Special Issue "Particulate Processes in the Formulation of Pharmaceuticals, Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Compounds"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Biological Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ioannis Nikolakakis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124, Greece
Interests: All aspects of drug formulation, characterization of dosage forms, formulation of natural products with therapeutic perspectives
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nizar Al-Zoubi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan
Interests: Development and evaluation of pharmaceutical formulations and excipients, particle engineering and characterization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Particulate processes producing particles in size scales from nanometers to millimeters play a major role in health sciences and the product market. This is because about 60% of marketed pharmaceuticals are solid dosage forms and about the same percentage of the overall nutraceutical consumption is accounted by dry excipients. The large number of orally administered poorly water-soluble drugs has necessitated the development of modern particle engineering processes aiming for improvement of solubility, permeability, and targeting effectiveness. Nanomilling, high-pressure homogenization, self-emulsification, and solid-lipid technology give particles in the nanosize range; spray-drying, freeze drying, and freeze spraying into liquid give composite microparticles in the micrometers range; electrospinning, electrospraying, and hot melt extrusion are able to produce drugs in the form of pharmaceutical salts, cocrystals, amorphous and co-amorphous drug systems, which after mechanical milling give particles in an intermediate size range of 10–100 μm. Finally, wet and dry granulation, melt granulation, and extrusion/spheronization are widely applied to give a free-flowing powder product split into multiple-unit dosage forms where the dose is subdivided into units of millimeter size particles with therapeutic and technological benefits. Similar considerations as set above apply to nutraceuticals with therapeutic properties, such as essential oils, prebiotics, and probiotics and other microorganisms, e.g., vaccines.

This Special Issue welcomes contributions of original research work and reviews reporting established and emerging technologies of particle engineering, the application of which leads to improvements in the properties of the particulate products, namely in the solubility, redispersibility, release, and permeability of the bioactive compound, handling (packing ability and flowability), compressibility and compactibility, swelling, matrix forming ability, and suitability for thermal processing. Application of mathematical models to describe the mechanisms and kinetics of particle formation, critical process factors involved in product quality and production yield, novel methods of particle structure, and solid-state characterization are encouraged.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ioannis Nikolakakis
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nizar Al-Zoubi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Please note that for papers submitted after 30 June 2020 an APC of 1500 CHF applies. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • particle technology
  • encapsulation
  • controlled drug delivery
  • targeting
  • protein drugs
  • cospray drying
  • cogrinding
  • processability
  • dissolution

Published Papers (3 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
DEM Investigation of the Influence of Particulate Properties and Operating Conditions on the Mixing Process in Rotary Drums: Part 1—Determination of the DEM Parameters and Calibration Process
Processes 2020, 8(2), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020222 - 14 Feb 2020
Abstract
This paper’s goal was to select methods and a calibration procedure which would lead to the determination of relevant parameters of a discrete element method (DEM) and virtual material creation. Seven particulates were selected with respect to their shape (spherical and non-spherical), size [...] Read more.
This paper’s goal was to select methods and a calibration procedure which would lead to the determination of relevant parameters of a discrete element method (DEM) and virtual material creation. Seven particulates were selected with respect to their shape (spherical and non-spherical), size and density. The first calibration experiment involved “packing test” to determine the shape accuracy and bulk density of virtual packed particulates. The series of simulations were compared with real experiments, and the size, shape and density of virtual particles were optimized. Using three apparatuses, the input parameter values were experimentally determined for a contact model that defines the behavior of particulates in DEM simulations. The research part of the paper examines the influence of factors such as particle number; pile formation method; and the method of evaluation of the angle of repose on the process of the calibration of virtual material. The most reproducible results were achieved by the “pilling” method and by the rotating drum—both evaluated by the geometric method. However, it is always advisable to make an overall visual comparison of the slope shape between the calibration simulation and the experimental curves. The bowl’s diameter to particle size ratio should be greater than 25, and the calibration experiment should contain approximately 4000 particles to ensure representative results during angle of repose calibration experiment. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
DEM Investigation of the Influence of Particulate Properties and Operating Conditions on the Mixing Process in Rotary Drums: Part 2—Process Validation and Experimental Study
Processes 2020, 8(2), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020184 - 05 Feb 2020
Abstract
The process of homogenization of particulates is an indispensable part of many industrial processes, and, therefore, it is necessary to pay a special attention to this area and develop it. This paper deals with a complex study of homogenization of particulate matters in [...] Read more.
The process of homogenization of particulates is an indispensable part of many industrial processes, and, therefore, it is necessary to pay a special attention to this area and develop it. This paper deals with a complex study of homogenization of particulate matters in a rotary drum in terms of shape, size, and density of particles. In addition, the influence of operating parameters, such as drum filling capacity, rotational speed, and drum filling pattern are also investigated. Studies of reproducibility of discrete element method simulations, effects of rotary drum sizes or effects of drum volumetric filling to the mixture homogeneity index were also carried out. In general, the least satisfactory values of the homogeneity index resulted from the mixing of particles with different densities. The dominating factor of homogenization was the drum filling-up degree. The course of the homogeneity index in 140, 280, and 420 mm drums was very similar and after five revolutions of the drum, identical values of the homogeneity index were achieved for all the drum diameters. The optimal drum filling-up degree is at 40–50% for the spherical particles and 30–40% for the sharp-edged particles. The repeatability of simulations showed the maximum relative standard deviation of the homogeneity index at 0.6% from ten simulation repetitions with the same parametric conditions. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Taste Masking of Nizatidine Using Ion-Exchange Resins
Processes 2019, 7(11), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110779 - 30 Oct 2019
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to mask the bitter taste of nizatidine (NZD) using cation-exchange resins. Amberlite IRP-69 and Dowex-50 containing cross-linked polystyrene backbones were used. The drug resin complexes were prepared by batch process using drug: resin ratios of 1:1, 1:3, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to mask the bitter taste of nizatidine (NZD) using cation-exchange resins. Amberlite IRP-69 and Dowex-50 containing cross-linked polystyrene backbones were used. The drug resin complexes were prepared by batch process using drug: resin ratios of 1:1, 1:3, and 1:5. The optimum drug: resin ratio and the time required for maximum percentage drug loading into the complexes were determined. The selected drug-resin complexes were evaluated for morphology, drug release, and taste. The NZD-Dowex complex was obtained at a drug: resin ratio of 1:5 using a stirring time of 1 h in order to get 100% loading of NZD. The NZD-Dowex complex had a spherical shape and smooth texture similar to Dowex resin. The NZD-Dowex complex with a ratio of 1:5 showed that in vitro drug release of 4.27% at 5 min in simulated salivary fluid of pH 6.8 and 99.67% at 1 h in simulated gastric fluid of pH 1.2. NZD’s bitter taste was effectively masked when it formed a complex with Dowex at a ratio of 1:5. This was proved by an electronic tongue and human test panel. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop