Special Issue "Possibilities of Long-Term Conservation of Grapevine Genetic Resources"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2021.
Interests: biotechnology of viticulture; tissue culture and expecially cryopreservation of grape geneplasm; general viticulture; organic viticulture
Grapevines are one of the longest domesticated plant species, and are among the most important fruit crops cultivated and consumed worldwide. Grapes have a rich genetic diversity and are traditionally conserved in genebanks, primarily as whole plants in the field. Field plantings are readily available for use in breeding programs and propagation; however, they are expensive and could be lost in the event of biological or environmental disasters. Considering that the gender of many cultivars is important for winemaking production, we can assume that different cultivars react differently in conditions of cultivation, maintenance, and also conservation itself. However, in some countries, certain cultivars present a part of national heritage, and need to be conserved because of the genetic variability of the gender in the terms of breeding activities. Complementary conservation strategies should be considered by genebanks to securely conserve collections of Vitis genetic resources for future requirements of breeding programs. In vitro technologies have demonstrated the potential for developing additional conservation strategies for grapevines.
Methods are based on slow growth storage and cryopreservation. In vitro storage under slow growth involves the application of media-reduced nutrients, lowering the photoperiod and incubation temperature (4–5°C), resulting in prolonged subcultures. The cultures remain in a condition where the cell metabolism is reduced, allowing medium-term conservation for a few months to years. Cryopreservation is freezing at ultralow temperatures using liquid nitrogen. Under cryopreserved conditions, the genetic integrity of the plant tissue is kept for an indefinite period of time, without any manipulations. It is also cost-effective to maintain collections for extended periods of time in liquid nitrogen, and it minimizes the risk of contamination compared with field or in vitro collections.
Reliable cryopreservation methods that result in high levels of regrowth after liquid nitrogen exposure are key to the development of successful base collections. Recent advances in grapevine cryopreservation using vitrification-based procedures appear to be promising in order to overcome species- and genotype-specific responses. This represents one of the major challenges for the widespread use of the cryopreservation procedure. The implementation of protocols requires prior validation of particular protocols to some groups of cultivars, and consequently the design of genebank for each repository.
Dr. Zvjezdana Markovic
Dr. Jean Carlos Bettoni
Manuscript Submission Information
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- biotechnology in viticulture
- long-term conservation
- viticulture progress
- field collections
- other methods for conservation