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Special Issue "Plant Organelle DNA Maintenance"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019.
Department of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA
Interests: plant molecular biology; DNA replication and recombination; plant mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes; salt-tolerant microbiomes
Agricultural Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), 38000 Faisalabad, Pakistan
Tel. +92-412-9201316-20 Ext 243
Interests: chloroplast biotechnology; biopharming; stress physiology; improving photosynthesis
In addition to the nuclear genome, plant cells also contain DNA in two of their organelles—plastids and mitochondria. These double-membrane-bound organelles are considered to have originated through endosymbiosis. Over the course of evolution, the modern-day plant organelle genomes have considerably shrunk compared to their progenitors, as genes move from the organelles to the nuclear genomes. This provides additional control points for the nucleus over plant and organelle development, physiology, and maintenance. Consequently, the products of genes that have migrated to the nucleus have to be imported into their corresponding organelle destination, which has resulted in the evolution of a sophisticated signaling network between the nucleus and the organelles for synthesis and quality control. Both the plastids and the mitochondria house important biochemical reactions, namely, photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. In addition to photosynthesis and respiration, these organelles play a central role in various metabolic reactions, such as amino acid synthesis, sucrose metabolism, nitrogen assimilation, sulphur metabolism, steroid synthesis, and apoptosis. Both the organelles and their genomes are present in high copy number. Depending upon the plant age and tissue type, their number, morphology, and genomic content vary considerably during cell division as well as in response to different stresses, reflecting the diversity of organelles’ functions. For example, the DNA copy number in plastids and mitochondria can reach very high levels in rapidly growing plant tissues, such as young leaves for plastid DNA and shoot and root meristems for mitochondrial DNA. Likewise, the DNA in both organelles is degraded in aging leaves, and the components are recycled. The mechanisms that control copy number and DNA replication are poorly understood. Displacement loop replication origins have been mapped and studied in plant chloroplast DNA, and the major proteins involved in replication have been identified. The situation is more complex for plant mitochondrial genomes, which appear to replicate by a recombination-dependent mechanism without any known origin of replication. The link between the metabolic needs of a cell and the capacity of organelles to fulfil this demand is thought to act as a selective force on the number of organelles in a cell. Many questions, including why the DNA and the organelles themselves exist in high copy number and how the organelles’ genomes are maintained through different developmental stages, remain yet to be fully understood.
This Special Issue of Plants is poised to address these questions. The issue focuses on organelle DNA dynamics in plants, with particular emphasis on fluctuations in organelle DNA, mechanisms to maintain DNA copy number, and its degradation.
Prof. Brent L. Nielsen
Dr. Niaz Ahmad
Manuscript Submission Information
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Plants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
- Plant mitochondrial genomes
- chloroplast genomes
- recombination-dependent DNA replication
- organelle DNA maintenance
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Manuscript type: Review
Title: Maintenance of organelle genome stability in the moss Physcomitrella patens
Author: Masaki Odahara (Biomacromolecules Research Team, CSRS, RIKEN)
Abstract: Organelle genomes are essential for plants, however, the mechanism for the maintenance of organelle genomes is largely unknown. By using a basal land plant Physcomitrella patens as a model, nuclear-encoded homologs of bacterial-type homologous recombination repair factors have been shown to play an important role in the maintenance of organelle stability by suppressing recombination between short dispersed repeats. In this review, I summarize the factors and pathways for the maintenance mechanisms as well as the repeats that cause genome instability, and compare them with the findings from other plants. I also discuss the relationship between HRR factors and the structure of organelle genomes from the viewpoint of evolution.