Advances in Plant Viral Diseases

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Protection and Biotic Interactions".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2023) | Viewed by 26229

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Department of Virology, Plant Protection and Biotechnology Center, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA), 46113 Moncada, Valencia, Spain
Interests: plant virology; molecular diagnosis; NGS applied to virus diagnostics; development and validation of new techniques for virus detection and identification
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Virology, Plant Protection and Biotechnology Center, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, 46113 Moncada, Valencia, Spain
Interests: HTS; plant virology; diagnostics; virus molecular characterization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plant viral diseases are an important threat for agriculture, producing enormous economic and agronomic losses every year. In fact, among plant pathogens viruses and virus-like pathogens are the causal agents of most emerging plant diseases, and represent a risk for agriculture production worldwide. The legal and illegal trading of infected plant material is the first cause of the introduction of foreign viruses to a new area, and the possible presence of vectors that are able to transmit the pathogen can produce pandemics for a specific crop. For these reasons, studies on plant virus diagnosis, management, epidemiology and molecular interactions using, in many cases, omics approaches are key factors to fight against these pathogens, for which the control is based in a first step on the prevention of their introduction to a new area and eradication measures. In a second step, once the virus is introduced and present, the control is based on the management of the disease and the application of different strategies to avoid its spread.

This Special Issue will accept and propagate the latest advancements in viral plant disease control in a broad sense and in a multidisciplinary context, encouraging contributions such as reviews on the state of the art on different topics related to viral plant diseases, and will also consider research papers that offer new opportunities for the control of plant viruses to safeguard the agriculture sector.

Dr. Antonio Olmos
Dr. Ana Belen Ruiz-Garcia
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • virus diagnosis
  • viral management
  • viral epidemics
  • plant–virus–vector interactions
  • omics

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 3770 KiB  
Article
Complete Genome Characterization of Penicillimonavirus gammaplasmoparae, a Bipartite Member of the Family Mymonaviridae
by Félix Morán, Antonio Olmos, Thierry Candresse and Ana Belén Ruiz-García
Plants 2023, 12(18), 3300; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12183300 - 18 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1145
Abstract
In this study, we identified Plasmopara-viticola-lesion-associated mononegaambi virus 3 (recently classified as Penicillimonavirus gammaplasmoparae), a fungi-associated mymonavirus, in grapevine plants showing an unusual upward curling symptomatology on the leaves and premature decline. Mymonaviridae is a family comprising nine genera of negative-sense single-stranded [...] Read more.
In this study, we identified Plasmopara-viticola-lesion-associated mononegaambi virus 3 (recently classified as Penicillimonavirus gammaplasmoparae), a fungi-associated mymonavirus, in grapevine plants showing an unusual upward curling symptomatology on the leaves and premature decline. Mymonaviridae is a family comprising nine genera of negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses infecting filamentous fungi, although few of them have been associated with oomycetes, plants, and insects. Although the first mymonavirus genome description was reported a decade ago, the genome organization of several genera in the family, including the genus Penicillimonavirus, has remained unclear to date. We have determined the complete genome of P. gammaplasmoparae, which represents the first complete genomic sequence for this genus. Moreover, we provide strong evidence that P. gammaplasmoparae genome is bipartite and comprises two RNA molecules of around 6150 and 4560 nt. Our results indicate that the grapevine powdery mildew pathogen, Erysiphe necator, was also present in the analyzed plants and suggest P. gammaplasmoparae could be infecting this fungus. However, whether the fungus and/or the mycovirus are associated with the symptomatology that initially prompted these efforts remains to be determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant Viral Diseases)
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10 pages, 2020 KiB  
Article
Isolation, Identification, and Determination of the Virulence of the Causal Agents of Corm Rot of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in Valle de Uco, Argentina
by Pablo F. Caligiore-Gei, Natalia Moratalla-López, Luciana M. Poggi and Gonzalo L. Alonso
Plants 2023, 12(14), 2717; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12142717 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 860
Abstract
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) presents an attractive opportunity for diversifying production and adding value, particularly for small-scale growers and family-based agriculture. However, the agamic propagation of the crop through corms raises concerns regarding disease dispersion. During the summers of 2013 and 2015, [...] Read more.
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) presents an attractive opportunity for diversifying production and adding value, particularly for small-scale growers and family-based agriculture. However, the agamic propagation of the crop through corms raises concerns regarding disease dispersion. During the summers of 2013 and 2015, symptoms of corm rot were observed in saffron crops in La Consulta, Valle de Uco, Argentina. These symptoms manifested in the form of wilting plants and red-coloured areas on the surface of the corms, in some cases affecting deeper regions. This study aimed to isolate and identify the causal agent responsible for saffron corm rot while also comparing the virulence of four strains isolated on saffron plants. Consistent isolation of Fusarium spp. colonies from affected corms confirmed its association with the disease. The obtained isolates were inoculated into healthy corms, and the reproduction of symptoms was confirmed, as well as subsequent pathogen re-isolation. Morphological and molecular characterisation of the strains was performed using rDNA gene sequencing. Furthermore, disease progression was assessed with fitting epidemiological models to empirical data, which served as estimators of fungal strain aggressiveness. The results conclusively identified Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl. as the causal agent of corm rot, and variations in virulence were observed among the strains on the host plant. After basic molecular and pathological studies, it is postulated that the fungal strains possibly belong to the forma specialis gladioli, but further studies are necessary to confirm that. The present study provides findings that highlight the importance of early detection and the preservation of pathogen-free fields to sustain saffron cultivation. These findings may constitute the initial step for future projects aimed at understanding the epidemiology of the disease better, determining the species/races of the pathogen, and developing effective management strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant Viral Diseases)
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15 pages, 4858 KiB  
Article
Molecular Characterization of a Recombinant Isolate of Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus Associated with Severe Outbreaks in Zucchini Squash in Southern Italy
by Mariarosaria Mastrochirico, Roberta Spanò, Rita Milvia De Miccolis Angelini and Tiziana Mascia
Plants 2023, 12(13), 2399; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12132399 - 21 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
The molecular characterization of a tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) isolate, denoted ToLCNDV-Le, is reported. The virus was associated with severe and recurrent outbreaks in protected crops of zucchini squash grown in the Province of Lecce (Apulia, southern Italy). The fully [...] Read more.
The molecular characterization of a tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) isolate, denoted ToLCNDV-Le, is reported. The virus was associated with severe and recurrent outbreaks in protected crops of zucchini squash grown in the Province of Lecce (Apulia, southern Italy). The fully sequenced genome of ToLCNDV-Le consists of two genomic components named DNA-A and DNA-B of 2738 and 2683 nt in size, respectively. Like other ToLCNDV isolates, ToLCNDV-Le DNA-A contains the AV2 and AV1 open reading frames (ORFs) in the virion-sense orientation and five additional ORFs named AC1, AC2, AC3, AC4 and AC5 in the complementary-sense orientation. The DNA-B contains BV1 ORF in the virion-sense orientation and BC1 ORF in the complementary-sense orientation. No DNA betasatellites were found associated with ToLCNDV-Le in naturally infected samples. Phylogenetic analysis clustered ToLCNDV-Le with the ToLCNDV-ES strain of western Mediterranean Basin isolates. Consequently, the ToLCNDV-ES-[IT-Zu-Le18] name is proposed as the descriptor for ToLCNDV-Le. Using recombination detection program RDP4, one putative recombination breakpoint (Rbp) was identified close to nucleotide positions 2197–2727, covering approximately half of the AC1 region, including the AC4 ORF and the 3′ UTR. RDP4 indicated the event represents an Rbp of an isolate similar to ToLCNDV [Pk-06] (Acc. No. EF620534) found in Luffa acutangula in Pakistan and identified as putative minor parent into the background of ToLCNDV [BG-Jes-Svr-05] (Acc. No. AJ875157), found in tomato in Bangladesh, and identified as putative major parent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a ToLCNDV-ES recombinant isolate in the AC1-AC4 region in Italy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant Viral Diseases)
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14 pages, 4868 KiB  
Article
The Mechanism of Resistance of EUROPEAN Plum to Plum pox virus Mediated by Hypersensitive Response Is Linked to VIRAL NIa and Its Protease Activity
by Bernardo Rodamilans, Johannes Hadersdorfer, Zita Berki, Beatriz García, Michael Neumüller and Juan Antonio García
Plants 2023, 12(8), 1609; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12081609 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1335
Abstract
Plum pox virus (PPV) infects Prunus trees across the globe, causing the serious Sharka disease. Breeding programs in the past 20 years have been successful, generating plum varieties hypersensitive to PPV that show resistance in the field. Recently, a single tree displaying typical [...] Read more.
Plum pox virus (PPV) infects Prunus trees across the globe, causing the serious Sharka disease. Breeding programs in the past 20 years have been successful, generating plum varieties hypersensitive to PPV that show resistance in the field. Recently, a single tree displaying typical PPV symptoms was detected in an orchard of resistant plums. The tree was eradicated, and infected material was propagated under controlled conditions to study the new PPV isolate. Performing overlapping PCR analysis, the viral sequence was reconstructed, cloned and tested for infectivity in different ‘Jojo’-based resistant plums. The results confirmed that the isolate, named PPV-D ‘Herrenberg’ (PPVD-H), was able to infect all these varieties. Analyses of chimeras between PPVD-H and a PPV-D standard isolate (PPVD) revealed that the NIa region of PPD-H, carrying three amino acid changes, was enough to break the resistance of these plums. Experiments with single and double mutants showed that all changes were essential to preserve the escaping phenotype. Additionally, one of the changes at the VPg-NIapro junction suggested the involvement of controlled endopeptidase cleavage in the viral response. Transient expression experiments in Nicotiana benthamiana confirmed that NIa cleavage in PPVD-H was reduced, compared to PPVD, linking the observed behavior to an NIa cleavage modulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant Viral Diseases)
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26 pages, 4722 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Bioactive Compounds in Two Globe Artichoke Ecotypes Sanitized and Non-Sanitized from Viral Infections
by Roberta Spanò, Stefania Fortunato, Vito Linsalata, Isabella D’Antuono, Angela Cardinali, Maria Concetta de Pinto and Tiziana Mascia
Plants 2023, 12(8), 1600; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12081600 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1462
Abstract
Globe artichoke ecotypes sanitized from plant pathogen infections are characterized by high vegetative vigor, productivity, and quality of capitula. The recent availability on the market of these plants has renewed the interest of farmers and pharmaceutical industries in the crop. Globe artichoke exhibits [...] Read more.
Globe artichoke ecotypes sanitized from plant pathogen infections are characterized by high vegetative vigor, productivity, and quality of capitula. The recent availability on the market of these plants has renewed the interest of farmers and pharmaceutical industries in the crop. Globe artichoke exhibits interesting nutraceutical properties due to the high content of health-promoting bioactive compounds (BACs), such as polyphenols, that could be extracted from waste biomass. The production of BACs depends on several factors including the plant portion considered, the globe artichoke variety/ecotype, and the physiological status of the plants, linked to biotic and abiotic stresses. We investigated the influence of viral infections on polyphenol accumulation in two Apulian late-flowering ecotypes “Locale di Mola tardivo” and “Troianella”, comparing sanitized virus-free material (S) vs. naturally virus-infected (non-sanitized, NS) plants. Transcriptome analysis of the two ecotypes highlighted that differentially expressed genes (DEGs), in the two tested conditions, were mainly involved in primary metabolism and processing of genetic/environmental information. The up-regulation of the genes related to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and the analysis of peroxidase activity suggested that their modulation is influenced by the phytosanitary status of the plant and is ecotype-dependent. Conversely, the phytochemical analysis showed a remarkable decrease in polyphenols and lignin accumulation in S artichokes compared to NS plants. This unique study analyzes the potential of growing vigorous, sanitized plants, in order to have high amounts of ‘soft and clean’ biomass, finalized for BAC extraction for nutraceutical purposes. This, in turn, opens new perspectives for a circular economy of sanitized artichokes, in line with the current phytosanitary standards and sustainable development goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant Viral Diseases)
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15 pages, 2713 KiB  
Article
A Novel and Highly Inclusive Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR Method for the Broad and Efficient Detection of Grapevine Leafroll-Associated Virus 1
by Félix Morán, Antonio Olmos, Miroslav Glasa, Marilia Bueno Da Silva, Varvara Maliogka, Thierry Wetzel and Ana Belén Ruiz-García
Plants 2023, 12(4), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12040876 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2231
Abstract
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important crops in the world due to its economic and social impact. Like many other crops, grapevine is susceptible to different types of diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1) [...] Read more.
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important crops in the world due to its economic and social impact. Like many other crops, grapevine is susceptible to different types of diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1) is a virus associated with grapevine leafroll disease and it is considered at the national and European level as a pathogen that must be absent in propagative plant material. For this reason, the availability of specific, sensitive and reliable detection techniques to ascertain the sanitary status of the plants is of great importance. The objective of this research was the development of a new GLRaV-1 detection method based on a TaqMan quantitative real-time RT-PCR targeted to the coat protein genomic region and including a host internal control in a duplex reaction. To this end, three new GLRaV-1 full genomes were recovered by HTS and aligned with all sequences available in the databases. The method has been validated following EPPO standards and applied for the diagnosis of field plant material and transmission vectors. The new protocol designed has turned out to be highly sensitive as well as much more specific than the current available methods for the detection and absolute quantitation of GLRaV-1 viral titer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant Viral Diseases)
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14 pages, 19868 KiB  
Article
Grafting to Manage Infections of the Emerging Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus in Cucurbits
by Mariarosaria Mastrochirico, Roberta Spanò and Tiziana Mascia
Plants 2023, 12(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12010037 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2027
Abstract
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) is an emerging begomovirus (Geminiviridae family) listed in the EPPO Alert List 2, present in the Mediterranean area and in Italy, where it was reported in 2015 in Sicilian courgette. The virus is widespread in [...] Read more.
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) is an emerging begomovirus (Geminiviridae family) listed in the EPPO Alert List 2, present in the Mediterranean area and in Italy, where it was reported in 2015 in Sicilian courgette. The virus is widespread in cucurbits where it causes up to 100% production losses. In 2018, ToLCNDV was isolated in Apulia (southern Italy) in commercial fields of zucchini squash and since then its recurrent outbreaks generated justified concern among growers. Thus, a sustainable and environmentally friendly approach must be adopted. Genetic resistances have been identified in Cucurbita moschata and Luffa cylindrica but, compared to genetic resistance, grafting could provide a faster and more flexible solution because the graft wounding induces tolerance rather than resistance against airborne virus infection. Compared to tolerance, the up-regulation of resistance genes requires energy resources mobilized at the expense of primary metabolism, plant growth, and development. Results of screening among twenty-one local cucurbit cvs. ecotypes and accessions to evaluate tolerance levels against rub-inoculation of ToLCNDV led to the identification of potential rootstocks to attain suitable levels of tolerance against the virus in commercial cucurbit varieties. Cucurbit plants were challenged by a ToLCNDV isolated in Apulia denoted ToLCNDV-Le and evaluated for disease symptoms development and viral DNA accumulation up to 28 days after inoculation. On the basis of disease symptoms developed, plants were classified as tolerant, moderately tolerant, moderately susceptible, and susceptible. Cucumis melo cv. Barattiere did not show any detectable disease symptoms and very low levels of viral DNA accumulation was recorded; thus, it was used as rootstock for some of the remaining cucurbit genotypes that were used as scions. The tolerance trait was transmitted to the otherwise susceptible and moderately susceptible cucurbit genotypes grafted onto the cv. Barattiere. The results of this study suggest practical implications of the approach described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant Viral Diseases)
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16 pages, 3506 KiB  
Article
Adaptation of a Potyvirus Chimera Increases Its Virulence in a Compatible Host through Changes in HCPro
by Hao Sun, Francisco del Toro, Mongia Makki, Francisco Tenllado and Tomas Canto
Plants 2022, 11(17), 2262; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11172262 - 30 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1863
Abstract
A viral chimera in which the P1-HCPro bi-cistron of a plum pox virus construct (PPV-GFP) was replaced by that of potato virus Y (PVY) spread slowly systemically in Nicotiana benthamiana plants and accumulated to levels that were 5−10% those of parental PPV-GFP. We [...] Read more.
A viral chimera in which the P1-HCPro bi-cistron of a plum pox virus construct (PPV-GFP) was replaced by that of potato virus Y (PVY) spread slowly systemically in Nicotiana benthamiana plants and accumulated to levels that were 5−10% those of parental PPV-GFP. We tested whether consecutive mechanical passages could increase its virulence, and found that after several passages, chimera titers rose and symptoms increased. We sequenced over half the genome of passaged chimera lineages infecting two plants. The regions sequenced were 5′NCR-P1-HCPro-P3; Vpg/NIa; GFP-CP, because of being potential sites for mutations/deletions leading to adaptation. We found few substitutions, all non-synonymous: two in one chimera (nt 2053 HCPro, and 5733 Vpg/NIa), and three in the other (2359 HCPro, 5729 Vpg/NIa, 9466 CP). HCPro substitutions 2053 AUU(Ile)→ACU(Thr), and 2359 CUG(Leu)→CGG(Arg) occurred at positions where single nucleotide polymorphisms were observed in NGS libraries of sRNA reads from agroinfiltrated plants (generation 1). Remarkably, position 2053 was the only one in the sequenced protein-encoding genome in which polymorphisms were common to the four libraries, suggesting that selective pressure existed to alter that specific nucleotide, previous to any passage. Mutations 5729 and 5733 in the Vpg by contrast did not correlate with polymorphisms in generation 1 libraries. Reverse genetics showed that substitution 2053 alone increased several-fold viral local accumulation, speed of systemic spread, and systemic titers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant Viral Diseases)
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17 pages, 3793 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Apiaceous Potyvirus Phylogeny, Novel Viruses, and New Country and Host Records from Sequencing Apiaceae Samples
by Adrian Fox, Adrian J. Gibbs, Aimee R. Fowkes, Hollie Pufal, Sam McGreig, Roger A. C. Jones, Neil Boonham and Ian P. Adams
Plants 2022, 11(15), 1951; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11151951 - 27 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2478
Abstract
The family Apiaceae comprises approximately 3700 species of herbaceous plants, including important crops, aromatic herbs and field weeds. Here we report a study of 10 preserved historical or recent virus samples of apiaceous plants collected in the United Kingdom (UK) import interceptions from [...] Read more.
The family Apiaceae comprises approximately 3700 species of herbaceous plants, including important crops, aromatic herbs and field weeds. Here we report a study of 10 preserved historical or recent virus samples of apiaceous plants collected in the United Kingdom (UK) import interceptions from the Mediterranean region (Egypt, Israel and Cyprus) or during surveys of Australian apiaceous crops. Seven complete new genomic sequences and one partial sequence, of the apiaceous potyviruses apium virus Y (ApVY), carrot thin leaf virus (CaTLV), carrot virus Y (CarVY) and celery mosaic virus (CeMV) were obtained. When these 7 and 16 earlier complete non-recombinant apiaceous potyvirus sequences were subjected to phylogenetic analyses, they split into 2 separate lineages: 1 containing ApVY, CeMV, CarVY and panax virus Y and the other CaTLV, ashitabi mosaic virus and konjac virus Y. Preliminary dating analysis suggested the CarVY population first diverged from CeMV and ApVY in the 17th century and CeMV from ApVY in the 18th century. They also showed the “time to most recent common ancestor” of the sampled populations to be more recent: 1997 CE, 1983 CE and 1958 CE for CarVY, CeMV and ApVY, respectively. In addition, we found a new family record for beet western yellows virus in coriander from Cyprus; a new country record for carrot torradovirus-1 and a tentative novel member of genus Ophiovirus as a co-infection in a carrot sample from Australia; and a novel member of the genus Umbravirus recovered from a sample of herb parsley from Israel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant Viral Diseases)
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12 pages, 1247 KiB  
Article
High-Throughput Sequencing Discloses the Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) Diversity in Slovakia and Reveals New Hosts of CMV from the Papaveraceae Family
by Michaela Mrkvová, Richard Hančinský, Lukáš Predajňa, Peter Alaxin, Adam Achs, Jana Tomašechová, Katarína Šoltys, Daniel Mihálik, Antonio Olmos, Ana Belén Ruiz-García and Miroslav Glasa
Plants 2022, 11(13), 1665; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11131665 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2435
Abstract
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV; Cucumovirus, Bromoviridae) is an omnipresent virus characterized by a large host range and high genetic variability. Using high-throughput sequencing, we have characterized near complete genomes of 14 Slovak CMV variants from different plant hosts. Of these, three variants [...] Read more.
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV; Cucumovirus, Bromoviridae) is an omnipresent virus characterized by a large host range and high genetic variability. Using high-throughput sequencing, we have characterized near complete genomes of 14 Slovak CMV variants from different plant hosts. Of these, three variants originated from the Papaveraceae species (oilseed poppy, common poppy and great celandine), previously poorly described as CMV natural hosts. Based on a BLAST search and phylogenetic analysis, the Slovak CMV isolates can be divided into two genetically different Groups, Ia and II, respectively. The SL50V variant, characterized by a divergent RNA2 sequence, potentially represents a reassortant variant. In four samples (T101, SL50V, CP2, MVU2-21), the presence of satellite CMV RNA was identified along with CMV. Although mechanically transmitted to experimental cucumber plants, the role of satellite RNA in the symptomatology observed could not be established due to a complex infection of original hosts with different viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant Viral Diseases)
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18 pages, 1598 KiB  
Article
The Virome of ‘Lamon Bean’: Application of MinION Sequencing to Investigate the Virus Population Associated with Symptomatic Beans in the Lamon Area, Italy
by Giulia Tarquini, Marta Martini, Simone Maestri, Giuseppe Firrao and Paolo Ermacora
Plants 2022, 11(6), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060779 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2905
Abstract
‘Lamon bean’ is a protected geographical indication (PGI) for a product of four varieties of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in a specific area of production, which is located in the Belluno district, Veneto region (N.E. of Italy). In the last decade, [...] Read more.
‘Lamon bean’ is a protected geographical indication (PGI) for a product of four varieties of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in a specific area of production, which is located in the Belluno district, Veneto region (N.E. of Italy). In the last decade, the ‘Lamon bean’ has been threatened by severe virus epidemics that have compromised its profitability. In this work, the full virome of seven bean samples showing different foliar symptoms was obtained by MinION sequencing. Evidence that emerged from sequencing was validated through RT-PCR and ELISA in a large number of plants, including different ecotypes of Lamon bean and wild herbaceous hosts that may represent a virus reservoir in the field. Results revealed the presence of bean common mosaic virus (BCMV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), peanut stunt virus (PSV), and bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), which often occurred as mixed infections. Moreover, both CMV and PSV were reported in association with strain-specific satellite RNAs (satRNAs). In conclusion, this work sheds light on the cause of the severe diseases affecting the ‘Lamon bean’ by exploitation of MinION sequencing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant Viral Diseases)
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Review

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21 pages, 3384 KiB  
Review
Host Resistance to Virus Diseases Provides a Key Enabler towards Fast Tracking Gains in Grain Lupin Breeding
by Roger A. C. Jones
Plants 2023, 12(13), 2521; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12132521 - 30 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1526
Abstract
Four lupin species, Lupinus angustifolius, L. albus, L. luteus, and L. mutabilis, are grown as cool-season grain legume crops. Fifteen viruses infect them. Two of these, bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), cause diseases that [...] Read more.
Four lupin species, Lupinus angustifolius, L. albus, L. luteus, and L. mutabilis, are grown as cool-season grain legume crops. Fifteen viruses infect them. Two of these, bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), cause diseases that threaten grain lupin production. Phytosanitary and cultural control measures are mainly used to manage them. However, breeding virus-resistant lupin cultivars provides an additional management approach. The need to develop this approach stimulated a search for virus resistance sources amongst cultivated lupin species and their wild relatives. This review focuses on the progress made in optimizing virus resistance screening procedures, identifying host resistances to BYMV, CMV, and additional viral pathogen alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), and the inclusion of BYMV and CMV resistance within lupin breeding programs. The resistance types found in different combinations of virus and grain lupin species include localized hypersensitivity, systemic hypersensitivity, extreme resistance, and partial resistance to aphid or seed transmission. These resistances provide a key enabler towards fast tracking gains in grain lupin breeding. Where studied, their inheritance depended upon single dominant genes or was polygenic. Although transgenic virus resistance was incorporated into L. angustifolius and L. luteus successfully, it proved unstable. Priorities for future research are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant Viral Diseases)
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Other

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9 pages, 1617 KiB  
Brief Report
Evaluation of the RNA Silencing Suppression Activity of Three Cherry Virus F-Encoded Proteins
by Leonidas Lotos, Asimina Katsiani, Nikolaos I. Katis and Varvara I. Maliogka
Plants 2024, 13(2), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13020264 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 819
Abstract
Cherry virus F (CVF) is a newly emerged sweet cherry virus. CVF has been identified in a small number of countries and it has not been associated with discrete symptomatology. RNA silencing is a natural defense mechanism of plants against invaders that degrades [...] Read more.
Cherry virus F (CVF) is a newly emerged sweet cherry virus. CVF has been identified in a small number of countries and it has not been associated with discrete symptomatology. RNA silencing is a natural defense mechanism of plants against invaders that degrades viral RNA in a sequence-specific manner. As a counter-defense, plant viruses encode one or more RNA silencing suppressors (RSSs) interfering with the silencing pathway via several mechanisms. To identify putative RSSs, the three proteins (MP, CPL, CPS) encoded by the RNA2 of CVF were selected and separately cloned into the binary vector pART27. The clones were used for transient expression experiments in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, using co-agroinfiltration with a GFP-expressing vector. In both CPL and CPS, a rapid decrease in fluorescence was recorded, comparable to the negative control, whereas the MP of CVF retained the GFP’s fluorescence for a few days longer even though this was observed in a small number of infiltrated leaves. Further experiments have shown that the protein was not able to inhibit the cell-to-cell spread of the silencing signal; however, a putative interference with systemic silencing was recorded especially when the induction was carried out with double-stranded GFP RNA. Overall, our results indicate that the MP of CVF is putatively implicated in the suppression of RNA silencing, though further experimentation is needed to unveil the exact mode of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant Viral Diseases)
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7 pages, 804 KiB  
Brief Report
First Identification of Fig Virus A and Fig Virus B in Ficus carica in Italy
by Serafina Serena Amoia, Michela Chiumenti and Angelantonio Minafra
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1503; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071503 - 29 Mar 2023
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Abstract
Extracts of double-stranded RNA from three fig cultivars from an Apulian (Southern Italy) germplasm collection were used for high-throughput sequencing and revealed the presence of two distinct, recently described closteroviruses. Sequences obtained from these Apulian isolates belong to fig virus A and fig [...] Read more.
Extracts of double-stranded RNA from three fig cultivars from an Apulian (Southern Italy) germplasm collection were used for high-throughput sequencing and revealed the presence of two distinct, recently described closteroviruses. Sequences obtained from these Apulian isolates belong to fig virus A and fig virus B and cover 38 and 25% of their RNA genome, respectively. Primer sets designed on selected contigs confirmed the presence of each virus in infected plants. A close phylogenetic relationship, investigated in a fragment of HSP70h protein, occurs among these isolates and the reference genomes. A nucleotide divergence (ranging from 10 to 30% along the different genes) was observed among our isolates and the reference genomes. This is the first finding of these virus species in autochthonous fig accessions in Europe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant Viral Diseases)
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