Special Issue "Viral Pathogenesis and Immunity"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Immunological Responses and Immune Defense Mechanisms".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 October 2022 | Viewed by 17118

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Jose Angel Regla Nava
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Microbiology and Pathology, University Center for Health Science (CUCS), University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara 44340, Mexico
2. Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research, La Jolla Institute for Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Interests: Dengue; ZIKA; SARS-CoV-2

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

The aim of this Special Issue to focus on virus–host interactions and pathogenesis, in particular with regard to Zika virus and the coronavirus behind the worldwide pandemic we are currently facing, SARS-CoV-2. 

ZIKV was discovered over 50 years ago, but since the 2015–2016 Brazil outbreak, new syndromes associated with ZIKV infection have begun to emerge, including birth defects, sexual transmission, Guillain Barre syndrome, and genital persistence, while studies in mice have established mouse models of ZIKV sexual transmission, vaginal persistence, and infection of adult neuronal stem cells. 

As for coronavirus, human CoVs have been found to be the cause of up to 15% of all respiratory infections, including SARS-CoV infection, and studies in the field have defined multiple viral factors associated with SARS virulence and identified promising vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2, as we all know, causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infectious respiratory disease which has caused thousands of deaths and overwhelmed public health systems worldwide. 

We look forward to your submissions on the topic of virus–host interactions and viral pathogenesis and immunity.

Dr. Jose Angel Regla Nava
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pathogens is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • virus
  • evolution
  • vaccine
  • coronavirus
  • flavivirus
  • pathogenesis
  • vaccine development
  • therapeutic strategies to control virus infections

Published Papers (11 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Article
Mucosal Antibody Response to SARS-CoV-2 in Paediatric and Adult Patients: A Longitudinal Study
Pathogens 2022, 11(4), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11040397 - 24 Mar 2022
Viewed by 808
Abstract
Background: SARS-CoV-2 enters the body through inhalation or self-inoculation to mucosal surfaces. The kinetics of the ocular and nasal mucosal-specific-immunoglobulin A(IgA) responses remain under-studied. Methods: Conjunctival fluid (CF, n = 140) and nasal epithelial lining fluid (NELF, n = 424) obtained by paper [...] Read more.
Background: SARS-CoV-2 enters the body through inhalation or self-inoculation to mucosal surfaces. The kinetics of the ocular and nasal mucosal-specific-immunoglobulin A(IgA) responses remain under-studied. Methods: Conjunctival fluid (CF, n = 140) and nasal epithelial lining fluid (NELF, n = 424) obtained by paper strips and plasma (n = 153) were collected longitudinally from SARS-CoV-2 paediatric (n = 34) and adult (n = 47) patients. The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein 1(S1)-specific mucosal antibody levels in COVID-19 patients, from hospital admission to six months post-diagnosis, were assessed. Results: The mucosal antibody was IgA-predominant. In the NELF of asymptomatic paediatric patients, S1-specific IgA was induced as early as the first four days post-diagnosis. Their plasma S1-specific IgG levels were higher than in symptomatic patients in the second week after diagnosis. The IgA and IgG levels correlated positively with the surrogate neutralization readout. The detectable NELF “receptor-blocking” S1-specific IgA in the first week after diagnosis correlated with a rapid decline in viral load. Conclusions: Early and intense nasal S1-specific IgA levels link to a rapid decrease in viral load. Our results provide insights into the role of mucosal immunity in SARS-CoV-2 exposure and protection. There may be a role of NELF IgA in the screening and diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Pathogenesis and Immunity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Deciphering the Interactions of SARS-CoV-2 Proteins with Human Ion Channels Using Machine-Learning-Based Methods
Pathogens 2022, 11(2), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11020259 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 684
Abstract
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is accountable for the protracted COVID-19 pandemic. Its high transmission rate and pathogenicity led to health emergencies and economic crisis. Recent studies pertaining to the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection exhibited the indispensable [...] Read more.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is accountable for the protracted COVID-19 pandemic. Its high transmission rate and pathogenicity led to health emergencies and economic crisis. Recent studies pertaining to the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection exhibited the indispensable role of ion channels in viral infection inside the host. Moreover, machine learning (ML)-based algorithms are providing a higher accuracy for host-SARS-CoV-2 protein–protein interactions (PPIs). In this study, PPIs of SARS-CoV-2 proteins with human ion channels (HICs) were trained on the PPI-MetaGO algorithm. PPI networks (PPINs) and a signaling pathway map of HICs with SARS-CoV-2 proteins were generated. Additionally, various U.S. food and drug administration (FDA)-approved drugs interacting with the potential HICs were identified. The PPIs were predicted with 82.71% accuracy, 84.09% precision, 84.09% sensitivity, 0.89 AUC-ROC, 65.17% Matthews correlation coefficient score (MCC) and 84.09% F1 score. Several host pathways were found to be altered, including calcium signaling and taste transduction pathway. Potential HICs could serve as an initial set to the experimentalists for further validation. The study also reinforces the drug repurposing approach for the development of host directed antiviral drugs that may provide a better therapeutic management strategy for infection caused by SARS-CoV-2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Pathogenesis and Immunity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Factors Possibly Associated with Mortality in Intubated COVID-19 Patients: A Retrospective Study
Pathogens 2022, 11(2), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11020235 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 462
Abstract
In Mexico, there is a high mortality rate among patients intubated because of COVID-19. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations of age, comorbidities, and biochemical parameters with the in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients. A retrospective study of 79 intubated [...] Read more.
In Mexico, there is a high mortality rate among patients intubated because of COVID-19. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations of age, comorbidities, and biochemical parameters with the in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients. A retrospective study of 79 intubated patients admitted to one hospital in Jalisco, Mexico, between July 2020 and January 2021 was performed. Demographic and clinical characteristics were collected. The mean age was 57.7 (±12.8) years, with 83.5% non-survivors and 16.5% survivors. Age, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and D-dimer levels were found to be significantly higher in the non-survivor group (p = 0.011, p = 0.026, p = 0.007, respectively). Patients ≥58 years had a high risk of mortality (OR = 7.017). Significant correlations were also found in some of the study variables: LDH levels and leukocyte count (r = 0.388, p = 0.034) and CRP levels and fibrinogen (r = 0.692, p ˂ 0.001) in the patients ˂58 years. Leukocyte count with LDH levels (r = 0.381, p = 0.024) were significant in the group ≥58 years. No significant difference was observed in the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension. In conclusion, according to logistic regression analysis, age over 58 years represents the main factor associated with mortality in these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Pathogenesis and Immunity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Exploring Rapid and Effective Screening Methods for Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibodies in COVID-19 Convalescent Patients and Longitudinal Vaccinated Populations
Pathogens 2022, 11(2), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11020171 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 723
Abstract
Assessing the duration of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) following SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination is critical to evaluate the protective immunity and formulate public health strategies. In this study, SARS-CoV-2 Ab ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA), as well as pseudovirus neutralization test [...] Read more.
Assessing the duration of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) following SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination is critical to evaluate the protective immunity and formulate public health strategies. In this study, SARS-CoV-2 Ab ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA), as well as pseudovirus neutralization test (PVNT) were performed in two cohorts, convalescent patients (CP) from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and BBIBP-CorV vaccinated population. It was found that nAbs and binding antibodies emerged at 14 days post the 1st dose of vaccination, reached peaks at 28 days after 2nd dose vaccination and then gradually declined over time. CP-6M (convalescent patients up to 6 months) from COVID-19 presented stronger nAbs or binding antibodies responses than vaccinees 90 days or 180 days after 2nd dose vaccination. CMIA or SARS-CoV-2 Ab ELISA correlated well with PVNT with high consistency in the two cohorts. It shown that nAbs and binding antibodies can keep 6 months both in CP and vaccinees. Most importantly, our data show the application of using CMIA and SARS-CoV-2 Ab ELISA as rapid screening tests for nAb titer and could be used as alternative strategies for quickly evaluating SARS-CoV-2 nAbs responses in vaccine research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Pathogenesis and Immunity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Modulation of Production of Th1/Th2 Cytokines in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Neutrophils by Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Chronically Infected Patients
Pathogens 2021, 10(11), 1519; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10111519 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 628
Abstract
This study investigated the influence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection on the cytokine production profiles of the peripheral blood monoculear cells (PBMC) and neutrophils in chronically naïve HCV-infected patients. Seventy-five genotype-4 naïve HCV-infected patients (HCV+) and healthy subjects (HCV−) were enrolled. The [...] Read more.
This study investigated the influence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection on the cytokine production profiles of the peripheral blood monoculear cells (PBMC) and neutrophils in chronically naïve HCV-infected patients. Seventy-five genotype-4 naïve HCV-infected patients (HCV+) and healthy subjects (HCV−) were enrolled. The neutrophils and the PBMC were separated by density gradient sedimentation and stimulated with a mitogen. The culture supernatants were evaluated for levels of IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α using anti-cytokine antibody MACSPlex capture beads. The PBMC cytokine profiles of HCV+ patients showed significantly lower mean values for IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-9, and IL-10 (p < 0.0001) as compared to HCV− subjects. In contrast, HCV+ patients showed higher mean levels of PBMC cytokine values for IL-5 and TNF-α (p < 0.0001). As for neutrophils, HCV+ patients showed significantly lower mean levels of IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-9, and IL-10 (p < 0.0001). In contrast, the neutrophils from HCV+ patients showed higher mean levels of IL-5, IL-12, and TNF-α (p < 0.0001). Th1–Th2 cytokine ratios suggested a lower Th1 bias in HCV+ subjects as compared to HCV− subjects. Our results suggest that chronic HCV infection brings about an immunomodulatory effect not only on neutrophils, but also to a lower extent on PBMCs Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Pathogenesis and Immunity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Review
The Multifaceted Manifestations of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome during the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic
Pathogens 2022, 11(5), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11050556 - 08 May 2022
Viewed by 715
Abstract
The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which has similarities to the 2002–2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-1, causes the infectious disease designated COVID-19 by the World Health Organization (Coronavirus Disease 2019). Although the first reports indicated that activity of the virus is [...] Read more.
The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which has similarities to the 2002–2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-1, causes the infectious disease designated COVID-19 by the World Health Organization (Coronavirus Disease 2019). Although the first reports indicated that activity of the virus is centered in the lungs, it was soon acknowledged that SARS-CoV-2 causes a multisystem disease. Indeed, this new pathogen causes a variety of syndromes, including asymptomatic disease; mild disease; moderate disease; a severe form that requires hospitalization, intensive care, and mechanical ventilation; multisystem inflammatory disease; and a condition called long COVID or postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Some of these syndromes resemble previously described disorders, including those with no confirmed etiology, such as Kawasaki disease. After recognition of a distinct multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, followed by a similar syndrome in adults, various multisystem syndromes occurring during the pandemic associated or related to SARS-CoV-2 began to be identified. A typical pattern of cytokine and chemokine dysregulation occurs in these complex syndromes; however, the disorders have distinct immunological determinants that may help to differentiate them. This review discusses the origins of the different trajectories of the inflammatory syndromes related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Pathogenesis and Immunity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
A Review of SARS-CoV-2 Disease (COVID-19): Pandemic in Our Time
Pathogens 2022, 11(3), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11030368 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 867
Abstract
Development and deployment of biosensors for the rapid detection of the 2019 novel severe acute respiratory syndrome—coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are of utmost importance and urgency during this recent outbreak of coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, which spread rapidly around the world. [...] Read more.
Development and deployment of biosensors for the rapid detection of the 2019 novel severe acute respiratory syndrome—coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are of utmost importance and urgency during this recent outbreak of coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, which spread rapidly around the world. Cases now confirmed in February 2022 indicate that more than 170 countries worldwide are affected. Recent evidence indicates over 430 million confirmed cases with over 5.92 million deaths scattered across the globe, with the United States having more than 78 million confirmed cases and over 920,000 deaths. The US now has many more cases than in China where coronavirus cases were first reported in late December 2019. During the initial outbreak in China, many leaders did not anticipate it could reach the whole world, spreading to many countries and posing severe threats to global health. The objective of this review is to summarize the origin of COVID-19, its biological nature, comparison with other coronaviruses, symptoms, prevention, treatment, potential, available methods for SARS-CoV-2 detection, and post-COVID-19 symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Pathogenesis and Immunity)
Review
Peculiarities of Zika Immunity and Vaccine Development: Lessons from Dengue and the Contribution from Controlled Human Infection Model
Pathogens 2022, 11(3), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11030294 - 25 Feb 2022
Viewed by 840
Abstract
The Zika virus (ZIKV) was first isolated from a rhesus macaque in the Zika forest of Uganda in 1947. Isolated cases were reported until 2007, when the first major outbreaks of Zika infection were reported from the Island of Yap in Micronesia and [...] Read more.
The Zika virus (ZIKV) was first isolated from a rhesus macaque in the Zika forest of Uganda in 1947. Isolated cases were reported until 2007, when the first major outbreaks of Zika infection were reported from the Island of Yap in Micronesia and from French Polynesia in 2013. In 2015, ZIKV started to circulate in Latin America, and in 2016, ZIKV was considered by WHO to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern due to cases of Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS), a ZIKV-associated complication never observed before. After a peak of cases in 2016, the infection incidence dropped dramatically but still causes concern because of the associated microcephaly cases, especially in regions where the dengue virus (DENV) is endemic and co-circulates with ZIKV. A vaccine could be an important tool to mitigate CZS in endemic countries. However, the immunological relationship between ZIKV and other flaviviruses, especially DENV, and the low numbers of ZIKV infections are potential challenges for developing and testing a vaccine against ZIKV. Here, we discuss ZIKV vaccine development with the perspective of the immunological concerns implicated by DENV-ZIKV cross-reactivity and the use of a controlled human infection model (CHIM) as a tool to accelerate vaccine development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Pathogenesis and Immunity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
An Overview of Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 in the COVID-19 Pandemic Era
Pathogens 2021, 10(8), 1030; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10081030 - 14 Aug 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 6016
Abstract
The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in late 2019 led to the COVID-19 pandemic all over the world. When the virus was first isolated and its genome was sequenced in the early months of 2020, the efforts to develop a vaccine began. Based on prior [...] Read more.
The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in late 2019 led to the COVID-19 pandemic all over the world. When the virus was first isolated and its genome was sequenced in the early months of 2020, the efforts to develop a vaccine began. Based on prior well-known knowledge about coronavirus, the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein was selected as the main target. Currently, more than one hundred vaccines are being investigated and several of them are already authorized by medical agencies. This review summarizes and compares the current knowledge about main approaches for vaccine development, focusing on those authorized and specifically their immunogenicity, efficacy preventing severe disease, adverse side effects, protection, and ability to cope with emergent SARS-CoV-2 variants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Pathogenesis and Immunity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Road Map to Understanding SARS-CoV-2 Clinico-Immunopathology and COVID-19 Disease Severity
Pathogens 2021, 10(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10010005 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1557
Abstract
SARS-CoV-2, a novel coronavirus, was first identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The rapid spread of the virus worldwide prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare COVID-19 a pandemic in March 2020. COVID-19 discontinuing’s a global health crisis. Approximately 80% of [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV-2, a novel coronavirus, was first identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The rapid spread of the virus worldwide prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare COVID-19 a pandemic in March 2020. COVID-19 discontinuing’s a global health crisis. Approximately 80% of the patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 display undetectable to mild inflammation confined in the upper respiratory tract. In remaining patients, the disease turns into a severe form affecting almost all major organs predominantly due to an imbalance of innate and adaptive arms of host immunity. The purpose of the present review is to narrate the virus’s invasion through the system and the host’s reaction. A thorough discussion on disease severity is also presented regarding the behavior of the host’s immune system, which gives rise to the cytokine storm particularly in elderly patients and those with comorbidities. A multifaceted yet concise description of molecular aspects of disease progression and its repercussion on biochemical and immunological features in infected patients is tabulated. The summary of pathological, clinical, immunological, and molecular accounts discussed in this review is of theranostic importance to clinicians for early diagnosis of COVID-19 and its management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Pathogenesis and Immunity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Opinion
Bats, Pathogens, and Species Richness
Pathogens 2021, 10(2), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020098 - 21 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 978
Abstract
Bats carry many viruses, but this is not sufficient to threaten humans. Viruses must mutate to generate the ability to transfer to humans. A key factor is the diversity of species. With 1400 species of bats (20% of all species of mammals), the [...] Read more.
Bats carry many viruses, but this is not sufficient to threaten humans. Viruses must mutate to generate the ability to transfer to humans. A key factor is the diversity of species. With 1400 species of bats (20% of all species of mammals), the diversity of bats species is highly favorable to the emergence of new viruses. Moreover, several species of bats live within the same location, and share advanced social behavior, favoring the transmission of viruses. Because they fly, bats are also hosts for a wide range of viruses from many environments. They also eat everything (including what humans eat), they share humans’ environment and become closer to domestic species, which can serve as relays between bats and humans. Bats also have a long-life expectancy (up to 40 years for some bats), which is particularly effective for transmission to humans. However, a recent publication came out challenging what we think about bats. Proportionally, bats may not carry a higher number of zoonotic pathogens, normalized by species richness, compared to other mammalian and avian species. Viral zoonotic risk is homogenous among taxonomic orders of mammalian and avian reservoir hosts, without evidence that bats carry more viruses that infect humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Pathogenesis and Immunity)
Back to TopTop