Special Issue "Antimicrobial Polymers II"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Biopolymers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Huining Xiao
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, 15 Dineen Drive, Fredericton, N.B. E3B 3B4, Canada
Interests: antimicrobial polymers; functinoal-modified cellulose fibres; nanoparticles; green adsorbents; responsive polymers and hydrogels; multiple-barrier and biodegradable packaging materials
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Yuanfeng Pan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, 100 Daxue East Road, Nanning, Guangxi 530004, P.R.China
Interests: functional polymers; carbohydrate polymers; green materials; adsorbent; hydrogel
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Further to the success of the Special Issue of PolymersAntimicrobial Polymers”, we are delighted to reopen the Special Issue, now entitled “Antimicrobial Polymers II”. Apart from previous topics, we have extended the scope of the Special Issue to cover anti-mold polymers or resins for various applications including anti-mold coating and anti-fungal engineered wood products for construction materials.

Over the past decade, developing antibacterial or antimicrobial polymers has attracted substantial interest. Improving the health of human beings via reducing the infection caused by various bacteria has become increasingly important. Nowadays, the rapid growth of harmful pathogens and their serious health effects pose a significant challenge to modern society. Infections by pathogenic microorganisms are of great concern in a number of areas, such as medical devices, drugs, hospital surfaces/furniture, dental restoration, surgery equipment, health care products, and hygienic applications including water purification systems, food packaging and major or domestic appliances. With unique chain structures and functional groups, antimicrobial polymers often generate high antimicrobial activity without inducing drug resistance; and meanwhile eliminate the leaching-out effects that are encountered by conventional antimicrobial agents with low molecular weights. The high retention and effective grafting of antimicrobial polymers render various substrates or materials antimicrobial, such as cellulose fibers, textiles, composites and coating materials.

This Special Issue, "Antimicrobial Polymers II", includes research and review papers concerning the recent advances in the preparation of antimicrobial polymers and anti-mold resins, antimicrobial/anti-mold mechanisms, various factors influencing antimicrobial activity, establishing of structure–property relations; and applications of antimicrobial polymers in food packaging, biomedicine, health-care and the environmental materials field. In this Special Issue, the main strategies pursued for the development of antimicrobial and anti-mold polymers will be discussed. The future applications of these polymers is anticipated to lead to extremely positive impacts, not only at the economic level, but also for the improvement of quality of life.

Prof. Huining Xiao
Prof. Yuanfeng Pan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Antimicrobial polymers
  • Biocide polymers
  • Microbial biofilms
  • Hybrid antimicrobial materials
  • Antimicrobial activity
  • Non-leaching antimicrobial effect
  • Antimicrobial packaging materials
  • Medical-related antimicrobial polymers
  • Anti-mold resins

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Green-Based Antimicrobial Hydrogels Prepared from Bagasse Cellulose as 3D-Scaffolds for Wound Dressing
Polymers 2019, 11(11), 1846; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11111846 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
Developing the ideal biomaterials for wound dressing still remains challenging nowadays due to the non-biodegradable features and the lack of antimicrobial activity of conventional synthetic polymer-based dressing materials. To tackle those problems, a novel and green-based antimicrobial hydrogel dressing was synthesized in this [...] Read more.
Developing the ideal biomaterials for wound dressing still remains challenging nowadays due to the non-biodegradable features and the lack of antimicrobial activity of conventional synthetic polymer-based dressing materials. To tackle those problems, a novel and green-based antimicrobial hydrogel dressing was synthesized in this work via modifying sugarcane bagasse cellulose with guanidine-based polymer, followed by crosslinking antimicrobial-modified cellulose with unmodified one at various ratios. The resulting hydrogels were comprehensively characterized with swelling measurements, compression test, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the dressing possessed the degree of swelling up to 2000% and the compress strength as high as 31.39 Kpa, at 8:2 ratio of pristine cellulose to modified cellulose. The antibacterial activities of the dressing against E. coli were assessed using both shaking flask and ring diffusion methods. The results demonstrated that the dressings were highly effective in deactivating bacterium without leaching effect. Moreover, these hydrogels are biocompatible with live cell viability responses of (NIH3T3) cells above 76% and are very promising as wound dressing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers II)
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Open AccessArticle
Polymeric Composites with Silver (I) Cyanoximates Inhibit Biofilm Formation of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria
Polymers 2019, 11(6), 1018; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11061018 - 09 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Biofilms are surface-associated microbial communities known for their increased resistance to antimicrobials and host factors. This resistance introduces a critical clinical challenge, particularly in cases associated with implants increasing the predisposition for bacterial infections. Preventing such infections requires the development of novel antimicrobials [...] Read more.
Biofilms are surface-associated microbial communities known for their increased resistance to antimicrobials and host factors. This resistance introduces a critical clinical challenge, particularly in cases associated with implants increasing the predisposition for bacterial infections. Preventing such infections requires the development of novel antimicrobials or compounds that enhance bactericidal effect of currently available antibiotics. We have synthesized and characterized twelve novel silver(I) cyanoximates designated as Ag(ACO), Ag(BCO), Ag(CCO), Ag(ECO), Ag(PiCO), Ag(PICO) (yellow and red polymorphs), Ag(BIHCO), Ag(BIMCO), Ag(BOCO), Ag(BTCO), Ag(MCO) and Ag(PiPCO). The compounds exhibit a remarkable resistance to high intensity visible light, UV radiation and heat and have poor solubility in water. All these compounds can be well incorporated into the light-curable acrylate polymeric composites that are currently used as dental fillers or adhesives of indwelling medical devices. A range of dry weight % from 0.5 to 5.0 of the compounds was tested in this study. To study the potential of these compounds in preventing planktonic and biofilm growth of bacteria, we selected two human pathogens (Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-positive environmental isolate Bacillus aryabhattai. Both planktonic and biofilm growth was abolished completely in the presence of 0.5% to 5% of the compounds. The most efficient inhibition was shown by Ag(PiCO), Ag(BIHCO) and Ag(BTCO). The inhibition of biofilm growth by Ag(PiCO)-yellow was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Application of Ag(BTCO) and Ag(PiCO)-red in combination with tobramycin, the antibiotic commonly used to treat P. aeruginosa infections, showed a significant synergistic effect. Finally, the inhibitory effect lasted for at least 120 h in P. aeruginosa and 36 h in S. aureus and B. aryabhattai. Overall, several silver(I) cyanoximates complexes efficiently prevent biofilm development of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and present a particularly significant potential for applications against P. aeruginosa infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers II)
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Open AccessArticle
Engineering Sustainable Antimicrobial Release in Silica-Cellulose Membrane with CaCO3-Aided Processing for Wound Dressing Application
Polymers 2019, 11(5), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11050808 - 06 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The sustained release of antimicrobial therapeutics for wound dressing has become an attractive design strategy for prolonging the timespan of wound dressings and for reducing the risk of chronic wound infection. Recently, cellulose-based membrane has become a preferred option of wound dressings for [...] Read more.
The sustained release of antimicrobial therapeutics for wound dressing has become an attractive design strategy for prolonging the timespan of wound dressings and for reducing the risk of chronic wound infection. Recently, cellulose-based membrane has become a preferred option of wound dressings for the treatment of burn wounds and skin ulcers. In this work, novel cellulose membrane incorporated with mesoporous silica particles (SBA-15) was developed as an antimicrobial wound dressing with desirable sustained release functionality for targeting persistent bacterial pathogens. Attributed to a coated layer of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), SBA-15 particles were free from corrosion in alkaline condition during the preparation of cellulose-based composite membranes. SEM, TEM and BET results showed that the morphology, specific surface area, pore size and pore volume of pristine SBA-15 were preserved after the incorporation of CaCO3-coated SBA-15 into the cellulose matrix, while the mesoporous structure of SBA-15 was significantly disrupted without the use of CaCO3 coating. The resultant composite membranes containing 30 wt% SBA-15 (denoted as CM-Ca2-SBA(30%)) achieved 3.6 wt% of antimicrobial drug loading. Interestingly, CM-Ca2-SBA(30%) demonstrated the sustained release property of chloramphenicol for 270 h, driven by a two-stage drug release processes of SBA-15/cellulose. The water vapor permeability (WVTR) and swelling properties of composite membranes were shown to have complied with the primary requirements of wound dressing. Antibacterial assays revealed that strong antibacterial activities (144 h) of the composite membranes against Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli were achieved. All results displayed that the strategy of coating silica with CaCO3 helps to obtain cellulose–silica composite membranes with desirable sustained release profiles and strong antibacterial activities. The antibacterial SBA-15/cellulose composite membranes show potential for the application of wound dressing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers II)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermoresponsive Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide-co-Dimethylaminoethyl Methacrylate) Microgel Aqueous Dispersions with Potential Antimicrobial Properties
Polymers 2019, 11(4), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11040606 - 02 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The work herein describes the preparation of thermoresponsive microgels with potential antimicrobial properties. Most of the work performed so far regarding microgels with antimicrobial activity, deals with the ability of microgels to carry and release antibiotics or antimicrobial agents (antimicrobial peptides). The originality [...] Read more.
The work herein describes the preparation of thermoresponsive microgels with potential antimicrobial properties. Most of the work performed so far regarding microgels with antimicrobial activity, deals with the ability of microgels to carry and release antibiotics or antimicrobial agents (antimicrobial peptides). The originality of this work lies in the possibility of developing intrinsic antimicrobial microgels by copolymerization of the well-known thermoresponsive monomer, N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) with dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), a water-soluble monomer, to form microgels via precipitation polymerization (radical polymerization). Due to the presence of a tertiary amine in the DMAEMA comonomer, microgels can be modified by N-alkylation reaction with methyl and butyl iodide. This quaternization confers positive charges to the microgel surfaces and thus the potential antimicrobial activity. The effect of DMAEMA content and its quaternization with both, methyl and butyl iodide is evaluated in terms of thermal and surface charge properties, as well as in the microgel size and viscoelastic behavior. Finally, a preliminary study of the antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms is also performed in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). From this study we determined that in contrast with butylated microgels, methylated ones show potential antimicrobial activity and good physical properties besides of maintaining microgel thermo-responsiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers II)
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Open AccessArticle
Biological and Physicochemical Assessment of Middle Ear Prosthesis
Polymers 2019, 11(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11010079 - 06 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Polymers modified with bioactive nanoparticles are a promising solution for patients who need a tissue replacement. Modern implants, thanks to bioactive and bactericidal functions, facilitate the healing and regeneration process of the replaced tissue. The aim of this study was to assess whether [...] Read more.
Polymers modified with bioactive nanoparticles are a promising solution for patients who need a tissue replacement. Modern implants, thanks to bioactive and bactericidal functions, facilitate the healing and regeneration process of the replaced tissue. The aim of this study was to assess whether silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) could support antibacterial function without cytotoxic effect and deterioration of biostability. This article describes biological and physiochemical aspects concerning a new polymeric middle ear implant (Otoimplant) enriched with silver nanoparticles. This kind of prosthesis is a promising implant for the reconstruction of ossicles in ossiculoplasty. We found that incorporation of silver nanoparticles into a polymeric matrix resulted in bactericidal efficacy against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, both resistant to antibiotics and basic strains. Our prostheses do not show cytotoxic effect and are a suitable biomaterial platform for effective culture of Saos2 and NHOst osteoblastic cells. The in vitro incubation of the samples in distilled water revealed that surface parameters, such as roughness, may slightly increase as a result of unveiling nanoparticles. However, the prolonged immersion does not change mechanical parameters. During one-year incubation, the prosthesis proved to retain stable values of Young’s modulus, tensile strength, propagation of longitudinal ultrasonic waves, pH, and conductivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers II)
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Open AccessArticle
Biocompatibility of Poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) Nanocomposites Modified with Silver Nanoparticles
Polymers 2018, 10(11), 1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10111257 - 13 Nov 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
We evaluated the biological, mechanical, and surface properties of polymer nanocomposites manufactured via plastics processing, extrusion, and injection moulding. The aim of this study was to identify the interaction of fibroblasts and osteoblasts with materials intended for middle ear implants. We examined if [...] Read more.
We evaluated the biological, mechanical, and surface properties of polymer nanocomposites manufactured via plastics processing, extrusion, and injection moulding. The aim of this study was to identify the interaction of fibroblasts and osteoblasts with materials intended for middle ear implants. We examined if silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) may change the mechanical parameters of the polymer nanocomposites. In our study, the biostable polymer of thermoplastic acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymer was used. Silver nanoparticles were applied as a modifier. We discuss surface parameters of the materials, including wettability and roughness, and evaluated the microstructure. The mechanical parameters, such as the Young’s modulus and tensile strength, were measured. Cytotoxicity tests were conducted on two cell lines: Hs680.Tr human fibroblasts and Saos-2 human osteoblasts. Cell viability, proliferation, and morphology in direct contact with nanocomposites were tested. Based on the results, the incorporated modifier was found to affect neither the number of osteoblasts nor the fibroblast cells. However, the addition of AgNPs had a relatively small effect on the cytotoxicity of the materials. A slight increase in the cytotoxicity of the test materials was observed with respect to the control, with the cytotoxicity of the materials tending to decrease after seven days for osteoblast cells, whereas it remained steady for fibroblasts. Based on optical microscope observation, the shape and morphology of the adhered cells were evaluated. After seven days of culture, fibroblasts and osteoblasts were properly shaped and evenly settled on the surface of both the pure polymer and the silver nanoparticle-modified composite. Water droplet tests demonstrated increased hydrophilicity when adding the AgNPs to ABS matrices, whereas roughness tests did not show changes in the surface topography of the investigated samples. The 0.5% by weight incorporation of AgNPs into ABS matrices did not influence the mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers II)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Antimicrobial Activity and Mechanism of Functionalized Quantum Dots
Polymers 2019, 11(10), 1670; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11101670 - 14 Oct 2019
Abstract
An essential characteristic of quantum dots (QDs) is their antimicrobial activity. Compared with conventional antibiotics, QDs not only possess photoluminescence properties for imaging and photodynamic therapy but also have high structural stability. To enhance their antimicrobial efficiency, QDs usually are functionalized by polymers, [...] Read more.
An essential characteristic of quantum dots (QDs) is their antimicrobial activity. Compared with conventional antibiotics, QDs not only possess photoluminescence properties for imaging and photodynamic therapy but also have high structural stability. To enhance their antimicrobial efficiency, QDs usually are functionalized by polymers, including poly(ethylene glycol), polyethyleneimine, and poly-l-lysine. Also, QDs conjugated with polymers, such as poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and polyvinylidene fluoride, are prepared as antimicrobial membranes. The main antimicrobial mechanisms of QDs are associated with inducing free radicals, disrupting cell walls/membranes, and arresting gene expression. The different mechanisms from traditional antibiotics allow QDs to play antimicrobial roles in multi-drug-resistant bacteria and fungi. Since the toxicity of the QDs on animal cells is relatively low, they have broad application in antimicrobial research as an effective alternative of traditional antibiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers II)
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Open AccessReview
Cationic Polymers with Tailored Structures for Rendering Polysaccharide-Based Materials Antimicrobial: An Overview
Polymers 2019, 11(8), 1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11081283 - 01 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Antimicrobial polymers have attracted substantial interest due to high demands on improving the health of human beings via reducing the infection caused by various bacteria. The review presented herein focuses on rendering polysaccharides, mainly cellulosic-based materials and starch to some extent, antimicrobial via [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial polymers have attracted substantial interest due to high demands on improving the health of human beings via reducing the infection caused by various bacteria. The review presented herein focuses on rendering polysaccharides, mainly cellulosic-based materials and starch to some extent, antimicrobial via incorporating cationic polymers, guanidine-based types in particular. Extensive review on synthetic antimicrobial materials or plastic/textile has been given in the past. However, few review reports have been presented on antimicrobial polysaccharide, cellulosic-based materials, or paper packaging, especially. The current review fills the gap between synthetic materials and natural polysaccharides (cellulose, starch, and cyclodextrin) as substrates or functional additives for different applications. Among various antimicrobial polymers, particular attention in this review is paid to guanidine-based polymers and their derivatives, including copolymers, star polymer, and nanoparticles with core-shell structures. The review has also been extended to gemini surfactants and polymers. Cationic polymers with tailored structures can be incorporated into various products via surface grafting, wet-end addition, blending, or reactive extrusion, effectively addressing the dilemma of improving substrate properties and bacterial growth. Moreover, the pre-commercial trial conducted successfully for making antimicrobial paper packaging has also been addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers II)
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