Synthesis and Application of Nano- and Microdispersed Systems

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2020) | Viewed by 31479

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Department of Functional Nanosystems, National University of Science and Technology "MISiS", Leninsky Prospect 4, Moscow 119049, Russia
Interests: nanotmaterials; nanotechnologies; high-temperature materials
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Department of Physics, Saratov State Technical University, Politekhnicheskaya Ulitsa, 77, 410054 Saratov, Saratov Oblast, Russia
Interests: composites; nanocomposites; conductive composites; potassium titanates; thermo-electrochemical cells; waste heat harvesting
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Biosensor Research Institute, Department of Fine Chemistry, Seoul National University of Science and Technology (Seoul Tech), Gongneung-ro 232, Nowon-gu, Seoul 01811, Korea
Interests: nanobiotechnology; materials science and technology; advanced materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Functional Nanosystems, National University of Science and Technology "MISiS", Leninsky prospect 4, 119049 Moscow, Russia
Interests: nanomaterials; 2D materials; molecular spectroscopy; photovoltaics

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Guest Editor
Department of Functional Nanosystems, National University of Science and Technology "MISiS", Leninsky prospect 4, 119049 Moscow, Russia
Interests: material science; spray pyrolysis; hydroxyapatite; carbon materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nano- and microdispersed systems can be defined as dispersions of nano- and microparticles (droplets, bubbles) of one material within a continuous phase of another material (gas, liquid, solid). Such systems are very widespread in nature. The most common examples include soils, aerosols, minerals, and various natural colloids. Nano- and microdispersed systems are also the subject of active research and represent a techno-economic sector with full expansion in many application domains. Nano- and microdispersed systems have gained prominence in technological advancements due to their diverse physicochemical and mechanical properties, including wettability, dispersion stability, electrical and thermal conductivity, catalytic activity, resulting in enhanced performance over their counterparts with particle size above 1 µm. Such systems are of interest to various research areas, including the development of new polymers and ceramic composites, sensors, biomaterials, energy conversion devices, wastewater treatment strategies, and many other applications.

The present Special Issue of Processes will include recent enhancements in the synthesis and application of various types of nano- and microdispersed systems and will help to expand scientific cooperation in this important field of research.

Dr. Denis Kuznetsov
Dr. Igor Burmistrov
Dr. Gopalu Karunakaran
Dr. Dmitry S. Muratov
Dr. Yudin Andrey
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Nanosystem
  • Nanopowder
  • Micropowders
  • Nanomaterial
  • Particle
  • Powder
  • Emulsion
  • Colloid
  • Aerosol
  • Synthesis
  • Application
  • Process

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 150 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue on “Synthesis and Application of Nano- and Microdispersed Systems”
by Denis Kuznetsov and Gopalu Karunakaran
Processes 2022, 10(3), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10030608 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1306
Abstract
With numerous advancements, nano- and microdispersed systems are rapidly increasing worldwide [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Nano- and Microdispersed Systems)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

12 pages, 3226 KiB  
Article
Water-Soluble Carbon Quantum Dots Modified by Amino Groups for Polarization Fluorescence Detection of Copper (II) Ion in Aqueous Media
by Anastasia Yakusheva, Dmitry S. Muratov, Dmitry Arkhipov, Gopalu Karunakaran, Sergei A. Eremin and Denis Kuznetsov
Processes 2020, 8(12), 1573; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8121573 - 29 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2252
Abstract
Industrialization is serious for changing the environment and natural water composition, especially near cities and manufacturing areas. Logically, the new ultrasensitive technology for precise control of the quality and quantity of water sources is needed. Herein, an innovative method of polarization fluorescence analysis [...] Read more.
Industrialization is serious for changing the environment and natural water composition, especially near cities and manufacturing areas. Logically, the new ultrasensitive technology for precise control of the quality and quantity of water sources is needed. Herein, an innovative method of polarization fluorescence analysis (FPA) was developed to measure the concentration of heavy metals in water. The approach was successfully applied for precise tests with reduced analysis time and increased measurement efficiency among laboratory methods. Based on this work, the investigations established the new type of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) with controllable fluorescence properties and functionalized amino—groups, which is appropriate for FPA. The parameters of one and two-step microwave synthesis routes are adjusted wavelength and fluorescence intensity of CQDs. Finally, under optimized conditions, the FPA is showed the detection of copper (2+) cations in water samples below European Union standard (2 mg/L). Moreover, in comparison with fluorescence quenching, polarization fluorescence is proved as a convenient, simple, and rapid test method for effective water safety analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Nano- and Microdispersed Systems)
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13 pages, 2442 KiB  
Article
A Comparison of “Bottom-Up” and “Top-Down” Approaches to the Synthesis of Pt/C Electrocatalysts
by Alexandra Kuriganova, Nikita Faddeev, Mikhail Gorshenkov, Dmitri Kuznetsov, Igor Leontyev and Nina Smirnova
Processes 2020, 8(8), 947; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8080947 - 6 Aug 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4367
Abstract
Three 40 wt % Pt/C electrocatalysts prepared using two different approaches—the polyol process and electrochemical dispersion of platinum under pulse alternating current—and a commercial Pt/C catalyst (Johnson Matthey prod.) were examined via X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The stability characteristics [...] Read more.
Three 40 wt % Pt/C electrocatalysts prepared using two different approaches—the polyol process and electrochemical dispersion of platinum under pulse alternating current—and a commercial Pt/C catalyst (Johnson Matthey prod.) were examined via X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The stability characteristics of the Pt/C catalysts were studied via long-term cycling, revealing that, for all cycling modes, the best stability was achieved for the Pt/C catalyst with the largest platinum nanoparticle sizes, which was synthesized via electrochemical dispersion of platinum under pulse alternating current. Our results show that the mass and specific electrocatalytic activities of Pt/C catalysts toward ethanol electrooxidation are determined by the value of the electrochemically active Pt surface area in the catalysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Nano- and Microdispersed Systems)
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9 pages, 1338 KiB  
Article
PAC Synthesis and Comparison of Catalysts for Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells
by Alexandra Kuriganova, Daria Chernysheva, Nikita Faddeev, Igor Leontyev, Nina Smirnova and Yury Dobrovolskii
Processes 2020, 8(6), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8060712 - 20 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2405
Abstract
Pt/C, PtMOn/C (M = Ni, Sn, Ti, and PtX/C (X = Rh, Ir) catalyst systems were prepared by using the pulse alternating current (PAC) technique. Physical and electrochemical parameters of samples were carried out by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron [...] Read more.
Pt/C, PtMOn/C (M = Ni, Sn, Ti, and PtX/C (X = Rh, Ir) catalyst systems were prepared by using the pulse alternating current (PAC) technique. Physical and electrochemical parameters of samples were carried out by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and CO stripping. The catalytic activity of the synthesized samples for the ethanol electrooxidation reaction (EOR) was investigated. The XRD patterns of the samples showed the presence of diffraction peaks characteristic for Pt, NiO, SnO2, TiO2, Rh, and Ir. The TEM images indicate that the Pt, Rh, and PtIr (alloys) particles had a uniform distribution over the carbon surface in the Pt/C, PtRh/C, PtIr/C, and PtMOn/C (M = Ni, Sn, Ti) catalysts. The electrochemically active surface area of catalysts was determined by the CO-stripping method. The addition of a second element to Pt or the use of hybrid supported catalysts can evidently improve the EOR activity. A remarkable positive affecting shift of the onset potential for the EOR was observed as follows: PtSnO2/C > PtTiO2/C ≈ PtIr/C ≈ PtNiO/C > PtRh/C ≈ Pt/C. The addition of SnO2 to Pt/C catalyst led to the decrease of the onset potential and to significantly facilitate the EOR. The long-term cyclic stability of the synthesized catalysts was investigated. Thereby, the PtSnO2/C catalyst prepared by the PAC technique can be considered as a promising anode catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Nano- and Microdispersed Systems)
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12 pages, 2137 KiB  
Article
Sorbent Based on Polyvinyl Butyral and Potassium Polytitanate for Purifying Wastewater from Heavy Metal Ions
by Anna Ermolenko, Maria Vikulova, Alexey Shevelev, Elena Mastalygina, Peter Ogbuna Offor, Yuri Konyukhov, Anton Razinov, Alexander Gorokhovsky and Igor Burmistrov
Processes 2020, 8(6), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8060690 - 13 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2566
Abstract
Currently, the rapid development of industry leads to an increase in negative anthropogenic impacts on the environment, including water ecosystems. This circumstance entails toughening environmental standards and, in particular, requirements for the content of pollutants in wastewater. As a result, developing technical and [...] Read more.
Currently, the rapid development of industry leads to an increase in negative anthropogenic impacts on the environment, including water ecosystems. This circumstance entails toughening environmental standards and, in particular, requirements for the content of pollutants in wastewater. As a result, developing technical and cost-effective ways for wastewater purification becomes relevant. This study is devoted to the development of a novel composite sorbent, based on polyvinyl butyral and potassium polytitanate, designed to purify water from heavy metal ions. The co-deposition of a mixture based on a polymer solution and a filler suspension was used to obtain a composite material. In this work, the influence of the deposition conditions on the structure and properties of the resulting composites was studied, as well as the optimal ratio of components, including solvent, precipitant, polymer binder, and filler, were established. In the course of this study on the sorption properties of the developed composite materials using various sorption models, the sorption capacity of the obtained material, the sorption mechanism, and the limiting stage of the sorption process were determined. The developed sorbent can be suitably used in the wastewater treatment systems of galvanic industries, enterprises producing chemical current sources, and in other areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Nano- and Microdispersed Systems)
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13 pages, 7153 KiB  
Article
Deposition of Boron-Doped Thin CVD Diamond Films from Methane-Triethyl Borate-Hydrogen Gas Mixture
by Nikolay Ivanovich Polushin, Alexander Ivanovich Laptev, Boris Vladimirovich Spitsyn, Alexander Evgenievich Alexenko, Alexander Mihailovich Polyansky, Anatoly Lvovich Maslov and Tatiana Vladimirovna Martynova
Processes 2020, 8(6), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8060666 - 4 Jun 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4619
Abstract
Boron-doped diamond is a promising semiconductor material that can be used as a sensor and in power electronics. Currently, researchers have obtained thin boron-doped diamond layers due to low film growth rates (2–10 μm/h), with polycrystalline diamond growth on the front and edge [...] Read more.
Boron-doped diamond is a promising semiconductor material that can be used as a sensor and in power electronics. Currently, researchers have obtained thin boron-doped diamond layers due to low film growth rates (2–10 μm/h), with polycrystalline diamond growth on the front and edge planes of thicker crystals, inhomogeneous properties in the growing crystal’s volume, and the presence of different structural defects. One way to reduce structural imperfection is the specification of optimal synthesis conditions, as well as surface etching, to remove diamond polycrystals. Etching can be carried out using various gas compositions, but this operation is conducted with the interruption of the diamond deposition process; therefore, inhomogeneity in the diamond structure appears. The solution to this problem is etching in the process of diamond deposition. To realize this in the present work, we used triethyl borate as a boron-containing substance in the process of boron-doped diamond chemical vapor deposition. Due to the oxygen atoms in the triethyl borate molecule, it became possible to carry out an experiment on simultaneous boron-doped diamond deposition and growing surface etching without the requirement of process interruption for other operations. As a result of the experiments, we obtain highly boron-doped monocrystalline diamond layers with a thickness of about 8 μm and a boron content of 2.9%. Defects in the form of diamond polycrystals were not detected on the surface and around the periphery of the plate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Nano- and Microdispersed Systems)
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8 pages, 3160 KiB  
Communication
Selective Photocatalytic Oxidation of 5-HMF in Water over Electrochemically Synthesized TiO2 Nanoparticles
by Anna Ulyankina, Sergey Mitchenko and Nina Smirnova
Processes 2020, 8(6), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8060647 - 29 May 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3239
Abstract
TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared via an electrochemical method using pulse alternating current and applied in the photocatalytic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF). Its physicochemical properties were characterized by SEM, HRTEM, XRD, and BET methods. The effect of scavenger and UVA [...] Read more.
TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared via an electrochemical method using pulse alternating current and applied in the photocatalytic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF). Its physicochemical properties were characterized by SEM, HRTEM, XRD, and BET methods. The effect of scavenger and UVA light intensity was studied. The results revealed that electrochemically synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles exhibit higher DFF selectivity in the presence of methanol (up to 33%) compared with commercial samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Nano- and Microdispersed Systems)
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12 pages, 4501 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Chemical Composition on the Structural State and Mechanical Properties of Complex Microalloyed Steels of the Ferritic Class
by Alexander Zaitsev, Anton Koldaev, Nataliya Arutyunyan, Sergey Dunaev and Dmitrii D’yakonov
Processes 2020, 8(6), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8060646 - 29 May 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2102
Abstract
The most promising direction for obtaining a unique combination of difficult-to-combine properties of low-carbon steels is the formation of a dispersed ferrite microstructure and a volumetric system of nanoscale phase precipitates. This study was aimed at establishing the special features of the composition [...] Read more.
The most promising direction for obtaining a unique combination of difficult-to-combine properties of low-carbon steels is the formation of a dispersed ferrite microstructure and a volumetric system of nanoscale phase precipitates. This study was aimed at establishing the special features of the composition influence on the characteristics of the microstructure, phase precipitates, and mechanical properties of hot-rolled steels of the ferritic class. It was carried out by transmission electron microscopy and testing the mechanical properties of metal using 8 laboratory melts of low-carbon steels microalloyed by V, Nb, Ti, and Mo in various combinations. It was found that block ferrite prevails in the structure of steel cooled after hot rolling at a rate of 10–15 °C/s. Lowering of the microalloying components content leads to a decrease in the block ferrite fraction to 20–35% and the dominance of polygonal ferrite. The presence of nanoscale carbide (carbonitride) precipitates of austenitic and interphase/mixed types was detected in the rolled steels. It was established that the tendencies of changes in the characteristics of the structural state and present phase precipitates correlate well with obtained values of strength properties. The advantages of titanium-based microalloying systems in comparison with vanadium-based are shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Nano- and Microdispersed Systems)
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14 pages, 5140 KiB  
Article
Spark Plasma Sintering of Cobalt Powders in Conjunction with High Energy Mechanical Treatment and Nanomodification
by Van Minh Nguyen, Rita Khanna, Yuri Konyukhov, Tien Hiep Nguyen, Igor Burmistrov, Vera Levina, Ilya Golov and Gopalu Karunakaran
Processes 2020, 8(5), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8050627 - 23 May 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3348
Abstract
Spark plasma sintering (SPS) investigations were carried out on three sets of Co specimens: untreated, high energy mechanically (HEMT) pre-treated, and nanomodified powders. The microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of sintered pellets were investigated as a function of various pre-treatments and sintering temperatures [...] Read more.
Spark plasma sintering (SPS) investigations were carried out on three sets of Co specimens: untreated, high energy mechanically (HEMT) pre-treated, and nanomodified powders. The microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of sintered pellets were investigated as a function of various pre-treatments and sintering temperatures (700–1000 °C). Fine-grained sinters were obtained for pre-treated Co powders; nano-additives tended to inhibit grain growth by reinforcing particles at grain boundaries and limiting grain-boundary movement. High degree of compaction was also achieved with relative densities of sintered Co pellets ranging between 95.2% and 99.6%. A direct co-relation was observed between the mechanical properties and densities of sintered Co pellets. For a comparable sinter quality, sintering temperatures for pre-treated powders were lower by 100 °C as compared to untreated powders. Highest values of bending strength (1997 MPa), microhardness (305 MPa), and relative density (99.6%) were observed for nanomodified HEMT and SPS processed Co pellets, sintered at 700 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Nano- and Microdispersed Systems)
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7 pages, 1970 KiB  
Article
Photochemical Synthesis of Silver Nanodecahedrons under Blue LED Irradiation and Their SERS Activity
by Mai Ngoc Tuan Anh, Dinh Tien Dung Nguyen, Ngo Vo Ke Thanh, Nguyen Thi Phuong Phong, Dai Hai Nguyen and Minh-Tri Nguyen-Le
Processes 2020, 8(3), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030292 - 4 Mar 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3755
Abstract
Silver nanodecahedrons were successfully synthesized by a photochemical method under irradiation of blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The formation of silver nanodecahedrons at different LED irradiation times (0–72 h) was thoroughly investigated by employing different characterization methods such as ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis), transmission electron [...] Read more.
Silver nanodecahedrons were successfully synthesized by a photochemical method under irradiation of blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The formation of silver nanodecahedrons at different LED irradiation times (0–72 h) was thoroughly investigated by employing different characterization methods such as ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that silver nanodecahedrons (AgNDs) were formed from silver nanoseeds after 6 h of LED irradiation. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effects of the synthesized AgNDs were also studied in comparison with those of spherical silver nanoparticles in the detection of 4-mercapto benzoic acid. Silver nanodecahedrons with a size of 48 nm formed after 48 h of LED irradiation displayed stronger SERS properties than spherical nanoparticles because of electromagnetic enhancement. The formation mechanism of silver nanodecahedrons is also reported in our study. The results showed that multihedral silver nanoseeds favored the formation of silver nanodecahedrons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Nano- and Microdispersed Systems)
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13 pages, 3662 KiB  
Article
Maleated Natural Rubber/Halloysite Nanotubes Composites
by Nabil Hayeemasae, Zareedan Sensem, Kannika Sahakaro and Hanafi Ismail
Processes 2020, 8(3), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030286 - 3 Mar 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3410
Abstract
In this study, maleic anhydride (MA) grafted natural rubber (NR), known as maleated natural rubber (MNR), was melt-prepared with the MA content varied within 1–8 phr. MNR was used as the main matrix, with Halloysite Nanotubes (HNT) as a filler, in order to [...] Read more.
In this study, maleic anhydride (MA) grafted natural rubber (NR), known as maleated natural rubber (MNR), was melt-prepared with the MA content varied within 1–8 phr. MNR was used as the main matrix, with Halloysite Nanotubes (HNT) as a filler, in order to obtain composites with improved performance. The compounds were investigated for their filler–filler interactions by considering their Payne effect. On increasing the MA content, scorch and cure times increased along with maximum torque and torque difference. The MNR with 4 phr of MA exhibited the least filler–filler interactions, as indicated by the retention of the storage modulus after applying a large strain to the filled compound. This MNR compound also provided the highest tensile strength among the cases tested. It is interesting to highlight that MNR, with an appropriate MA content, reduces filler–filler interactions, and, thereby, enhances the HNT filler dispersion, as verified by SEM images, leading to improved mechanical and dynamical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Nano- and Microdispersed Systems)
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13 pages, 3069 KiB  
Article
Wastewater Treatment from Lead and Strontium by Potassium Polytitanates: Kinetic Analysis and Adsorption Mechanism
by Anna Ermolenko, Alexey Shevelev, Maria Vikulova, Tatyana Blagova, Sergey Altukhov, Alexander Gorokhovsky, Anna Godymchuk, Igor Burmistrov and Peter Ogbuna Offor
Processes 2020, 8(2), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020217 - 12 Feb 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3447
Abstract
The reduction of heavy and radioactive metal pollution of industrial wastewater remains a vital challenge. Due to layered structure and developed surface, potassium polytitanate had potential in becoming an effective sorbent for metal extraction from wastewater in the presented paper. On the basis [...] Read more.
The reduction of heavy and radioactive metal pollution of industrial wastewater remains a vital challenge. Due to layered structure and developed surface, potassium polytitanate had potential in becoming an effective sorbent for metal extraction from wastewater in the presented paper. On the basis of the different sorption models, this paper studied the mechanism of Pb2+ and Sr2+ cation extraction from aqueous solution by non-crystalline potassium polytitanate produced by molten salt synthesis. The ion exchange during metal extraction from model solutions was proven by kinetic analysis of ion concentration change, electronic microscopy, and X-ray fluorescence analysis of sorbent before and after sorption, as well as by theoretical modeling of potassium, lead, and strontium polytitanates. The sorption was limited by the inner diffusion in the potassium polytitanate (PPT) interlayer space, as was shown using the Boyd diffusion model. The sorption processes can be described by Ho and McKay’s pseudo-second-order model compared to the Lagergren pseudo-first-order model according to kinetic analysis. It was found that the ultimate sorption capacity of synthesized sorbent reached about 714.3 and 344.8 (ions mg/sorbent grams) for Pb2+ and Sr2+ ions, respectively, which was up to four times higher than sorption capacity of the well-known analogues. Therefore, the presented study showed that potassium polytitanate can be considered as a promising product for industry-scaled wastewater purification in practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Nano- and Microdispersed Systems)
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