Natural Compounds in Plants and Their Anti-inflammatory Activity II

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 January 2023) | Viewed by 12834

Special Issue Editors

Korean Medicine Clinical Trial Center (K-CTC), Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul 02454, Republic of Korea
Interests: natural product chemistry; LC-MS based metabolomics; biosynthesis of metabolites in plants; chemical profiling; phytochemical analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plants are a major source of complex and highly structurally diverse chemical compounds, which are often used as a starting point for drug discovery and development and have provided us with a large number of clinically useful drugs, including paclitaxel, artemisinin, galantamine, and morphine. Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug derived from salicylic acid from willow and other salicylate-rich plants, has been used to treat fever and pain for thousands of years. Inflammation is part of the biological response of our body to harmful stimuli, including pathogens, damaged cells, and irritants. Inflammation is a protective response, but the inflammatory response should be actively terminated when no longer needed to prevent unnecessary damage to normal tissues. Dysregulated inflammation, thus, is linked to various disease conditions, such as allergies, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. Therefore, anti-inflammatory drugs can be useful for the treatment of inflammation-associated diseases. In addition, many natural compounds beneficial for human health are yet to be uncovered, especially in regard to treating inflammation-associated diseases. In this context, this Special Issue aims to cover all areas of research related to plant extracts and phytochemicals with anti-inflammatory activities, including chemical, biological, and pharmacological analysis. Research on potential application of anti-inflammatory phytochemicals in inflammation-associated diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease, will be also considered. We welcome all scientific works presented as original research articles, reviews, and short communications dealing with natural compounds from plants, their anti-inflammatory activity, and their pharmacological activity on inflammation-associated diseases. 

Prof. Dr. Seok-Geun Lee
Dr. In Jin Ha
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • plants
  • phytochemicals
  • drug discovery
  • bioactive compounds
  • biochemometrics
  • metabolomics
  • molecular network analysis
  • inflammation
  • inflammation-associate diseases

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 4998 KiB  
Article
Effect of Ginseng Sapogenin Protopanaxadiol-Enriched Rice (DJ-PPD) on Immunomodulation
by Chaiwat Monmai, Jin-Suk Kim and So-Hyeon Baek
Plants 2023, 12(4), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12040767 - 8 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1235
Abstract
Protopanaxadiol (PPD), a gut microbiome-induced ginseng metabolite, has positive immune effects. We previously reported the immune-boosting and anti-inflammatory effects of PPD-enricshed rice seed extracts in normal and inflammatory cell environments, respectively. In the present study, the immunomodulatory activity of PPD-enriched transgenic rice seed [...] Read more.
Protopanaxadiol (PPD), a gut microbiome-induced ginseng metabolite, has positive immune effects. We previously reported the immune-boosting and anti-inflammatory effects of PPD-enricshed rice seed extracts in normal and inflammatory cell environments, respectively. In the present study, the immunomodulatory activity of PPD-enriched transgenic rice seed extract (DJ-PPD), which exhibited the highest immune-related activity among all available extracts, was compared with that of commercially synthesized 20s-PPD (S-PPD) and natural ginseng root extract (GE), in RAW264.7 cells. Compared with S-PPD and GE treatment, DJ-PPD treatment (i) significantly promoted NF-κB p65 and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) phosphorylation; (ii) upregulated IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2, TLR-4, and TNF-α expression; (iii) and increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. However, there were no significant differences in the effects of the three treatments containing PPD-type sapogenin or saponins on nitric oxide (NO) production and phagocytic activity. In the inflammatory cell environment, DJ-PPD treatment markedly decreased the production of LPS-induced inflammatory factors, including NO and PGE2, as well as proinflammatory cytokine expression, by decreasing phosphorylated (p-)NF-κB p65, p-p38 MAPK, and p-JNK levels. Thus, DJ-PPD that does not require complex intestinal microbial processes to exert higher anti-inflammatory effects compared with S-PPD and GE. However, DJ-PPD exerted similar or higher immune-boosting effects (depending on inflammatory biomarkers) than S-PPD and GE. These findings indicate the potential of PPD-enriched transgenic rice as an alternative immunomodulatory agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Compounds in Plants and Their Anti-inflammatory Activity II)
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16 pages, 23826 KiB  
Article
Chemical Profile, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Potency of Extracts of Vitex madiensis Oliv. and Crossopteryx febrifuga (Afzel ex G. Don)
by Ghislaine Boungou-Tsona, Maël Gainche, Caroline Decombat, Isabelle Ripoche, Kevin Bikindou, Laetitia Delort, Florence Caldefie-Chézet, Aubin Loumouamou and Pierre Chalard
Plants 2023, 12(2), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12020386 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1646
Abstract
Vitex madiensis Oliv. (Lamiaceae) and Crossopteryx febrifuga (Rubiaceae), two plants commonly used in traditional African medicines to treat malaria and pain, were studied either to determine their chemical profiles or to evaluate their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated leaves, [...] Read more.
Vitex madiensis Oliv. (Lamiaceae) and Crossopteryx febrifuga (Rubiaceae), two plants commonly used in traditional African medicines to treat malaria and pain, were studied either to determine their chemical profiles or to evaluate their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated leaves, trunk bark, root bark and fruits methanolic extracts of both plants in order to find out which part of the plant is responsible for the activity. The analyses of the chemical profiles allowed us to confirm the presence of several ecdysteroids, especially 20-hydroxyecdysone in some parts of V. madiensis and to highlight the presence of organic acids and phenol derivatives in C. febrifuga. Among the four parts of the plants studied, only the fruits extract of C. febrifuga could present anti-inflammatory activity by decreasing ROS production. The leaves and trunk bark extracts of V. madiensis showed significant free radical scavenging activity compared to ascorbic acid, and the same extracts decrease ROS production significantly. The activity of these two extracts could be explained by the presence of ecdysteroids and flavonoids. The ROS production inhibition of V. madiensis is particularly interesting to investigate with further analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Compounds in Plants and Their Anti-inflammatory Activity II)
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9 pages, 780 KiB  
Article
Sicilian Populations of Capparis spinosa L. and Capparis orientalis Duhamel as Source of the Bioactive Flavonol Quercetin
by Francesco Sgadari, Antonietta Cerulli, Rosario Schicchi, Natale Badalamenti, Maurizio Bruno and Sonia Piacente
Plants 2023, 12(1), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12010197 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1548
Abstract
The genus Capparis is a taxon of difficult delimitation that has several species and ecotypes due to its wide heterogeneity, its extreme phenotypic diversity, and the presence of intermediate forms linked to hybridization phenomena. The Sicilian territory hosts numerous wild and cultivated populations [...] Read more.
The genus Capparis is a taxon of difficult delimitation that has several species and ecotypes due to its wide heterogeneity, its extreme phenotypic diversity, and the presence of intermediate forms linked to hybridization phenomena. The Sicilian territory hosts numerous wild and cultivated populations of two spp. Capparis spinosa L. and Capparis orientalis Duhamel, which are ecologically and morphologically distinct. The caper has considerable interest and economic value for its medicinal properties, culinary uses, and cultivation characteristics. It is one of the foods with the highest quercetin content. Quercetin is a flavonol with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulant properties. Recently, patents and clinical studies have highlighted the inhibitory effect of this compound against several SARS-CoV-2 enzymes (MPro, PLPro, and RdRp). Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify the amount of quercetin in C. spinosa and C. orientalis by LC-ESI/QTrap/MS/MS and to correlate it with the pedoclimatic features. The results obtained showed that quercetin is more abundant in C. orientalis than in C. spinosa. The highest values of quercetin were recorded in C. orientalis flowers, leaves, and flower buttons of volcanic islands with southwest and east warm exposures. In conclusion, the data acquired can provide a good basis for further scientific investigations to support the identification of possible ecotypes as a source of quercetin for food or pharmaceutical purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Compounds in Plants and Their Anti-inflammatory Activity II)
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19 pages, 6050 KiB  
Article
Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking Study on the Multi-Target Mechanisms of Aloe vera for Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis Treatment
by Tan Khanh Nguyen, Huy Hieu Phung, Won Jun Choi and Hee-Chul Ahn
Plants 2022, 11(24), 3585; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11243585 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2450
Abstract
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease with limited treatment options. The widely distributed plant Aloe vera has shown protective effects against NASH in animals, yet the precise mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the potential mechanisms [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease with limited treatment options. The widely distributed plant Aloe vera has shown protective effects against NASH in animals, yet the precise mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the potential mechanisms underlying the anti-NASH effects of Aloe vera using a network pharmacology and molecular docking approach. By searching online databases and analyzing the Gene Expression Omnibus dataset, we obtained 260 Aloe vera–NASH common targets. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses showed that the common targets were strongly associated with the key pathological processes implicated in NASH, including lipid and glucose metabolism, inflammation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and liver fibrosis. Four core proteins, AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), transcription factor c-Jun, and tumor suppressor protein p53, were identified from compound–target–pathway and protein–protein interaction networks. Molecular docking analysis verified that the active ingredients of Aloe vera were able to interact with the core proteins, especially AKT1 and TNFα. The results demonstrate the multi-compound, multi-target, and multi-pathway mechanisms of Aloe vera against NASH. Our study has shown the scientific basis for further experiments in terms of the mechanism to develop Aloe vera-based natural products as complementary treatments for NASH. Furthermore, it identifies novel drug candidates based on the structures of Aloe vera’s active compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Compounds in Plants and Their Anti-inflammatory Activity II)
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14 pages, 2373 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Symplocos sumuntia Buch.-Ham. Ex D. Don Extract via Blockage of the NF-κB/JNK Signaling Pathways in LPS-Activated Microglial Cells
by Jae Sung Lim, Jaehoon Bae, Seoyoung Lee, Da Young Lee, Lulu Yao, Namki Cho, Tran The Bach, Narae Yun, Su-Jin Park and Young-Chang Cho
Plants 2022, 11(22), 3095; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11223095 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1357
Abstract
Symplocos sumuntia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don (S. sumuntia) is a traditional medicinal herb used in Asia to treat various pathologies, including cough, stomachache, tonsillitis, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Although the anti-inflammatory activity of S. sumuntia has been reported, little is known about its anti-inflammatory [...] Read more.
Symplocos sumuntia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don (S. sumuntia) is a traditional medicinal herb used in Asia to treat various pathologies, including cough, stomachache, tonsillitis, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Although the anti-inflammatory activity of S. sumuntia has been reported, little is known about its anti-inflammatory activity and molecular mechanisms in microglial cells. Therefore, we investigated the inhibitory effects of S. sumuntia methanol extract (SSME) on the inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated BV2 cells. The SSME significantly inhibited the LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression, as well as the production of nitric oxide (NO), a proinflammatory mediator. The production of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-1β, was suppressed by the SSME in the LPS-induced BV2 cells. The mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of SSME involves the suppression of the LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as JNK. Moreover, we showed that the LPS-stimulated nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)/p65 protein, followed by IκB degradation, was decreased by the SSME treatment. Collectively, these results showed that the SSME induced anti-inflammatory effects via the suppression of the MAPK signaling pathways, accompanied by changes in the NF-κB translocation into the nucleus. Therefore, SSME may be employed as a potential therapeutic candidate for various inflammatory diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Compounds in Plants and Their Anti-inflammatory Activity II)
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Review

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22 pages, 436 KiB  
Review
The Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Viscum album
by Marcello Nicoletti
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1460; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071460 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3944
Abstract
The therapeutic story of European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) presents a seesawing profile. In ancient times, this hemiparasitic plant was considered a panacea and even to be endowed with exceptional beneficial properties. In more recent times, despite its multiple uses in traditional [...] Read more.
The therapeutic story of European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) presents a seesawing profile. In ancient times, this hemiparasitic plant was considered a panacea and even to be endowed with exceptional beneficial properties. In more recent times, despite its multiple uses in traditional medicines, some parts of the plant, in particular the berries, were considered poisonous and dangerous, including concerns of cytotoxicity, which spread serious suspicion on its medicinal utility. However, since the last century, medical interest in mistletoe has come back in force due to its utilization in clinical cancer treatments, based on its selective action on tumor cells. In Central Europe, the hydro-alcoholic extracts of European mistletoe register a relevant and continuous utilization in anthroposophic medicine, which is a holistic system that includes the utilization of phytomedicinal substances. In Switzerland and Germany, most physicians and patients use these products as complementary therapy in oncological treatments. However, despite its increasing use in this field, the results of mistletoe’s use are not always convincing, and other aspects have appeared. Nowadays, products that contain mistletoe are utilized in several fields, including diet, phytotherapy, veterinary medicine and homeopathy, but in particular in cancer therapies as coadjuvant factors, in consideration of several positive effects including effects in the improvement of quality-of-life conditions and reinforcement of the immune system. In this review, based on the understanding of the association between cancer and inflammation, we propose a relationship between these recent uses of mistletoe, based on its antioxidant properties, which are supported by phytochemical and pharmacological data. The unicity of mistletoe metabolism, which is a direct consequence of its hemiparasitism, is utilized as a key interpretation element to explain its biological properties and steer its consequent therapeutic uses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Compounds in Plants and Their Anti-inflammatory Activity II)
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