applied questionnaires by evaluating and comparing multiple model fit indicators—Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, adjusted R2, Bayes Factor model, and leave-one-out cross-validation root-mean-square error—among candidate regression models identified by BMA. We discussed the theoretical implications of the findings regarding factors associated with empathy development and the methodological implications of using data-driven analysis in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prominent Papers in Psych  2021–2023!)
27 pages, 1054 KiB  
Article
The Role of Challenge in Talent Development: Understanding Impact in Response to Emotional Disturbance
by Jamie Taylor, Michael Ashford and Dave Collins
Psych 2022, 4(4), 668-694; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4040050 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3129
Abstract
(1) Background: The pursuit of excellence is central to most development environments, and this is particularly the case in high-performance sport. Accordingly, we examined some mechanisms for development, focusing on the nature and impact of challenge in the experiences of more or less [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The pursuit of excellence is central to most development environments, and this is particularly the case in high-performance sport. Accordingly, we examined some mechanisms for development, focusing on the nature and impact of challenge in the experiences of more or less successful high-level rugby players. (2) Methods: Retrospective interviews were conducted with two groups of players. All had been successful on the development pathway (i.e., recruited to high level academies and selected as age group internationals). Only some had progressed to senior contracts and international selection, offering a basis for contrast. (3) Results: Data suggest the importance of negative experiences in the development of performers and performance. Importantly, however, the impact is dependent on both the skills of the individual and the style, timing and context of the challenge. (4) Conclusions: Negative experiences seemed to offer developmental opportunities wider than just learning to cope, at least for those who eventually succeeded. In short, progress was dependent on an interaction between individual skill, interpretation, context and social setting. The need for coaches and others to develop the appropriate attitudes and approach to challenge is a clear implication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prominent Papers in Psych  2021–2023!)
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14 pages, 294 KiB  
Article
The Role of Group Sharing: An Action Research Study of Psychodrama Group Therapy in a Psychiatric Inpatient Ward
by Yiftach Ron
Psych 2022, 4(4), 626-639; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4040048 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3051
Abstract
Numerous studies point to the acute distress associated with the experience of coping with severe mental illness and psychiatric hospitalization. Another strand of research notes the therapeutic benefits of psychodrama and its efficacy in increasing empathy and self-awareness, improving interpersonal relationships, reducing stress [...] Read more.
Numerous studies point to the acute distress associated with the experience of coping with severe mental illness and psychiatric hospitalization. Another strand of research notes the therapeutic benefits of psychodrama and its efficacy in increasing empathy and self-awareness, improving interpersonal relationships, reducing stress and anxiety, and in treating particularly vulnerable populations for whom traditional psychotherapy’s usefulness is limited. The goal of this paper is to provide a framework for understanding the potential of group sharing in dealing with the experience of loneliness and distress, and to serve as a space for relatedness and self-expression in psychodrama group therapy. A qualitative action research study following an open inpatients’ psychodrama group in a psychiatric hospital in Israel demonstrates the role of group sharing in creating an accommodating space of self-expression, relatedness, and mutual support, which offers relief for the distress of psychiatric inpatients. Within the inpatients’ group, the participants used sharing to distribute the burden among the group members along with the resources to cope with it. The paper seeks to illuminate the unique contribution of a therapeutic tool rarely dealt with by the existing literature–the group sharing—in dealing with situations of acute mental distress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prominent Papers in Psych  2021–2023!)
15 pages, 687 KiB  
Article
The Content Specificity and Generality of the Relationship between Mathematical Problem Solving and Affective Factors
by Yuno Shimizu
Psych 2022, 4(3), 574-588; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4030044 - 09 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1450
Abstract
Research has revealed that both cognitive factors, such as knowledge, problem solving strategies and affective factors, such as motivation and emotions, strongly influence mathematical problem solving. However, few studies have examined the content specificity and generality of the relationship between mathematical problem solving [...] Read more.
Research has revealed that both cognitive factors, such as knowledge, problem solving strategies and affective factors, such as motivation and emotions, strongly influence mathematical problem solving. However, few studies have examined the content specificity and generality of the relationship between mathematical problem solving and affective factors. This study examines the content specificity and generality of the relationship between mathematical problem solving, task value, math anxiety and engagement among high school students. Japanese second-year high school students (n = 240) completed questionnaires. The multilevel structural equation modelling revealed that utility value for entrance examinations and emotional engagement positively affected mathematical problem solving via cognitive engagement between various contents level. Emotional engagement positively affected mathematical problem solving via cognitive engagement within a certain content level. The results suggest that promoting the perception that learning mathematics has high utility value for university entrance examinations across various contents can increase students’ cognitive engagement and, therefore, improve mathematical problem solving. Furthermore, both increasing students’ emotional engagement only when they learn certain content and consistently increasing it may improve cognitive engagement and, therefore, allow learners to better solve mathematical problems. The study’s findings have significant implications for educational practice and mathematical problem-solving research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prominent Papers in Psych  2021–2023!)
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9 pages, 276 KiB  
Article
Workplace Violence in Healthcare Settings: Work-Related Predictors of Violence Behaviours
by Carla Barros, Rute F. Meneses, Ana Sani and Pilar Baylina
Psych 2022, 4(3), 516-524; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4030039 - 09 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3021
Abstract
Healthcare workers are exposed to workplace violence such as physical assaults, psychological violence and threats of violence. It is crucial to understand factors associated with workplace violence to prevent and mitigate its consequences. This study aims to identify work-related factors that might influence [...] Read more.
Healthcare workers are exposed to workplace violence such as physical assaults, psychological violence and threats of violence. It is crucial to understand factors associated with workplace violence to prevent and mitigate its consequences. This study aims to identify work-related factors that might influence workplace violence in healthcare settings. A cross-sectional study was developed between March and April of 2022 with healthcare workers. The Aggression and Violence at Work Scale was used to assess workplace violence, and psychosocial risks were assessed through the Health and Work Survey—INSAT. Statistical analysis using bivariate analysis was performed to identify the psychosocial risk factors related to physical violence, psychological violence and vicarious violence. Subsequently, a multiple linear regression was performed to identify the models that better explained the relationship between psychosocial risk factors and the three dimensions of violence. Psychological violence was frequently experienced by the healthcare workers. Significant associations were found between psychosocial risk factors and physical, psychological and vicarious violence, namely working hours, work relationships, employment relations, high demands and work intensity. These findings highlight the importance of taking into consideration work-related factors when designing interventions to prevent and address workplace violence in healthcare settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prominent Papers in Psych  2021–2023!)
31 pages, 4783 KiB  
Article
Falsification of the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire: No Evidence of Systemic Sexual Harassment in Academic STEM
by Patrick Frank
Psych 2022, 4(3), 404-434; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4030034 - 20 Jul 2022
Viewed by 3994
Abstract
Herein, the socio-psychological narrative of sexual harassment (SH) is critically evaluated. The notion of systemic SH in university departments of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is contradicted by the overwhelming (>90%) career satisfaction among female STEM academics. The Sexual Experiences Questionnaire (SEQ), [...] Read more.
Herein, the socio-psychological narrative of sexual harassment (SH) is critically evaluated. The notion of systemic SH in university departments of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is contradicted by the overwhelming (>90%) career satisfaction among female STEM academics. The Sexual Experiences Questionnaire (SEQ), central to the study of SH, inheres the nominalistic fallacy. SEQ usage deploys subjectivist methodologies, categorical ambiguity, the post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy, and treats respondents as cyphers. Intercorrelation of SEQ factors reduces response statistics by 42%, while phase-space vector geometry indicates the SEQ does not measure SH. Personality analysis implies that serial abusers dominate the incidence of SH. The widespread notion that 20–25% of female college students suffer violent sexual assault rests on a misreading of published work. The 2016 Campus Climate Survey permits an upper limit estimate that 3.2% of female college students suffer rape at the hands of 4.3% of male student perpetrators, largely accompanied by drugs or alcohol. The 2018 National Academy (NAS) Report on sexual harassment in STEM exhibits negligent scholarship and carelessly generalizing statistics and may itself promote violation of the EEOC legal definition of SH. Despite instances of grievous sex-based abuse, there is no evidence that female STEM academics face systemic sexual harassment. Finally, evolutionary psychology and the social significance of personality provide a scientific understanding of SH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prominent Papers in Psych  2021–2023!)
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8 pages, 1771 KiB  
Article
Biases of Temporal Duration Judgements in Visual and Auditory System
by Gaetana Chillemi, Francesco Corallo, Alessandro Calamuneri, Adriana Salatino, Alberto Cacciola, Raffaella Ricci and Angelo Quartarone
Psych 2022, 4(3), 396-403; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4030033 - 08 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1417
Abstract
Background: There is evidence that temporal duration is spatially represented on a horizontal mental timeline (MTL) with relatively short durations represented on the left and long duration on the right side. Most of this evidence comes from the visual domain. Objective: With the [...] Read more.
Background: There is evidence that temporal duration is spatially represented on a horizontal mental timeline (MTL) with relatively short durations represented on the left and long duration on the right side. Most of this evidence comes from the visual domain. Objective: With the present study, we investigated whether temporal duration judgements of visual and auditory stimuli might be affected by spatial biases in time representation. Methods: Participants were asked to estimate the temporal duration of a target with respect to a reference stimulus. Two different exposure times were used for the reference (fast and slow), and three exposure times for the target with respect to the reference (shorter, equal, longer). Two versions of the task were implemented to probe visual and auditory temporal processing. Results: Participants showed enhanced performance when the target had longer duration than the reference independently of the type of task, but they were affected in opposite ways by the reference exposure time, in the two tasks. Best performance was observed for the fast reference in the visual domain and for the slow reference in the auditory one. Discussion: We argue that these findings provide evidence that temporal judgments of visual and auditory stimuli are affected by the duration of the reference stimulus, besides the duration of the target stimulus. Interestingly, they suggest putative leftward and rightward spatial biases in time representation for the visual and auditory domains, respectively, although future studies are necessary to further investigate these initial findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prominent Papers in Psych  2021–2023!)
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11 pages, 476 KiB  
Article
Dance Movement Psychotherapy in Breast Cancer: “Throwing the Βall to Μount Olympus”
by Spyridoula Karaferi, Maria N. Papaliagka (Papaliaga), Maria Tolia, Antigoni Poultsidi, Panagiotis D. Felemegas and Konstantinos Bonotis
Psych 2022, 4(2), 281-291; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4020025 - 26 May 2022
Viewed by 2387
Abstract
The present study is a Dance Movement Psychotherapy (DMP) pilot intervention designed to address the psychological challenges faced by Greek breast cancer patients, after surgery and around radiotherapy treatment. It was designed as a 12 weeks’ project, involving patients of diverse age and [...] Read more.
The present study is a Dance Movement Psychotherapy (DMP) pilot intervention designed to address the psychological challenges faced by Greek breast cancer patients, after surgery and around radiotherapy treatment. It was designed as a 12 weeks’ project, involving patients of diverse age and educational level, mostly living in rural areas. The personality and psychopathology inventory Symptoms’ Check List-90 (SCL-90), the therapist’s records and video self-observation were used in a mixed method approach. Thirteen subjects initiated the study, but they were gradually reduced and only four completed it. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS-25 addressing this fact. Positive results of qualitative interpretation of the therapist’s data and SCL-90, as well as changes in movement patterns and self-perception evaluated via video self-observation, showed that the intervention was beneficial for the patients who completed it. However, the fact that not all the participants were able to finish the program, implies that although DMT intervention at an early stage can help some patients deal with strong emotions, careful evaluation of eligible individuals should precede. Besides the patients’ medical condition, demographic and personality characteristics should be considered in the design of future similar studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prominent Papers in Psych  2021–2023!)
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11 pages, 632 KiB  
Article
The Mediating Role of School and Sibling Bullying in the Relationship between Subjective Well-Being and Mental Health Symptoms
by Ioannis Katsantonis
Psych 2022, 4(2), 258-268; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4020022 - 13 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2738
Abstract
Recently, empirical studies have indicated an association between well-being and mental health. The nature of this association remains unclear since some studies suggest it is weak, whilst others indicate it is strong. The present study seeks to contribute to this dialogue by modelling [...] Read more.
Recently, empirical studies have indicated an association between well-being and mental health. The nature of this association remains unclear since some studies suggest it is weak, whilst others indicate it is strong. The present study seeks to contribute to this dialogue by modelling not only the relationship between well-being and internalising and externalising mental health symptoms but also by introducing a mediation model where school and sibling bullying, as risk factors, are acting as mediators. A national sample of 1244 youth (Mage = 12.47, SD = 1.69) from the Understanding Society household panel study in the UK was utilised to estimate the structural equation model. The findings showed that the direct effect of well-being on internalising symptoms was negative and strong, whereas it was negative and moderate on externalising symptoms. Furthermore, the pattern of indirect effects from subjective well-being to internalising and externalising mental health symptoms displayed some differences in the level of statistical significance and strength. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prominent Papers in Psych  2021–2023!)
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11 pages, 279 KiB  
Article
Psychometric Properties of the Short Form-36 (SF-36) in Parents of Children with Mental Illness
by Madeline Reed, Shannon V. Reaume and Mark A. Ferro
Psych 2022, 4(2), 247-257; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4020021 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2343
Abstract
Given the stressful experiences of parenting children with mental illness, researchers and health professionals must ensure that the health-related quality of life of these vulnerable parents is measured with sufficient validity and reliability. This study examined the psychometric properties of the SF-36 in [...] Read more.
Given the stressful experiences of parenting children with mental illness, researchers and health professionals must ensure that the health-related quality of life of these vulnerable parents is measured with sufficient validity and reliability. This study examined the psychometric properties of the SF-36 in parents of children with mental illness. The data come from 99 parents whose children were currently receiving mental health services. The correlated two-factor structure of the SF-36 was replicated. Internal consistencies were robust (α > 0.80) for all but three subscales (General Health, Vitality, Mental Health). Inter-subscale and component correlations were strong. Correlations with parental psychopathology ranged from r = −0.32 to −0.60 for the physical component and r = −0.39 to −0.75 for the mental component. Parents with clinically relevant psychopathology had significantly worse SF-36 scores. SF-36 scores were inversely associated with the number of child diagnoses. The SF-36 showed evidence of validity and reliability as a measure of health-related quality of life in parents of children with mental illness and may be used as a potential outcome in the evaluation of family-centered approaches to care within child psychiatry. Given the relatively small sample size of this study, research should continue to examine its psychometric properties in more diverse samples of caregivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prominent Papers in Psych  2021–2023!)
12 pages, 412 KiB  
Article
US Nurses’ Challenges with Personal Protective Equipment during COVID-19: Interview Findings from the Frontline Workforce
by Shannon D. Simonovich, Elizabeth Aquino, Christina Lattner, Cheryl Soco, Tiffany N. Ponder, Lily Amer, Stephanie Howard, Gilliane Nwafor, Payal Shah, Donna Badowski, Susan Krawczyk, Lucy Mueller Wiesemann, Roxanne S. Spurlark, Kashica J. Webber-Ritchey and Young-Me Lee
Psych 2022, 4(2), 226-237; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4020019 - 22 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4873
Abstract
This study aimed to describe nurses’ experiences with personal protective equipment while providing patient care during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the US. From May 2020 to September 2020, 100 individual interviews were conducted with nurses from diverse backgrounds and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to describe nurses’ experiences with personal protective equipment while providing patient care during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the US. From May 2020 to September 2020, 100 individual interviews were conducted with nurses from diverse backgrounds and practice settings. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and verified for thematic analysis. Three key themes emerged related to personal protective equipment during COVID-19: (1) concerns with safety, (2) concerns with personal protective equipment supply, and (3) concerns with health care systems changing personal protective equipment policies. These findings support the importance of transparent and equitable institution-wide PPE standards in creating safe working environments. Clear communication around personal protective equipment policies and procedures, personal protective equipment education, and assurance of equitable access to equipment that can mitigate risk and disability while also reducing fear, confusion, and frustration among nurses. Maintaining clear and consistent personal protective equipment guidelines and communication regarding supplies and procedures enhances transparency during both routine and critical times de-escalating the inevitable strain concomitant with providing patient care during a global pandemic. Full article
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11 pages, 256 KiB  
Article
Examination of PTSD and Depression Levels and Demographic Data of Syrian Refugee Children during the Pandemic
by Elif Erol and Dilara Demirpençe Seçinti
Psych 2022, 4(2), 215-225; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4020018 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2399
Abstract
Background: The worldwide population of child refugees is estimated to be over 10 million. Refugee children and adolescents are among the most vulnerable groups in the world, and the pandemic created new challenges for them. Objective: This study aimed to examine the PTSD [...] Read more.
Background: The worldwide population of child refugees is estimated to be over 10 million. Refugee children and adolescents are among the most vulnerable groups in the world, and the pandemic created new challenges for them. Objective: This study aimed to examine the PTSD and depression levels of Syrian refugee children and adolescents, the difficulties they experienced in access to food and education, and the changes in their family income, and evaluate the effects of these factors on symptom severities of depression and PTSD. Methods: We used data obtained from 631 Syrian refugee children between the ages of 7 and 15. Assessment measures for exposure to PTSD and depression included a socio-demographic form, stressors related to COVID-19, the Child and Adolescent Trauma Survey (CATS), and the patient-rated Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI). ANCOVA is conducted to evaluate the differences between the symptoms of PTSD and depression. The regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the scales and the demographic data. Results: The study finds that 40.7% of the refugee children experienced at least one trauma, 24.9% met the criteria for PTSD, and 15.5% met the criteria for depression. The changes in income and food access are associated with PTSD and depression, while access to education is not associated with PTSD and depression. The adolescents aged between 12 and 15 show more depression and PTSD symptoms then the children aged between 7 and 11. Conclusions: The study revealed that the most risky group in refugee children and adolescents in terms of PTSD and depression were the adolescents aged between 12 and 15 and the children and adolescent whose family income was decreased and had limited access to food. Full article
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15 pages, 2007 KiB  
Article
Geographical Variation in Mental Hospital Discharges in Greece: A Nationwide Study (1999–2012)
by Katerina Dadouli, Apostolia Hatziefthimiou, Varvara A. Mouchtouri, Panagiotis Ntellas, Lemonia Anagnostopoulos, Michalis Koureas, Konstantinos Bonotis, Nikolaos Christodoulou and Christos Hadjichristodoulou
Psych 2022, 4(2), 200-214; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4020017 - 30 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2645
Abstract
Background: The primary goal of this study is to estimate the pattern of hospital discharges throughout Greece due to mental disorders between 1999 and 2012. Methods: Data for discharges were obtained from the Hellenic Statistical Authority. A sex- and age-adjusted proportional hospitalization ratio [...] Read more.
Background: The primary goal of this study is to estimate the pattern of hospital discharges throughout Greece due to mental disorders between 1999 and 2012. Methods: Data for discharges were obtained from the Hellenic Statistical Authority. A sex- and age-adjusted proportional hospitalization ratio (PHR) was used to estimate the ratio between the hospitalizations in each prefecture and the overall hospitalizations. Additionally, age-adjusted admission rates and hospitalization days were calculated for each sex. Descriptive and time series analysis were conducted to understand the epidemiological characteristics and to investigate the trend of annual PHR, respectively. Correlation between disorders and sociodemographic characteristics was also tested. Global and local spatial analysis was conducted to assess the spatial homogeneity of disorders and to detect any clusters of similar values. Results: More males (55%) were hospitalized. Schizophrenic and other psychoses were stated as the primary diagnosis of discharges (54.3%) for mental disorders, contributing to the highest annual mean number of hospitalization-days for male (296.9) and female patients (341.0). Most patients were out of the workforce, and most patients with drug dependence (74.5%) and schizophrenia and other psychoses (55.9%) remained unmarried. Higher PHRs were discovered in the north, while schizophrenic and other psychoses (R = 0.492), affective psychoses (R = 0.534), senile and presenile organic psychotic conditions (R = 0.543) were correlated with alcohol consumption (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The study provides evidence of geographical variation of discharges due to mental disorders and a significant association between disorders and alcohol consumption, marriage status and absence of the workforce. Full article
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13 pages, 819 KiB  
Article
Differential Diagnosis of MCI, Dementia and Depression—A Comparison of Different Cognitive Profiles
by Christina Wunner, Anne Schubert, Markus Gosch and Mark Stemmler
Psych 2022, 4(2), 187-199; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4020016 - 29 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2836
Abstract
Three-hundred-and-thirty-four cognitive profiles from neuropsychological examinations assessed during a 5-year period (2015 to 2020) from geriatric patients of a day clinic in the south of Germany were analyzed. For this purpose, the profiles were divided into the following subgroups: (1) Mild Cognitive Impairment, [...] Read more.
Three-hundred-and-thirty-four cognitive profiles from neuropsychological examinations assessed during a 5-year period (2015 to 2020) from geriatric patients of a day clinic in the south of Germany were analyzed. For this purpose, the profiles were divided into the following subgroups: (1) Mild Cognitive Impairment, no depression (2) Onset or mild dementia, no depression (3) No cognitive deficit, depression (4) cognitively impaired (MCI, dementia) and depression. Subgroups were be compared using analysis of variance (independent variable IV: diagnostic groups, dependent variable DV: cognitive functions) to reveal specific differences that will allow a differential diagnosis. Post-hoc comparisons and a graphical representation of the cognitive profiles were also investigated. All cognitive profiles with a Mini-Mental-State-Examination (MMSE) score of 25 or more points were selected for analysis if they had complete data from the following testing procedures: MMSE, clock drawing test, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Syndrom-Kurztest (SKT), Nuremberg Aging Inventory (NAI) maze test, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) similarities, Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) story immediate and delayed. The results will help to improve the differential diagnostic examination of older depressed people with and without cognitive impairment: Depressed patients usually have no objectifiable memory impairment and inconspicuous scores in the logical structure of thought processes, while attention was usually impaired in both depressed and demented patients. Full article
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14 pages, 443 KiB  
Article
Development and Validation of an Inventory for Stressful Situations in University Students Involving Coping Mechanisms: An Interesting Cultural Mix in Ghana
by Frank Quansah, Francis Ankomah, John Elvis Hagan, Jr., Medina Srem-Sai, James Boadu Frimpong, Francis Sambah and Thomas Schack
Psych 2022, 4(2), 173-186; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4020015 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3608
Abstract
Cognitive and behavioural coping strategies are relevant approaches for individuals such as university students as they attempt to manage stressful situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic and other academic-related pursuits within their social milieu. Although several instruments have been developed to measure the [...] Read more.
Cognitive and behavioural coping strategies are relevant approaches for individuals such as university students as they attempt to manage stressful situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic and other academic-related pursuits within their social milieu. Although several instruments have been developed to measure the coping situations of such individuals, few studies have developed students’ specific coping inventories, with none in the African context. Of the few that exist, a culturally dominant code such as religion has been ignored by many scholars in the development of coping measures. In this study, a cultural-mix coping inventory was developed and validated using university students in Ghana. Two distinct interrelated objectives were addressed. First, the structure of the coping inventory was identified through principal component analysis. Further confirmatory factor as well as reliability analyses were then performed to provide evidence of construct validity of the scale. The outcome of the study revealed a sixteen-item psychometrically sound coping inventory with a four-dimensional structure, namely, active coping, religious coping, behaviour disengagement, and emotional support. The implications of the results are further discussed in detail. Full article
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11 pages, 782 KiB  
Article
Validation of the Visual Cognitive Assessment Test (VCAT) for the Early Diagnosis of Cognitive Impairment in Multilingual Population in Malaysia
by Li Yun Ng, Chen Joo Chin, Monica Danial, Stephenie Ann Albart, Purnima Devi Suppiah, Kurubaran Ganasegeran, Wei Theng Tan, Hung Eun Hoo, Ewe Eow Teh, Gaaitheri Karupiah, Laavanya Vijaya Kumar, Wen Mei Choong, Hooi Ling Tan, Szer Lik Yeap, Al-Zilal Abdul Wahid, Khian Boon Ng, Mohammad Nabhan Khalil, Esther G. Ebenezer, Basanta Kumar Mohanty, Helvinder Kaur, Xin Hui Choo, Wee Kooi Cheah, Sreevali Muthuvadivelu, Prema Muninathan, Hoon Lang Teh, Chiann Ni Thiam, Jia Hui Loh, Alan Swee Hock Ch’ng, Nagaendran Kandiah and Irene Looiadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Psych 2022, 4(1), 38-48; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4010003 - 01 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4135
Abstract
As Malaysia undergoes a demographic transformation of population aging, the prevalence of dementia is expected to rise, posing a major public health threat issue. Early screening to detect cognitive impairment is important to implement appropriate clinical interventions. The Visual Cognitive Assessment Test (VCAT) [...] Read more.
As Malaysia undergoes a demographic transformation of population aging, the prevalence of dementia is expected to rise, posing a major public health threat issue. Early screening to detect cognitive impairment is important to implement appropriate clinical interventions. The Visual Cognitive Assessment Test (VCAT) is a language-neutral cognitive assessment screening tool suitable for multilingual populations. This study was aimed to validate the VCAT screening tool for the detection of cognitive impairment amongst the population of Malaysia. A total of 184 participants were recruited, comprising 79 cognitively healthy participants (CHP), 46 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and 59 mild dementia (Alzheimer’s disease and Vascular Dementia) patients from five hospitals between May 2018 and December 2019 to determine the usefulness of VCAT. Diagnostic performance was assessed using area under the curve (AUC), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysies was performed to determine the recommended cutoff scores. ROC analyses for the VCAT was comparable with that of MoCA (Montreal Cognitive Assessment) in differentiating between CHP, MCI, and mild dementia (AD and VaD) participants. The findings of this study suggest the following optimal cutoff score for VCAT: Dementia 0–19, MCI 20–23, Normal 24–30. The mean ± SD time to complete the VCAT was 10.0 ± 2.75 min in the CHP group and 15.4 ± 4.52 min in the CI group. Results showed that 76.0% of subjects thought that the instructions in VCAT were similar or easier to understand compared with MoCA. This study showed that the VCAT is a valid and useful screening tool for patients with cognitive impairment in Malaysia and is feasible to be used in the clinical settings. Full article
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22 pages, 1286 KiB  
Article
Empirical Evidence for the Functionality Hypothesis in Motor Learning: The Effect of an Attentional Focus Is Task Dependent
by Svetlana Wähnert and Gisela Müller-Plath
Psych 2021, 3(4), 868-889; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych3040054 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2273
Abstract
A large body of research suggests that during learning motor skills, focusing on environmental effects of the movement (external focus) generally leads to better performance than focusing on one’s own body (internal focus). The functionality hypothesis states, in contrast, that the superiority of [...] Read more.
A large body of research suggests that during learning motor skills, focusing on environmental effects of the movement (external focus) generally leads to better performance than focusing on one’s own body (internal focus). The functionality hypothesis states, in contrast, that the superiority of any attentional focus is task dependent. The present study aimed to test the predictions of the latter and searched for underlying mechanisms and task characteristics for one or the other focus being more functional. In Experiment 1, we examined whether the internal focus is superior in a difficult body-oriented balance task. In Experiment 2, we added visual feedback and investigated whether this would enhance the functionality of the external focus. In both experiments, the participants stood one-legged on a balance board and had to shift their centre of pressure (COP) to predefined target points. Per instruction, they were asked to interpret their attentional focus on the COP as either internal (the sole of the foot) or external (the platform). In Experiment 1, the external focus was induced through a mental image. The internal focus group performed significantly better, thereby supporting the functionality hypothesis. In Experiment 2, the COP was dynamically visualized on a screen. The internal focus superiority vanished. We suggest that the internal focus is more functional in motor-learning situations that provide more effect information through body-internal senses than through body-external senses. In these cases, the external focus hampers learning because it is associated with additional cognitive load. Full article
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12 pages, 733 KiB  
Article
Why Do Students Become Cyberbullies? Elucidating the Contributions of Specific Developmental Risks to Cyberbullying
by Susanne Wallner and Mark Stemmler
Psych 2021, 3(4), 800-811; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych3040051 - 07 Dec 2021
Viewed by 3188
Abstract
Cyberbullying is currently considered as a widespread problem among children and adolescents; in particular, the risks of cyberbullying have recently been examined. The empirical analyses of the present work are based on data from a German longitudinal study. The self-reports of adolescents from [...] Read more.
Cyberbullying is currently considered as a widespread problem among children and adolescents; in particular, the risks of cyberbullying have recently been examined. The empirical analyses of the present work are based on data from a German longitudinal study. The self-reports of adolescents from Dortmund and Nuremberg on both cyberbullying and individual and contextual characteristics were taken into account. The two-wave panel encompasses N = 871 adolescents (44.5% male); the average age was M = 15.1 years (SD = 0.83) at t1. Data on cyberbullying refer to sending insults or threats to others via the Internet, spreading rumours or talking badly about others via the Internet, and sending private e-mails, photos or similar from others in order to embarrass or ridicule the persons concerned. Other characteristics relate to single aspects of psychopathy (egocentric egotism, low self-control, empathy deficits), acceptance of violence, and delinquent peers. The path analytical findings illustrate the predictive relationships between both individual and contextual risks and cyberbullying in adolescence. The empirical results are discussed, among others, from the perspective of developmental and life-course criminology. Full article
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24 pages, 1723 KiB  
Article
Listening to People with Misophonia: Exploring the Multiple Dimensions of Sound Intolerance Using a New Psychometric Tool, the S-Five, in a Large Sample of Individuals Identifying with the Condition
by Silia Vitoratou, Nora Uglik-Marucha, Chloe Hayes and Jane Gregory
Psych 2021, 3(4), 639-662; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych3040041 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 7300
Abstract
Misophonia involves a strong emotional response to certain sounds and can cause significant distress and functional impairment. The aim of this study was to present and psychometrically evaluate a new, multidimensional measure of misophonia, the S-Five. The study also aimed to present and [...] Read more.
Misophonia involves a strong emotional response to certain sounds and can cause significant distress and functional impairment. The aim of this study was to present and psychometrically evaluate a new, multidimensional measure of misophonia, the S-Five. The study also aimed to present and test a supplementary tool, a checklist of triggers that measure the nature and intensity of reactions. The stages of development for the measure are described. Psychometric testing on the final version of the tool was conducted using a sample of 828 individuals who identified with having misophonia. Analyses included factor structure assessment, measurement invariance testing, reliability (test–retest and internal consistency), and (concurrent) convergent validity assessment. Five factors emerged in the S-Five as dimensions of the experience of misophonia: internalising appraisals, externalising appraisals, sense of emotional threat, outbursts, and impact. No measurement bias was identified with respect to gender and age. All reliability and validity indices were satisfactory. The S-Five is a multidimensional measurement scale with satisfactory psychometric properties and will be a valuable tool for improving understanding of misophonia in research and clinical settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prominent Papers in Psych  2021–2023!)
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10 pages, 250 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Caregiver Risk: The Dementia Caregiver Interview Guide
by Rhonda Feldman, Mary Chiu, Andrea Lawson and Joel Sadavoy
Psych 2021, 3(4), 552-561; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych3040036 - 25 Sep 2021
Viewed by 2738
Abstract
Objectives: Family and other informal caregivers of individuals with dementia can be at increased risk for a significant decline in wellbeing or their ability to continue to provide care. There is extensive literature on the multifactorial elements contributing to risk, but frontline practitioners [...] Read more.
Objectives: Family and other informal caregivers of individuals with dementia can be at increased risk for a significant decline in wellbeing or their ability to continue to provide care. There is extensive literature on the multifactorial elements contributing to risk, but frontline practitioners may be uncertain how to apply their knowledge of risk to an assessment of individual caregivers during clinical encounters. We developed a new one-page guided interview tool (the Dementia Caregiver Interview Guide, or DCIG) to guide practitioners to: (1) systematically assess known factors associated with high caregiver risk in a clinical interview format and (2) concisely document their judgement regarding risk of decompensation arising from caregiver stress. This semi-structured interview format collects detailed information while promoting a collaborative communication process. This study evaluated the validity of risk-assessment using the DCIG. Methods: A convenience sample of 50 caregivers was recruited during routine intake at the Reitman Centre at Sinai Health in Toronto, Canada. Risk was assessed using both the DCIG and the Caregiver Risk Screen (CRS). Total scores on the two tools were compared to establish concurrent and discriminant validity for the DCIG. Results: The DCIG correlated positively with the CRS (Spearman’s rho = 0.737; p < 0.001) and identified caregivers at risk at a moderate level of agreement with the CRS (Cohen’s Kappa = 0.559). Conclusions: The DCIG allows clinicians to efficiently identify caregivers’ level of risk for functional and emotional decline or decompensation in a client-centered, naturalistic manner. Full article
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Review

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14 pages, 525 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Study into the Effects of Long-Term Multicomponent Training on the Cognitive Abilities of Older Adults with Neurodegenerative Disorders
by Adriana Caldo-Silva, Ana Vieira-Pedrosa, Joel Simões, Renato Sobral Monteiro-Júnior, Nuno Pimenta, António Rodrigues Sampaio, Pedro Teques, José Pedro Amoroso and Guilherme Eustáquio Furtado
Psych 2022, 4(4), 760-773; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4040056 - 06 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1533
Abstract
Cognition includes all processes through which a person becomes aware of their situation, needs, goals, and necessary actions. Regular specialized cognitive and neuromotor simulation exercises have improved various cognitive processes, including memory, speed of reasoning, and problem-solving skills. This review focuses on understanding [...] Read more.
Cognition includes all processes through which a person becomes aware of their situation, needs, goals, and necessary actions. Regular specialized cognitive and neuromotor simulation exercises have improved various cognitive processes, including memory, speed of reasoning, and problem-solving skills. This review focuses on understanding the efficacy of long-term multicomponent exercise interventions to mitigate and delay the effects on cognitive abilities in older adults with neurodegenerative disorders. The main criteria for final studies were randomised controlled trials with a minimum of a 24-week intervention. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, SCOPUS, B-On, Sport Discus, Scielo, APA PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences, Academic Search Complete, Medline (PubMed), ERIC, and Google Scholar databases were checked. The search occurred between April 2022 and July 2022. A total of 19 studies were used in this review. The initial search identified 6.835 studies. In the first screening, a total of 6474 studies were excluded. After this, 361 studies were analysed by co-authors and did not meet the specific final criteria and were excluded. In total, 19 studies were included in the final analysis, and 14 papers met all requirements previously defined. Full article
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17 pages, 337 KiB  
Review
Humans and the Olfactory Environment: A Case of Gene-Culture Coevolution?
by Peter Frost
Psych 2022, 4(2), 301-317; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4020027 - 08 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3134
Abstract
As hunter-gatherers, humans used their sense of smell to identify plants and animals, to find their way within a foraging area, or to distinguish each other by gender, age, kinship, or social dominance. Because women gathered while men hunted, the sexes evolved different [...] Read more.
As hunter-gatherers, humans used their sense of smell to identify plants and animals, to find their way within a foraging area, or to distinguish each other by gender, age, kinship, or social dominance. Because women gathered while men hunted, the sexes evolved different sensitivities to plant and animal odors. They also ended up emitting different odors. Male odors served to intimidate rival males or assert dominance. With the rise of farming and sedentism, humans no longer needed their sense of smell to find elusive food sources or to orient themselves within a large area. Odors now came from a narrower range of plants and animals. Meanwhile, body odor was removed through bathing to facilitate interactions in enclosed spaces. This new phenotype became the template for the evolution of a new genotype: less sensitivity to odors of wild plants and animals, lower emissions of male odors, and a more negative response to them. Further change came with the development of fragrances to reodorize the body and the home. This new olfactory environment coevolved with the ability to represent odors in the mind, notably for storage in memory, for vicarious re-experiencing, or for sharing with other people through speech and writing. Full article
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23 pages, 380 KiB  
Review
Optimized Clinical Strategies for Treatment-Resistant Depression: Integrating Ketamine Protocols with Trauma- and Attachment-Informed Psychotherapy
by Sherry-Anne Muscat, Glenn Hartelius, Courtenay Richards Crouch and Kevin W. Morin
Psych 2022, 4(1), 119-141; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4010012 - 08 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5436
Abstract
Strategically timed trauma- and attachment-informed psychotherapy to address underlying emotional wounds, paired with ketamine administered in precision-calibrated doses to ensure high-entropy brain states, may be key to improving the quality and duration of ketamine’s therapeutic efficacy for treatment-resistant depression. This approach optimizes the [...] Read more.
Strategically timed trauma- and attachment-informed psychotherapy to address underlying emotional wounds, paired with ketamine administered in precision-calibrated doses to ensure high-entropy brain states, may be key to improving the quality and duration of ketamine’s therapeutic efficacy for treatment-resistant depression. This approach optimizes the opportunities for change created by ketamine’s known effects as a rapid antidepressant that stimulates synaptogenesis, normalizes neural connectivity and coherence, enhances neuroplasticity, reduces inflammation, and induces high-entropy brain states with associated subjective psychedelic experiences. Ketamine, a non-selective N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist is a safe, effective, fast-acting dissociative anesthetic that, as a standalone treatment, also exhibits rapid sustained antidepressant effects, even in many patients with treatment-resistant depression. A prior history of developmental trauma and attachment injuries are known primary factors in the etiology of treatment resistance in depression and other mental disorders. Thus, the adjunct of targeted psychotherapy attuned to trauma and attachment injuries may enhance and prolong ketamine efficacy and provide an opportunity for lasting therapeutic change. Psychotherapy engagement during repeated ketamine sessions for patient safety and integration of altered states, paired with separate individualized psychotherapy-only sessions timed 24–48 h post ketamine induction, takes advantage of peak ketamine-induced dendritic spine growth in the prefrontal cortex and limbic system, and normalized network connectivity across brain structures. This strategically timed paired-session approach also exploits the therapeutic potential created by precision-calibrated ketamine-linked high-entropy brain states and associated psychedelic experiences that are posited to disrupt overly rigid maladaptive thoughts, behaviors, and disturbing memories associated with treatment-resistant depression; paired sessions also support integration of the felt sense of happiness and connectivity associated with psychedelic experiences. Full article
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

18 pages, 1580 KiB  
Tutorial
Qualitative Methods with Nvivo Software: A Practical Guide for Analyzing Qualitative Data
by David B. Allsop, Joe M. Chelladurai, Elisabeth R. Kimball, Loren D. Marks and Justin J. Hendricks
Psych 2022, 4(2), 142-159; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4020013 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 14494
Abstract
From 1995–2016, there has been a 15-fold increase in qualitative scholarship in the social sciences, but the rigor and quality of published work has ranged widely. Little scholarship provides concrete, pragmatic explanations of (and directions regarding) the execution of systematic, high-rigor qualitative analysis. [...] Read more.
From 1995–2016, there has been a 15-fold increase in qualitative scholarship in the social sciences, but the rigor and quality of published work has ranged widely. Little scholarship provides concrete, pragmatic explanations of (and directions regarding) the execution of systematic, high-rigor qualitative analysis. The present article guides the developing qualitative researcher through technical and procedural aspects of analyzing qualitative data with specific attention to reliability and rigor. Guidance addressing transcription, importing data, forming coding pairs, performing initial/open coding (examples of three types), determining core themes, systematic team-based coding, maintaining a data audit trail, creating a Numeric Content Analysis (NCA) table, and preparing work for publication is provided. Materials include several tables and figures that offer practical demonstrations on how to use Nvivo in data analysis. Transcription tips and outsourcing benefits and cautions are also offered. Altogether, the present article provides qualitative researchers practical guidance for executing multiple stages of qualitative analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prominent Papers in Psych  2021–2023!)
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11 pages, 265 KiB  
Essay
Psychotherapy as a Polyphonic and Playful Conversation
by Cátia Guerra, Raquel Pedrosa, Patrícia Nunes, Joana Rebelo, Eva Osório and António Roma-Torres
Psych 2022, 4(1), 89-99; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych4010008 - 09 Feb 2022
Viewed by 3147
Abstract
Since the emergence of hypnosis, we have witnessed a multiplication of psychotherapies, which have different backgrounds and aims. The omnipresence of psychotherapy leads us to an inevitable question: what is psychotherapy? In this article, we analyse the concept of mental disorder and how [...] Read more.
Since the emergence of hypnosis, we have witnessed a multiplication of psychotherapies, which have different backgrounds and aims. The omnipresence of psychotherapy leads us to an inevitable question: what is psychotherapy? In this article, we analyse the concept of mental disorder and how psychotherapy works, underlining three mechanisms: influence, polyphonic dialogue and play. Focusing on the therapeutic dialogue, we explore what is told during therapy and how, what is done while telling, and how dialogue can create new narratives and new meanings, highlighting the importance of influencing the patient on changing the symptomatic behaviour. We also consider how the multiple voices of the patient, therapist and others can generate an alternative to the monologic discourse of the disease. While the psychiatric illness may indicate a sterile dialogue which often expands the pathology, communicating in a different and active way can create new and healthier meanings. Therefore, one of the therapy’s aims is to influence the patient, throughout a dialogic and playful conversation, to gain freedom from disease. Full article
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