Special Issue "Plant Resistance Induced by Microorganisms and Pathogens"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Pathogens".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Paloma Sanchez-Bel
Website
Guest Editor
Universitat Jaume I. Plant Physiology Unit. Department of CAMN
Interests: plant-pathogen interactions; priming; mycorrhiza-induced resistance; metabolomics
Dr. Ainhoa Martínez-Medina
Website
Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear colleges

Plant pathogens and pests represent one of the major threats to global food production, being responsible for the crop loses estimated in more than 30% of the global production. The main strategy to cope with these challenges, whilst avoiding the use of pesticides, is the induction of plant immune system. Immune systems of the plants can be induced by several stimuli, including pathogen challenge, avirulent bacteria and beneficial microorganisms such as plant growth promotion microbes (PGPM) and mycorrhizal fungi. All these stimuli lead the plant to a Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR), Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR) or Mycorrhiza-Induced Resistance (MIR). The use of beneficial microorganisms is the most widely applied alternative method to control various arthropod pests and pathogens in organic farming and IPM programs. Although the number of publications associated with the use of all these inducers has been growing exponentially in the last decades, most of the mechanisms underlying this induced-resistance are still far from being clear. SAR is the most studied acquired resistance, but out of the stimuli that can induce SAR pathogen-induced resistance has been the least studied one. Regarding plant growth promotion (PGP), only few studies are associated with mechanistic studies or modes of action and with some exception, almost all of these few articles are focused on nitrogen fixation, and auxin-mediated phytostimulation. In the case of mycorrhizal fungi, mycorrhizas affect the host plant interaction with multiple organisms including pathogenic ones. Even though the overall protection depends on the AMF-plant-attacker combination, induced-resistance against pathogenic organisms and herbivorous arthropods below- and aboveground plant parts have been described for many interactions.

As such, soil-borne beneficial microbes are of particular interest as vaccination agents, capable of enhancing plant resistance to biotic stressors. The most important requisite to develop and apply beneficial microorganisms and their mimics in the field is to have as much knowledge as possible of the mechanisms and pathways involved in the induced resistance and how context dependency influences it.

The focus of this Special Issue is on highlighting the mechanisms behind plant resistance induced by pathogens and microorganisms. Studies on the role of plant symbiotes, PGPs, pathogen attacks and chemical inducers in modulating plant defense responses will be considered. This includes the action of pathogenic effectors, as well as specific aspects of signaling and response perception through the activation of different defense mechanisms.

Prof. Paloma Sanchez-Bel
Dr. Ainhoa Martínez-Medina
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pathogens is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • plant-pathogen interaction
  • plant immunity
  • priming
  • systemic acquired resistance
  • induced systemic resistance
  • mycorrhiza induced-resistance
  • perception and signaling
  • plant defense.

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Histochemical and Microscopic Studies Predict that Grapevine Genotype “Ju mei gui” is Highly Resistant against Botrytis cinerea
Pathogens 2020, 9(4), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9040253 - 31 Mar 2020
Abstract
The necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea causes devastating pre- and post-harvest yield losses in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). Although B. cinerea has been well-studied in different plant species, there is limited information related to the resistance and susceptibility mechanisms of Vitis genotypes against [...] Read more.
The necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea causes devastating pre- and post-harvest yield losses in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). Although B. cinerea has been well-studied in different plant species, there is limited information related to the resistance and susceptibility mechanisms of Vitis genotypes against B. cinerea infection. In the present study, leaves and berries of twenty four grape genotypes were evaluated against B. cinerea infection. According to the results, one genotype (Ju mei gui) was highly resistant (HR), one genotype (Kyoho) was resistant (R), eight genotypes were susceptible (S), and fourteen genotypes were highly susceptible (HS) against infection of B. cinerea in leaves. Whereas in the case of B. cinerea infection in grape berry, three genotypes were found to be highly resistant, three resistant, eleven genotypes susceptible, and seven were highly susceptible. To further explore the mechanism of disease resistance in grapevine, we evaluated “Ju mei gui” and “Summer black” in terms of B. cinerea progression, reactive oxygen species reactions, jasmonic acid contents, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in leaf and fruit. We surmise that the resistance of “Ju mei gui” is due to seized fungal growth, minor reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, elevated antioxidant enzyme activity, and more jasmonic acid (JA) contents. This study provides insights into the resistance and susceptibility mechanism of Vitis genotypes against B. cinerea. This will help for the selection of appropriate germplasm to explore the molecular basis of disease resistance mechanisms in grapevine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Resistance Induced by Microorganisms and Pathogens)
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Open AccessArticle
Putative Role of a Yet Uncharacterized Protein Elicitor PeBb1 Derived from Beauveria bassiana ARSEF 2860 Strain against Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis
Pathogens 2020, 9(2), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9020111 - 11 Feb 2020
Abstract
This study reports the characterization of protein elicitor PeBb1 derived from entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana ARSEF-2860 strain and its putative role in induced systemic resistance in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis against green peach aphid Myzus persicae. The sequence of purified elicitor protein [...] Read more.
This study reports the characterization of protein elicitor PeBb1 derived from entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana ARSEF-2860 strain and its putative role in induced systemic resistance in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis against green peach aphid Myzus persicae. The sequence of purified elicitor protein was matched with the genomic sequence of a hypothetical protein BBA_10269 from B. bassiana ARSEF-2860 (GenBank Accession No. XP_008603588.1). The protein-encoding gene PeBb1 contained 534 bp cDNA encoding a polypeptide of 177 amino acids with a molecular mass of 19 kDa. The recombinant elicitor protein was expressed in Escherichia coli using pET-28a (+) expression vector and induced necrosis in the leaves of tobacco. The effects of elicitor protein on aphid M. persicae was determined by applying three different concentrations of PeBb1 (i.e., 26, 35, 53 μM) on B. rapa plants at 4-leaf stage and the treated plants were exposed to newly emerged (0–6 h old) apterous adult aphids. Bioassay results showed significant (p < 0.05) sub-lethal effects of the exogenous application of PeBb1 elicitor on M. persicae. Moreover, the RT-qPCR gene expression analyses showed a significant up-regulation of most of the key genes linked to ethylene (ET)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-associated plant defense pathways in elicitor-treated plants. These results not only recommend the putative utilization of PeBb1 elicitor protein in future biological pest control strategies against phloem-feeding insect pests such as M. persicae, but also help in better comprehension of the mechanisms through which beneficial fungi trigger the induced plant resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Resistance Induced by Microorganisms and Pathogens)
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Open AccessArticle
Functional Analysis of MaWRKY24 in Transcriptional Activation of Autophagy-Related Gene 8f/g and Plant Disease Susceptibility to Soil-Borne Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense
Pathogens 2019, 8(4), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8040264 - 25 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
WRKYs play important roles in plant development and stress responses. Although MaWRKYs have been comprehensively identified in the banana (Musa acuminata), their in vivo roles and direct targets remain elusive. In this study, a transcript profile analysis indicated the common regulation [...] Read more.
WRKYs play important roles in plant development and stress responses. Although MaWRKYs have been comprehensively identified in the banana (Musa acuminata), their in vivo roles and direct targets remain elusive. In this study, a transcript profile analysis indicated the common regulation of MaWRKYs transcripts in response to fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). Among these MaWRKYs, MaWRKY24 was chosen for further analysis due to its higher expression in response to Foc. The specific nucleus subcellular location and transcription activated activity on W-box indicated that MaWRKY24 was a transcription factor. The correlation analysis of gene expression indicated that MaWRKYs were closely related to autophagy-associated genes (MaATG8s). Further analysis showed that MaWRKY24 directly regulated the transcriptional level of MaATG8f/g through binding to W-box in their promoters, as evidenced by quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), dual luciferase assay, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. In addition, overexpression of MaWRKY24 and MaATG8f/g resulted in disease susceptibility to Foc, which might be related to the activation of autophagic activity. This study highlights the positive regulation of MaWRKY24 in transcriptional activation of autophagy-related gene 8f/g in the banana and their common roles in disease susceptibility to soil-borne Foc, indicating the effects of MaWRKY24 on autophagy and disease susceptibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Resistance Induced by Microorganisms and Pathogens)
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