Special Issue "Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients: Synthesis, Extraction and Separation Methods"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Pharmaceutical Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020) | Viewed by 2828

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Rami A. Al-Horani
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Division of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA 70125, USA
Interests: antithrombotics; thrombosis; glycosaminoglycans; pharmaceutical synthesis; microwave synthesis; spectroscopy; drug discovery and design
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The drug product is composed of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the excipients. API is any substance or mixture of substances that is used in a finished drug product to promote a biological activity for the purpose of diagnosing, preventing, mitigating, treating, or curing a disease. APIs can be small molecules or biologics. They can be synthesized by chemical means, extracted from natural resources, expressed in biological systems, and/or separated from heterogenous mixtures. The quality of APIs is of enormous significance to global health, and thus, processes pertaining to their synthesis or manufacturing, isolation, extraction, separation, packaging, labeling, storage, and distribution are strictly regulated by national and international agencies. Another important aspect of APIs is their affordability, which is a very important consideration in the efforts to bring down the ever-increasing cost of healthcare.

Considering the need for high-quality and affordable APIs, protocols and technologies for their synthesis, extraction, and separation continue to evolve. In this arena, a continuous flow platform, nanotechnology, chemical and enzymatic catalysis, microwave technology, spectroscopic methods, crystal engineering, X-ray diffraction, and many others have been exploited to advance the different stages of the API industry. In this Special Issue on “Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients: Synthesis, Extraction and Separation Methods”, we invite principal investigators who are interested in APIs to contribute original research articles as well as review articles so as to advance fundamental and technical knowledge relevant to APIs synthesis, extraction, separation, and other processes.

Potential topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • Methodology development of new or enhanced chemical processes for APIs;
  • Methodology development of new or enhanced extraction protocols and separation technologies for APIs;
  • Methodology development of new or enhanced separation protocols and technologies for APIs.

Dr. Rami A. Al-Horani
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • APIs
  • Continuous flow
  • Nanotechnology
  • Chemical catalysis
  • Enzymatic catalysis
  • Microwave
  • Spectroscopy
  • Crystal engineering
  • X-ray diffraction

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction (UAE) Process on Thymol Concentration from Plectranthus Amboinicus Leaves: Kinetic Modeling and Optimization
Processes 2020, 8(3), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030322 - 09 Mar 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2008
Thymol shows potential medical values and it can be extracted from plants and herbs. In this study, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was used to extract thymol from Plectranthus amboinicus leaves. From the extraction kinetics analysis of UAE on thymol, it was found that the [...] Read more.
Thymol shows potential medical values and it can be extracted from plants and herbs. In this study, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was used to extract thymol from Plectranthus amboinicus leaves. From the extraction kinetics analysis of UAE on thymol, it was found that the highest concentration was collected at temperature of 25 °C with 5.51% of thymol concentration yield. An equilibrium-dependent solid–liquid extraction (EDSLE) model was found to be the best fitted model for thymol extraction using UAE. The parameters for optimization were the temperature of extraction (40 to 60 °C), extraction time (20 to 40 min), and the solid to solvent ratio (1:30 to 1:40 g/mL). The optimal UAE conditions were found at a temperature of 55 °C, 23 min of extraction, and a solid–solvent ratio of 1:35 g/mL. The changes in the structural surface of P. amboinicus after undergoing the UAE process were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The possible mechanism of UAE was explained using the SEM images. These findings suggest that UAE is capable of breaking the structural surface of the leaves to extract compounds inside the leaves to the body of the solvent. Full article
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