Green Production of Carbonaceous Materials from Biomass and Waste Plastics

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental and Green Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2023) | Viewed by 25952

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
School of Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Hull, Kingston Upon Hull HU6 7RX, UK
Interests: sustainable systems; biorefinery; circular economy; sustainable energy; biomass-based processing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development of sustainable, safe, and environmentally friendly carbonaceous materials from agricultural waste and waste plastics has attracted a great deal of attention for their wide range of potential applications. Carbonaceous materials have a wide range of high-tech applications such as flexible display panels, fiber-reinforced composites, energy storage, catalyst support, sports equipment, dielectric electromagnetic absorbers, automotive and aerospace-related products, and application of wastewater treatment. Their performance, as well as the number of potential applications, can be further increased by combining them with functional materials.

The scope of this Special Issue is to offer a platform where new developments in carbonaceous materials from biomass and waste plastics will be published. The focus of these developments may relate the application of advanced processing techniques to synthesize, manipulate, and functionalize the carbonaceous materials and detailed chemical and functional characterization of the raw materials and composites; and optimization of the properties of the materials and composites for potential use in high-tech applications. I kindly invite any researcher that wants to contribute in this area to submit their work in this Special Issue on “Green production of carbonaceous materials from biomass and waste plastics”.

Dr. Sharif Zein
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Carbonaceous Materials
  • Nanocarbons
  • Nanocomposites
  • Waste Plastics Feedstocks
  • Biomass Feedstocks
  • Processing Techniques
  • Catalysis
  • Green Chemistry

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 1499 KiB  
Article
Modelling and Simulation of Dissolution/Reprecipitation Technique for Low-Density Polyethene Using Solvent/Non-Solvent System
by Sharif H. Zein, Ali A. Hussain, Osman Y. Yansaneh and A. A. Jalil
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2387; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112387 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2433
Abstract
The global production and consumption of plastics have continued to increase. Plastics degrade slowly, causing persistent environmental pollution Developed waste plastic recycling methods are discussed in this report, with a focus on the dissolution/reprecipitation technique to restore low-density polyethene (LDPE) wastes. Aspen HYSYS [...] Read more.
The global production and consumption of plastics have continued to increase. Plastics degrade slowly, causing persistent environmental pollution Developed waste plastic recycling methods are discussed in this report, with a focus on the dissolution/reprecipitation technique to restore low-density polyethene (LDPE) wastes. Aspen HYSYS is used to simulate the recycling of waste LDPE. Turpentine/petroleum ether (TURP/PetE) is chosen as solvent/non-solvent with fractions proved efficient through laboratory experiments. PetE is selected to be the non-solvent used for the precipitation of pure LDPE. The feedstock is assumed to be LDPE products containing additives such as dye. The simulation model developed estimated a pure LDPE precipitate recovery with a composition of 99% LDPE with a flowrate of 1024 tonnes per year. In addition, Aspen HYSYS could approximate a rough cost estimate that includes utility cost, installation cost and other factors. Technical challenges were eliminated, and several assumptions were taken into consideration to be able to simulate the process. Full article
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12 pages, 2370 KiB  
Article
Effect of Surface Modification by Oxygen-Enriched Chemicals on the Surface Properties of Pine Bark Biochars
by Nitesh Kasera, Victoria Augoustides, Praveen Kolar, Steven G. Hall and Billie Vicente
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2136; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102136 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1658
Abstract
Sustainable waste utilization techniques are needed to combat the environmental and economic challenges faced worldwide due to the rising population. Biochars, due to their unique surface properties, offer opportunities to modify their surface to prepare application-specific materials. The aim of this research is [...] Read more.
Sustainable waste utilization techniques are needed to combat the environmental and economic challenges faced worldwide due to the rising population. Biochars, due to their unique surface properties, offer opportunities to modify their surface to prepare application-specific materials. The aim of this research is to study the effects of biochar surface modification by oxidizing chemicals on biochar properties. Pine bark biochar was modified with sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, and ammonium persulfate. The resulting biochars’ pH, pH at the point of zero charges, and concentration of acidic and basic sites were determined using laboratory experimentation. Instrumental techniques, such as infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, were also obtained for all biochar samples. X-ray photoelectron spectra showed that oxygen content increased to 44.5%, 42.2%, 33.8%, 30.5%, and 14.6% from 13.4% for sulfuric acid, ozone, nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and ammonium persulfate, respectively. The pH at the point of zero charges was negatively correlated with the difference in concentration of acidic and basic sites in biochar samples, as well as the summation of peak components representing C=O double bonds and carboxylic groups. The results suggest that designer biochars can be prepared by understanding the interaction of oxygenated chemicals with biochar surfaces. Full article
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Review

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25 pages, 1661 KiB  
Review
Latest Advances in Waste Plastic Pyrolytic Catalysis
by Osman Y. Yansaneh and Sharif H. Zein
Processes 2022, 10(4), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10040683 - 31 Mar 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4174
Abstract
With the increase in demand for plastic use, waste plastic (WP) management remains a challenge in the contemporary world due to the lack of sustainable efforts to tackle it. The increment in WPs is proportional to man’s demand and use of plastics, and [...] Read more.
With the increase in demand for plastic use, waste plastic (WP) management remains a challenge in the contemporary world due to the lack of sustainable efforts to tackle it. The increment in WPs is proportional to man’s demand and use of plastics, and these come along with environmental challenges. This increase in WPs, and the resulting environmental consequences are mainly due to the characteristic biodegradation properties of plastics. Landfilling, pollution, groundwater contamination, incineration, and blockage of drainages are common environmental challenges associated with WPs. The bulk of these WPs constitutes polyethene (PE), polyethene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS). Pyrolysis is an eco-friendly thermo-chemical waste plastic treatment solution for valuable product recovery, preferred over landfilling and incineration solutions. In this extensive review, a critical investigation on waste plastic catalytic pyrolysis (WPCP) is performed, including catalyst and non-catalyst applications to sustainably tackle WP management. Current catalysis techniques are revealed, and some comparisons are made where necessary. Common pyrolytic products and common shortcomings and errors related to WP catalysis were also identified. The benefits of catalysts and their applications to augment and optimise thermal pyrolysis are emphasised. With all these findings, and more, this paper provides reassurance on the significance of catalysis to industrial-scale applications and products and supports related WPCP research work concerning the environment and other beneficiaries. Full article
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11 pages, 4509 KiB  
Review
Hyperthermophilic Composting Technology for Organic Solid Waste Treatment: Recent Research Advances and Trends
by Shaofeng Wang and Yuqi Wu
Processes 2021, 9(4), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040675 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 6348
Abstract
Organic solid waste is considered a renewable resource that can be converted by various technologies into valuable products. Conventional thermophilic composting (TC), a well-studied and mature technology, can be applied to organic solid waste treatment to achieve waste reduction, mineralization, and humification simultaneously. [...] Read more.
Organic solid waste is considered a renewable resource that can be converted by various technologies into valuable products. Conventional thermophilic composting (TC), a well-studied and mature technology, can be applied to organic solid waste treatment to achieve waste reduction, mineralization, and humification simultaneously. However, poor efficiency, a long processing period, as well as low compost quality have always limited its wide application. In order to overcome these shortages, hyperthermophilic composting (HTC) has been recently put forward. This paper reviews the basic principle, process flow, operation parameters, research advances, and application status of HTC. Compared with the TC process, the shorter composting period and higher temperature and treatment efficiency, as well as more desirable compost quality, can be achieved during HTC by inoculating the waste with hyperthermophilic microbes. Additionally, HTC can reduce greenhouse gas emission, increase the removal rate of microplastics and antibiotic residues, and achieve in-situ remediation of heavy metal-polluted soils, which greatly improve its application potential for organic solid waste treatment. This paper also proposes the limitations and future prospects of HTC technology for a wider application. As a result, this review advances our understanding of the HTC process, which promotes its further investigation and application. Full article
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