Special Issue "Polymer/Ceramics Composites"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2021) | Viewed by 12044

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Begoña Ferrari
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Ceramic and Glass (ICV), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), 28049 Madrid, Spain
Interests: colloidal processing; coatings; ceramics; polymer/ceramic compounds; metal/ceramic compounds; additive manufacturing
Dr. Zoilo Gonzalez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Inorganic Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Department, University of Cordoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain
Interests: colloidal processing; particles surface modification; coatings; photo-electroactive materials; cellulose nanofibers; bioengineering
Dr. Ana Ferrandez-Montero
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Physicochemistry of Polymers and Interfaces (LPPI), CY Cergy Paris University, 95031 Cergy, France
Interests: biomaterials; biodegradable; drug delivery; in vitro; polymer composites; additive manufacturing; colloidal processing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The incorporation of inorganic phases in continuous polymeric matrices is considered a key technology for the future. Composite materials show differential characteristics, since dispersed phases improve properties of the polymeric matrix and/or provide it with new functionalities, while the continuous phase provides versatility and support to inorganic materials. Some examples are improvement of mechanical properties of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers, bactericidal compounds that incorporate photocatalytic nanoparticles or bioactive and biodegradable compounds with dispersed bioglasses or bioceramics.

The wide number of applications makes exploring new compositions incorporating dispersed ceramic and/or metal–ceramic phases challenging, as well providing manufacturing processes which can overpass the intrinsic property mismatch of such different materials.

This Special Issue will cover innovations in processes, compositions, and applications of new polymer/ceramic composites, profiting from polymers’ benefits in the additive manufacturing of 3D pieces and coating processes, and the increasingly widespread use of bioresources for the development of biodegradable polymeric matrices.

Prof. Dr. Begoña Ferrari
Dr. Zoilo Gonzalez
Dr. Ana Ferrandez-Montero
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • functional composites
  • polymer/ceramic composites
  • reinforced polymers
  • biodegradable materials
  • bactericidal surfaces
  • biomaterials
  • catalytic composites
  • electroactive composites
  • biouresources
  • colloidal processing

Published Papers (11 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
A Novel Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Stabilized Illite Microparticle with Enhanced Antioxidant and Antibacterial Effect
Polymers 2021, 13(24), 4275; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13244275 - 07 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 671
Abstract
Illite is a clay mineral that shows antioxidant and antibacterial activities because of the abundance of important clay elements in its structure. However, illite has low bioactivity due to its low solubility and electron-donating ability in aqueous solutions. Therefore, we aimed to develop [...] Read more.
Illite is a clay mineral that shows antioxidant and antibacterial activities because of the abundance of important clay elements in its structure. However, illite has low bioactivity due to its low solubility and electron-donating ability in aqueous solutions. Therefore, we aimed to develop polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized illite microparticles (P-lite MPs) via polymer adsorption on illite surfaces. An increasing amount of PVP was used to coat a fixed amount of illite to prepare P-lite MPs of different hydrodynamic diameters in the range of 4–9 μm. These sizes were maintained for 2 weeks during storage in a biological buffer without any noticeable changes. The stabilization of illite microparticles using a hydrophilic PVP polymer improved their aqueous dispersity and free radical-scavenging activity. Since the large surface area of microparticles provides several sites for interactions, the smallest P-lite MP exhibited the highest antioxidant and antibacterial activities. More importantly, the MPs showed effective free radical-scavenging activity in vitro without any cytotoxicity. Therefore, P-lite MPs with improved bioavailability may represent a suitable bioactive material for various industrial and biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer/Ceramics Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Influence of the Ceramic Nanoparticles on the Thermoplastic Polymers Matrix: Their Structural, Optical, and Conductive Properties
Polymers 2021, 13(16), 2773; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13162773 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 630
Abstract
This paper prepared composites under the free membranes form that are based on thermoplastic polymers of the type of polyurethane (TPU) and polyolefin (TPO), which are blended in the weight ratio of 2:1, and ceramic nanoparticles (CNs) such as BaSrTiO3 and SrTiO [...] Read more.
This paper prepared composites under the free membranes form that are based on thermoplastic polymers of the type of polyurethane (TPU) and polyolefin (TPO), which are blended in the weight ratio of 2:1, and ceramic nanoparticles (CNs) such as BaSrTiO3 and SrTiO3. The structural, optical, and conductive properties of these new composite materials are reported. The X-ray diffraction studies highlight a cubic crystalline structure of these CNs. The main variations in the vibrational properties of the TPU:TPO blend induced by CNs consist of the following: (i) the increase in the intensity of the Raman line of 1616 cm−1; (ii) the down-shift of the IR band from 800 to 791 cm−1; (iii) the change of the ratio between the absorbance of IR bands localized in the spectral range 950–1200 cm−1; and (iv) the decrease in the absorbance of the IR band from 1221 cm−1. All these variations were correlated with a preferential adsorption of thermoplastic polymers on the CNs surface. A photoluminescence (PL) quenching process of thermoplastic polymers is demonstrated to occur in the presence of CNs. The anisotropic PL measurements have highlighted a change in the angle of the binding of the TPU:TPO blend, which varies from 23.7° to ≈49.3° and ≈53.4°, when the concentration of BaSrTiO3 and SrTiO3 CNs, respectively, is changed from 0 to 25 wt. %. Using dielectric spectroscopy, two mechanisms are invoked to take place in the case of the composites based on TPU:TPO blends and CNs, i.e., one regarding the type of the electrical conduction and another specifying the dielectric–dipolar relaxation processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer/Ceramics Composites)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Controlled SrR Delivery by the Incorporation of Mg Particles on Biodegradable PLA-Based Composites
Polymers 2021, 13(7), 1061; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13071061 - 28 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1119
Abstract
Among several ions playing a vital role in the body, Sr2+ and Mg2+ are involved in the mechanism of bone formation, making them especially useful for bone tissue engineering applications. Recently, polylactic acid (PLA)/Mg composites have emerged as a promising family [...] Read more.
Among several ions playing a vital role in the body, Sr2+ and Mg2+ are involved in the mechanism of bone formation, making them especially useful for bone tissue engineering applications. Recently, polylactic acid (PLA)/Mg composites have emerged as a promising family of biomaterials due to their inherent biocompatibility and biodegradability properties. In these composites, polymer and bio-metal have a synergetic effect—while the PLA inhibits the Mg fast reactivity, Mg provides bioactivity to the inert polymer buffering the medium pH during degradation. Meanwhile, the typical form of administrating Sr2+ to patients is through the medication strontium ranelate (SrR), which increases the bone mineral density. Following this interesting research line, a new group of composites, which integrates Mg particles and SrR charged onto halloysite nanotubes (HNT) in a polymeric matrix, was proposed. PLA/Mg/SrR–HNT composites have been processed following a colloidal route, obtaining homogenous composites granulated and film-shaped. The drug delivery profile was evaluated in terms of in vitro lixiviation/dissolution paying special attention to the synergism of both ions release. The combination of two of the most reported ions involved in bone regeneration in the composite biomaterial may generate extra interest in bone healing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer/Ceramics Composites)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Saliva Influence on the Mechanical Properties of Advanced CAD/CAM Composites for Indirect Dental Restorations
Polymers 2021, 13(5), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13050808 - 06 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 902
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the microstructural and mechanical properties of three commercial resin-based materials available for computer-aid design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM)-processed indirect dental restoration: LavaTM Ultimate Restorative (LU), 3M ESPE; Brilliant Crios (BC), COLTENE and CerasmartTM (CS), GC Dental Product. [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate the microstructural and mechanical properties of three commercial resin-based materials available for computer-aid design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM)-processed indirect dental restoration: LavaTM Ultimate Restorative (LU), 3M ESPE; Brilliant Crios (BC), COLTENE and CerasmartTM (CS), GC Dental Product. The three types of resin-based composite CAD/CAM materials were physically and mechanically tested under two conditions: directly as received by the manufacturer (AR) and after storage under immersion in artificial saliva (AS) for 30 days. A global approximation to microstructure and mechanical behaviour was evaluated: density, hardness and nanohardness, nanoelastic modulus, flexural strength, fracture toughness, fracture surfaces, and microstructures and fractography. Moreover, their structural and chemical composition using X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were investigated. As a result, LU exhibited slightly higher mechanical properties, while the decrease of its mechanical performance after immersion in AS was doubled compared to BC and CS. Tests of pristine material showed 13 GPa elastic modulus, 150 MPa flexural strength, 1.0 MPa·m1/2 fracture toughness, and 1.0 GPa hardness for LU, 11.4 GPa elastic modulus; 140 MPa flexural strength, 1.1 MPa·m1/2 fracture toughness, and 0.8 GPa hardness for BC; and 8.3 GPa elastic modulus, 140 MPa flexural strength, 0.9 MPa·m1/2 fracture toughness, and 0.7 GPa hardness for CS. These values were significantly reduced after one month of immersion in saliva. The interpretation of the mechanical results could suggest, in general, a better behaviour of LU compared with the other two despite it having the coarsest microstructure of the three studied materials. The saliva effect in the three materials was critically relevant for clinical use and must be considered when choosing the best solution for the restoration to be used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer/Ceramics Composites)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Far-Infrared Emission Properties and Thermogravimetric Analysis of Ceramic-Embedded Polyurethane Films
Polymers 2021, 13(5), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13050686 - 25 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1062
Abstract
The far-infrared ray (FIR) is one kind of electromagnetic wave employed for numerous bio-interactive applications such as body thermoregulation, infrared therapy, etc. Tuning the FIR-emitting property of the functional textile surface can initiate a new horizon to utilize this property in sportswear or [...] Read more.
The far-infrared ray (FIR) is one kind of electromagnetic wave employed for numerous bio-interactive applications such as body thermoregulation, infrared therapy, etc. Tuning the FIR-emitting property of the functional textile surface can initiate a new horizon to utilize this property in sportswear or even smart textiles. Ceramic particles were studied for their unique ability to constantly emit FIR rays. The purpose of this research is to characterize the FIR emission properties and the thermogravimetric analysis of ceramic-embedded polyurethane films. For this purpose, ceramic particles such as aluminum oxide, silicon dioxide, and titanium dioxide were incorporated (individually) with water-based polyurethane (WPU) binder by a sonication technique to make a thin layer of film. Significant improvement in FIR emissive property of the films was found when using different ceramic particles into the polyurethane films. Reflection and transmission at the FIR range were measured with a gold integrating sphere by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The samples were also characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Different physical tests, such as tensile strength and contact angle measurements, were performed to illustrate the mechanical properties of the films. The study suggested that the mechanical properties of the polyurethane films were significantly influenced by the addition of ceramic particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer/Ceramics Composites)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Fabrication of Core-Shell Chopped Cf-Phenolic Resin Composite Powder for Laser Additive Manufacturing of Cf/SiC Composites
Polymers 2021, 13(3), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13030463 - 01 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 903
Abstract
Laser additive manufacturing is a promising technique for the preparation of complex-shaped SiC composites. High-quality powders are critical for high-precision laser printing. In this work, core-shell Cf @phenolic resin (PR) composites for selective laser sintering of carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide (C [...] Read more.
Laser additive manufacturing is a promising technique for the preparation of complex-shaped SiC composites. High-quality powders are critical for high-precision laser printing. In this work, core-shell Cf @phenolic resin (PR) composites for selective laser sintering of carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide (Cf/SiC) composites were fabricated by surface modification using 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane coupling agent (KH550) in combination with planetary ball milling. PR coated uniformly on the fiber surface to form a core-shell structure. The effects of PR on the morphology, elemental composition, interfacial interactions, and laser absorption of the core-shell composite powder were investigated in detail. Results indicated that the composite powder exhibited good laser absorption within the infrared band. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer/Ceramics Composites)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Achieving a 3D Thermally Conductive while Electrically Insulating Network in Polybenzoxazine with a Novel Hybrid Filler Composed of Boron Nitride and Carbon Nanotubes
Polymers 2020, 12(10), 2331; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12102331 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 995
Abstract
To solve the problem of excessive heat accumulation in the electronic packaging field, a novel series of hybrid filler ([email protected]) with a hierarchical “line-plane” structure was assembled via a condensation reaction between functional boron nitride(f-BN) and acid treated carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs). The reactions [...] Read more.
To solve the problem of excessive heat accumulation in the electronic packaging field, a novel series of hybrid filler ([email protected]) with a hierarchical “line-plane” structure was assembled via a condensation reaction between functional boron nitride(f-BN) and acid treated carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs). The reactions with different mass ratios of BN and CNTs and the effect of the obtained hybrid filler on the composites’ thermal conductivity were studied. According to the results, [email protected] exhibited better effects on promoting thermal conductivity of polybenzoxazine(PBz) composites which were prepared via ball milling and hot compression. The thermally conductive coefficient value of PBz composites, which were loaded with 25 wt% of [email protected] hybrid fillers, reached 0.794 W· m−1· K−1. The coefficient value was improved to 0.865 W· m−1· K−1 with 15 wt% of [email protected] and 10 wt% of BN. Although CNTs were adopted, the PBz composites maintained insulation. Dielectric properties and thermal stability of the composites were also studied. In addition, different thermal conduction models were used to manifest the mechanism of [email protected] hybrid fillers in enhancing thermal conductivity of PBz composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer/Ceramics Composites)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Impact of Polymer Binders on the Structure of Highly Filled Zirconia Feedstocks
Polymers 2020, 12(10), 2247; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12102247 - 29 Sep 2020
Viewed by 927
Abstract
The impact of polypropylene and high-density polyethylene backbone binders on the structure of organic matrix, feedstock, and ceramic parts is investigated in terms of morphology in this paper. The miscibility of wax with polyethylene and polypropylene is investigated in the molten state via [...] Read more.
The impact of polypropylene and high-density polyethylene backbone binders on the structure of organic matrix, feedstock, and ceramic parts is investigated in terms of morphology in this paper. The miscibility of wax with polyethylene and polypropylene is investigated in the molten state via a rheological study, revealing wax full miscibility with high-density polyethylene and restricted miscibility with polypropylene. Mercury porosimetry measurements realized after wax extraction allow the characterization of wax dispersion in both neat organic blends and zirconia filled feedstocks. Miscibility differences in the molten state highly impact wax dispersion in backbone polymers after cooling: wax is preferentially located in polyethylene phase, while it is easily segregated from polypropylene phase, leading to the creation of large cracks during solvent debinding. The use of a polyethylene/polypropylene ratio higher than 70/30 hinders wax segregation and favors its homogeneous dispersion in organic binder. As zirconia is added to organic blends containing polyethylene, polypropylene, and wax, the pore size distribution created by wax extraction is shifted towards smaller pores. Above zirconia percolation at 40 vol%, the pore size distribution becomes sharp attesting of wax homogeneous dispersion. As the PP content in the organic binder decreases from 100% to 0%, the pore size distribution is reduced of 30%, leading to higher densification ability. In order to ensure a maximal densification of the final ceramic, polyethylene/polypropylene ratios with a minimum content of 70% of high-density polyethylene should be employed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer/Ceramics Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Polymer Composite Materials Fiber-Reinforced for the Reinforcement/Repair of Concrete Structures
Polymers 2020, 12(9), 2058; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12092058 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1082
Abstract
The present paper deals with the use of polymeric matrix composite materials reinforced with carbon fiber as concrete shear reinforcement materials. Accordingly, cement specimens were manufactured and coated with various types of carbon fabrics and epoxy resin in liquid and solid form (paste). [...] Read more.
The present paper deals with the use of polymeric matrix composite materials reinforced with carbon fiber as concrete shear reinforcement materials. Accordingly, cement specimens were manufactured and coated with various types of carbon fabrics and epoxy resin in liquid and solid form (paste). Additionally, composite materials of epoxy resin matrix reinforced with carbon fiber fabrics were manufactured. In all the specimens, the mechanical properties were estimated; the cement samples coated with composite materials of epoxy resin matrix reinforced with carbon fiber fabrics were tested for compressive strength, while the other specimens were tested for shear and bending strength. The specimens were subjected to artificial aging through heat treatment for 8, 12 and 16 days. During the process of artificial aging, the temperature in the chamber reached the range of 65–75 °C. These composite materials exhibited high mechanical properties combined with adaptability. Both an external deterioration of the materials as well as a reduction in mechanical properties during their artificial aging heat treatment were observed. This was shown in the specimens that were not subjected to artificial aging, with an applied compression strength of 74 MPa, and after the artificial aging, there was a decrease of ~7%, with the compression strength being reduced to 68 MPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer/Ceramics Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Influence of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles and Surface Plasma Treatment on Bioactivity of Polycaprolactone Nanofibers
Polymers 2020, 12(9), 1877; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12091877 - 20 Aug 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1095
Abstract
Nanofibers are well known as a beneficial type of structure for tissue engineering. As a result of the high acquisition cost of the natural polymers and their environmentally problematic treatment (toxic dissolution agents), artificial polymers seem to be the better choice for medical [...] Read more.
Nanofibers are well known as a beneficial type of structure for tissue engineering. As a result of the high acquisition cost of the natural polymers and their environmentally problematic treatment (toxic dissolution agents), artificial polymers seem to be the better choice for medical use. In the present study, polycaprolactone nano-sized fibrous structures were prepared by the electrospinning method. The impact of material morphology (random or parallelly oriented fibers versus continuous layer) and the presence of a fraction of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on cell proliferation was tested. In addition, the effect of improving the material wettability by a low temperature argon discharge plasma treatment was evaluated, too. We have shown that both hydroxyapatite particles as well as plasma surface treatment are beneficial for the cell proliferation. The significant impact of both influences was evident during the first 48 h of the test: the hydroxyapatite particles in polycaprolactone fibers accelerated the proliferation by 10% compared to the control, and the plasma-treated ones enhanced proliferation by 30%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer/Ceramics Composites)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Zn-Containing Membranes for Guided Bone Regeneration in Dentistry
Polymers 2021, 13(11), 1797; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13111797 - 29 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1258
Abstract
Barrier membranes are employed in guided bone regeneration (GBR) to facilitate bone in-growth. A bioactive and biomimetic Zn-doped membrane with the ability to participate in bone healing and regeneration is necessary. The aim of the present study is to state the effect of [...] Read more.
Barrier membranes are employed in guided bone regeneration (GBR) to facilitate bone in-growth. A bioactive and biomimetic Zn-doped membrane with the ability to participate in bone healing and regeneration is necessary. The aim of the present study is to state the effect of doping the membranes for GBR with zinc compounds in the improvement of bone regeneration. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, DIMDI, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science. A narrative exploratory review was undertaken, focusing on the antibacterial effects, physicochemical and biological properties of Zn-loaded membranes. Bioactivity, bone formation and cytotoxicity were analyzed. Microstructure and mechanical properties of these membranes were also determined. Zn-doped membranes have inhibited in vivo and in vitro bacterial colonization. Zn-alloy and Zn-doped membranes attained good biocompatibility and were found to be non-toxic to cells. The Zn-doped matrices showed feasible mechanical properties, such as flexibility, strength, complex modulus and tan delta. Zn incorporation in polymeric membranes provided the highest regenerative efficiency for bone healing in experimental animals, potentiating osteogenesis, angiogenesis, biological activity and a balanced remodeling. Zn-loaded membranes doped with SiO2 nanoparticles have performed as bioactive modulators provoking an M2 macrophage increase and are a potential biomaterial for promoting bone repair. Zn-doped membranes have promoted pro-healing phenotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer/Ceramics Composites)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop