Bioactive Materials for Dental and Maxillofacial Repair

A special issue of Prosthesis (ISSN 2673-1592). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioengineering and Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 18418

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Science, Faculty of Engineering and Science, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK
Interests: silicate materials; biomaterials; cements; glasses
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Bluefield Centre for Biomaterials Ltd., Unit 34, 67-68 Hatton Garden, London EC1N 8JY, UK
Interests: chemistry; biomaterials; glass ionomer cements; dental restoratives
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Implantable bioactive materials possess the ability to form a true chemical bond with the host tissue, without the formation of fibrous capsule, by eliciting a biological response at the interface. The term ‘bioactivity’ also refers to small pharmacologically active molecules of natural or synthetic origin that are used in therapeutic applications. In both cases, these bioactive materials/molecules are intended to restore function by stimulating a positive response from the damaged host tissue.

This Special Issue focuses on current initiatives in bioactive materials for dental and maxillofacial repair and restoration. The potential topics for original research articles and critical reviews include but are not limited to the following biomaterials and bioactive molecules:

Dental restoratives for enamel, dentine, pulp and cementum—glass ionomer cements, calcium silicate cements; compomers; bioactive glasses; experimental materials;

Guided tissue regeneration membranes—non-resorbable and biodegradable barriers for the regeneration of cementum, alveolar bone, and periodontal ligament;

Dental socket preservation materials—bioactive glasses; calcium phosphates; polymer and composite scaffolds; allografts;

Dental and maxillofacial implants—metals and their alloys; ceramics; polymers and hydrogels;

Other Topics—sinus lift materials; platelet rich fibrin applications; growth factors and other bioactive molecules.

Dr. Nichola J. Coleman
Prof. Dr. John W. Nicholson
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Prosthesis is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • prosthodontics
  • dental and maxillofacial prosthetics
  • biomaterials
  • implants
  • ceramics
  • cements
  • glasses
  • metals
  • alloys
  • polymers
  • bioactive molecules
  • tissue regeneration
  • bone
  • enamel
  • pulp
  • cementum
  • cartilage

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 2626 KiB  
Article
Zygomatic Implants Research: A Scientometric Analysis from 1990 to 2021
by Marina Ramal-Sanchez, Felice Lorusso, Angela Taraschi, Luca Valbonetti, Nicola Bernabò, Calogero Bugea and Antonio Scarano
Prosthesis 2023, 5(1), 208-220; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis5010016 - 7 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1437
Abstract
Zygomatic implants imply the use of the zygoma as the implant anchorage and have been proposed as a valuable alternative to the invasive classical procedures in cases of severe maxillary atrophy. Despite the numerous manuscripts published in this field, a quantitative analysis of [...] Read more.
Zygomatic implants imply the use of the zygoma as the implant anchorage and have been proposed as a valuable alternative to the invasive classical procedures in cases of severe maxillary atrophy. Despite the numerous manuscripts published in this field, a quantitative analysis of the research products to infer the trends and the status identification of this specific issue was missing, as well as an objective map of this area. Thus, the present scientometric study analyzed all the research papers published within the interval 1990–2021 that included the keyword “zygomatic implants”. Research papers containing the keywords “zygomatic implants” were collected using Web of Science and analyzed with Cytoscape 3.7.2 and Sci software. A total of 654 studies were published between 1990 and 2020, reaching up to 11639 citations in total, with a mean of 17.8 citations per research study. Data show that the number of publications per year is rapidly increasing, as well as the sum of citations per year. While the USA was identified as the most productive country in this field, followed by Italy, Spain, and Brazil, the National Natural Science Foundation of China stands up as the major funding agency, followed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the USA and the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The analysis of the keywords showed that “zygomatic fractures” represents the most common word within this field, with “complications” as the most recent keyword and “screws” as the keyword used for the longest time. The map of science representing the authors and their collaborations highlighted the existence of multiple small-size research groups that contribute to scientific production, forming highly clustered structures that do not collaborate between them. The present scientometric analysis demonstrates the rising interest in using the zygomatic implants technique as an alternative to the classical ones. The obtained data suggest that the scientific community involved in the study of such a field is highly fragmented, emphasizing the lack of communication among the scientists and research groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Materials for Dental and Maxillofacial Repair)
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16 pages, 25359 KiB  
Article
Wearing Effect of Implant Steel Drills and Tappers for the Preparation of the Bone Osteotomies: An Infrared Thermal Analysis and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy-Scanning Electron Microscopy (EDS-SEM) Study
by Felice Lorusso, Sergio Alexandre Gehrke, Felice Festa and Antonio Scarano
Prosthesis 2022, 4(4), 679-694; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4040054 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1927
Abstract
Background: The thermal effect correlated with implant osteotomy could produce significant effects on the healing process and fixture osseointegration. The aim of the present investigation was to assess the heat generation and surface wearing of dental implant drills and manual tappers during simulated [...] Read more.
Background: The thermal effect correlated with implant osteotomy could produce significant effects on the healing process and fixture osseointegration. The aim of the present investigation was to assess the heat generation and surface wearing of dental implant drills and manual tappers during simulated osteotomies on animal ribs. Methods: Steel drills (20 units per type) and tappers (20 units per type) were evaluated for a total of 30 osteotomies. The infrared thermal analysis was performed at the first and thirtieth osteotomy. The surface alteration and wearing was assessed by energy dispersive spectroscopy–scanning electron microscopy (EDS-SEM) prior to and after use. Conclusions: The drill material produced a non-significant temperature change during bone osteotomy. Lower heating was reported for manual tappers in favor of a manual osteotomy instead rotary instruments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Materials for Dental and Maxillofacial Repair)
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11 pages, 1320 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Cytotoxicity of Dual-Cure Bulk-Fill Resin Materials on L929 Cells
by Safiye Selin Koymen, Nazmiye Donmez, Vildan Betul Yenigun, Fatemeh Bahadori and Abdurrahim Kocyigit
Prosthesis 2022, 4(3), 447-457; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4030036 - 15 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1948
Abstract
The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate cytotoxic effects of dual-cure bulk-fill resin materials polymerized with a third-generation LED light-curing unit (LCU) on L929 fibroblast cells in terms of morphology and viability. Three novel dual-cure, flowable bulk-fill materials (Fill-Up!™), a [...] Read more.
The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate cytotoxic effects of dual-cure bulk-fill resin materials polymerized with a third-generation LED light-curing unit (LCU) on L929 fibroblast cells in terms of morphology and viability. Three novel dual-cure, flowable bulk-fill materials (Fill-Up!™), a bioactive material (ACTIVA™ BioACTIVE-RESTORATIVE™), and a dual-cure bulk-fill composite material (HyperFIL® HAp) polymerized by LED LCU (VALO™ Cordless) were tested. Each material was placed in plastic rings (4 mm × 5 mm) in a single layer. Unpolymerized rings filled with each material were placed in direct contact with cells and then polymerized. After polymerization, the removed medium was readded to wells. In this study, four control groups were performed: the medium-free control group, medium control group, physical control group, and light applied control group. Three samples were prepared from each group. After 24 h, the morphology of cells was examined and a WST-1 test was performed. The percentage of cell viability (PCV) of each group was calculated. The experiment was repeated three times. Data were analyzed by a Kruskal–Wallis Test and a Mann–Whitney U test. p < 0.05 was considered significant. The PCV of all groups were found to be significantly lower than the medium control group (p < 0.05). The lowest PCV was obtained in HyperFIL® Hap, while highest was in the Fill-Up!™. In the morphology of cells related to the experimental groups, it was observed that the spindle structures of cells were disrupted due to cytotoxicity; cells became rounded and intercellular space increased. There were no significant differences between the control groups (p > 0.05). All control groups showed acceptable PCV (>70%) and cells were spindle-like, similar to the original fibroblast cells. It can be suggested that clinicians should pay attention when applying dual-cure bulk-fill materials in deep cavities, or they should use a liner material under these materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Materials for Dental and Maxillofacial Repair)
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Review

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12 pages, 657 KiB  
Review
Effectiveness of Adjunctive Hyaluronic Acid Application in Surgical Treatment of Gingival Recession Sites
by Mattia Manfredini, Mario Beretta, Carlo Maiorana, Marco Tandurella, Federica Eugenia Salina and Pier Paolo Poli
Prosthesis 2023, 5(3), 635-646; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis5030045 - 12 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1580
Abstract
The aim of this systematic scoping review was to provide scientific evidence on the efficacy and methods of application of hyaluronic acid (HA) in the coverage of gingival recessions in terms of recession depth (RD) reduction, clinical attachment level (CAL) gain and probing [...] Read more.
The aim of this systematic scoping review was to provide scientific evidence on the efficacy and methods of application of hyaluronic acid (HA) in the coverage of gingival recessions in terms of recession depth (RD) reduction, clinical attachment level (CAL) gain and probing depth (PD). An electronic search of the literature on the main databases was conducted. Initially, 405 articles were identified. Finally, four studies were included after the review process. It was not possible to perform a meta-analysis of the articles selected because of the differences among the surgical treatments and commercial formulations and compositions of HA. Both randomized controlled trials in this research examined type 1 gingival recessions treated with a coronally advanced flap. In the selected case series, recessions were treated with either a modified coronally advanced tunnel or laterally closed tunnel combined with a subepithelial connective tissue graft and HA. No significant variation was found in terms of PD. Modifications of CAL are connected to variations of RD; however, RD reduction is similar to the control group. HA seems to improve the clinical outcomes of gingival recession coverage in the short term, but the magnitude is limited. Formulations, surgical techniques and application methods are heterogeneous. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Materials for Dental and Maxillofacial Repair)
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19 pages, 787 KiB  
Review
Chemically Activated Glass-Ionomer Cements as Bioactive Materials in Dentistry: A Review
by John Makanjuola and Sanjukta Deb
Prosthesis 2023, 5(1), 327-345; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis5010024 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4998
Abstract
The prospect of repair, regeneration, and remineralisation of the tooth tissue is currently transitioning from the exploratory stages to successful clinical applications with materials such as dentine substitutes that offer bioactive stimulation. Glass-ionomer or polyalkenoate cements are widely used in oral healthcare, especially [...] Read more.
The prospect of repair, regeneration, and remineralisation of the tooth tissue is currently transitioning from the exploratory stages to successful clinical applications with materials such as dentine substitutes that offer bioactive stimulation. Glass-ionomer or polyalkenoate cements are widely used in oral healthcare, especially due to their ability to adhere to the tooth structure and fluoride-releasing capacity. Since glass-ionomer cements exhibit an inherent ability to adhere to tooth tissue, they have been the subject of modifications to enhance bioactivity, biomineralisation, and their physical properties. The scope of this review is to assess systematically the modifications of glass-ionomer cements towards bioactive stimulation such as remineralisation, integration with tissues, and enhancement of antibacterial properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Materials for Dental and Maxillofacial Repair)
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16 pages, 324 KiB  
Review
Periodontal Therapy Using Bioactive Glasses: A Review
by John W. Nicholson
Prosthesis 2022, 4(4), 648-663; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis4040052 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1932
Abstract
This paper reviews the use of bioactive glasses as materials for periodontal repair. Periodontal disease causes bone loss, resulting in tooth loosening and eventual tooth loss. However, it can be reversed using bioactive glass, typically the original 45S5 formulation (Bioglass®) at [...] Read more.
This paper reviews the use of bioactive glasses as materials for periodontal repair. Periodontal disease causes bone loss, resulting in tooth loosening and eventual tooth loss. However, it can be reversed using bioactive glass, typically the original 45S5 formulation (Bioglass®) at the defect site. This is done either by plcing bioactive glass granules or a bioactive glass putty at the defect. This stimulates bone repair and causes the defect to disappear. Another use of bioactive glass in periodontics is to repair so-called furcation defects, i.e., bone loss due to infection at the intersection of the roots in multi-rooted teeth. This treatment also gives good clinical outcomes. Finally, bioactive glass has been used to improve outcomes with metallic implants. This involves either placing bioactive glass granules into the defect prior to inserting the metal implant, or coating the implant with bioactive glass to improve the likelihood of osseointegration. This needs the glass to be formulated so that it does not crack or debond from the metal. This approach has been very successful, and bioactive glass coatings perform better than those made from hydroxyapatite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Materials for Dental and Maxillofacial Repair)

Other

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10 pages, 228 KiB  
Perspective
Bioactivity—Symphony or Cacophony? A Personal View of a Tangled Field
by Brian W Darvell
Prosthesis 2021, 3(1), 75-84; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis3010008 - 2 Mar 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2901
Abstract
In the pursuit of better treatments, the concept of a chemically-active material, responding to local conditions by causing reactions, or reacting to produce substances that are deemed beneficial, seems laudable. Ultimately, the goal appears to be to recruit natural biological processes such that [...] Read more.
In the pursuit of better treatments, the concept of a chemically-active material, responding to local conditions by causing reactions, or reacting to produce substances that are deemed beneficial, seems laudable. Ultimately, the goal appears to be to recruit natural biological processes such that a natural ‘repair’ is effected. This goal seems to be the reason for prefixing “bio-” to many terms with a view to advertising the desire, yet without presenting evidence that it has occurred, or indeed that it is capable of occurring, relying instead on non-biological processes to justify the claims. The dogma is such that all work where local ‘responsive’ chemistry is involved must receive the label “bioactive” to legitimize and promote. Nevertheless, the primary evidence adduced is flawed, and the claim must fail. A rethink to restore scientific sense and confidence in the endeavour is essential if real progress is to be made. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Materials for Dental and Maxillofacial Repair)
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