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Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction (UAE) Process on Thymol Concentration from Plectranthus Amboinicus Leaves: Kinetic Modeling and Optimization

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Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
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Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor 43400, Serdang, Malaysia
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Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
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School of Engineering, Taylor’s University, Lakeside Campus, No 1, Jalan Taylor’s, Subang Jaya, Selangor 47500, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(3), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030322
Received: 10 January 2020 / Revised: 31 January 2020 / Accepted: 2 February 2020 / Published: 9 March 2020
Thymol shows potential medical values and it can be extracted from plants and herbs. In this study, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was used to extract thymol from Plectranthus amboinicus leaves. From the extraction kinetics analysis of UAE on thymol, it was found that the highest concentration was collected at temperature of 25 °C with 5.51% of thymol concentration yield. An equilibrium-dependent solid–liquid extraction (EDSLE) model was found to be the best fitted model for thymol extraction using UAE. The parameters for optimization were the temperature of extraction (40 to 60 °C), extraction time (20 to 40 min), and the solid to solvent ratio (1:30 to 1:40 g/mL). The optimal UAE conditions were found at a temperature of 55 °C, 23 min of extraction, and a solid–solvent ratio of 1:35 g/mL. The changes in the structural surface of P. amboinicus after undergoing the UAE process were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The possible mechanism of UAE was explained using the SEM images. These findings suggest that UAE is capable of breaking the structural surface of the leaves to extract compounds inside the leaves to the body of the solvent. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE); Plectranthus amboinicus; response surface methodology (RSM); mechanism; optimization; kinetic modeling Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE); Plectranthus amboinicus; response surface methodology (RSM); mechanism; optimization; kinetic modeling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zahari, N.A.A.R.; Chong, G.H.; Abdullah, L.C.; Chua, B.L. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction (UAE) Process on Thymol Concentration from Plectranthus Amboinicus Leaves: Kinetic Modeling and Optimization. Processes 2020, 8, 322.

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